tv Key Capitol Hill Hearings CSPAN May 22, 2016 12:00am-1:17am EDT
think about him. that is the message he has sent to the world. it's the reason why he is the most respected man in the world as i speak not just among catholics, but muslims, hindus, other christians, the jewish community. that is not hyperbole. he literally is the most respected man in the world. you are always welcome here. and i believed the message he was urging, that congress was to extend to everyone, we, who hold high office, to extend our hand and say to americans, you are always welcome here.
i was raised by parents who were the embodiment of catholic social doctrine. and i was taught by the sisters of st. joseph in high school. everyone is always welcome in my home. always welcome in my home. i was taught by my mother that no one was better than me. but that everyone was my equal. i was taught by my father, who man,gled, that every everywoman -- he meant everyone -- that regardless of their station in life, regardless of whether or not you agree with him, is entitled to be treated with dignity and respect. that the used to say greatest sin of all was the whether power,
economic, political, psychological, or physical. i wrote theason why violence against women legislation. he abhorred the notion of the abuse of power. totally consistent with what his holiness talks about now in our roman catholic faith has taught us for over 2000 years. as taught by my family and my faith, that a good life, at its core, this is why i truly like john, is about the personable. it is all getting down to being personable. being engaged. i was taught by my family and my faith to look beyond the caricature of a person, resist the temptation, when you disagree, to ascribe a negative
motive. because when you do that, number one, you do not truly know what that person's motive is. and number two, and makes it virtually impossible to reach common ground. i was taught by my family and my academicer to confuse credentials and sophistication with gravitas and judgment. to have a heart to try to distinguish between what is meaningful and what is ephemeral. and the head to know the difference between knowledge and judgment. importantly, my family and our faith warned me against the temptation of rationalizing in the pursuit of ambition.
i know it is her birthday, but she will not mind, this is an important business trip. i know it is his last game, but i have to take the redeye back to see it. he will understand. i know we have been planning this family vacation, for a long, long time, but i have such an opportunity, if i leave. wrong, but if you engage in this rationalization, which everyone does, never underestimate the ability of the human mind to rationalize. you will become very difficult to weather the
storm in reality, in truth. and it will. reality will, in truth. in 1972, i was elected the second-youngest man in the history of the united states, i was 29 years old, not old enough to be sworn in. i had to wait. 13 days to be eligible. later, reality intruded. i was in washington, hiring my staff, and i got a phone call. a tractor-trailer broadsided my wife and three children, killed my wife, and killed my daughter. boys, it was uncertain. later, fully
recovered. elected at 29 to the senate is pretty heady stuff. it is the stuff of which ambition can get out of hand. intruded.y happenedlater, it again. many of your parents and people in the audience have gone through worse than i have. myy know, many of you know, beau, theon, miny attorney general of the state of delaware, the most respected in the state, volunteering to go to kosovo to set up a criminal justice system during the war. and john, i just learned the
president of kosovo is naming something after miny son, the major joseph r. biden boulevard. volunteer as attorney general, but you do not get an exception because you become federal property when you become a national guard. you go to iraq. a year later, he came home and decorated soldier. the delaware conspicuous service cross, in the best physical shape of his life. miles, he had10 to lay down. stage fourith lastoma in the brain. him,ears later, it took
after a heroic struggle. and john talked about, my father talked about, you just have to get up. 's last words to me i am not afraid. promise me, you will be all right. my dad had an expression. he would say never complain, never explain. did.ver, ever and i think back on it. iat would happen if john and only followed our ambition?
missed a, i never birthday or an important thing. thank god, i never missed his game for unimportant political event. said it best, i say to you, when he was attorney commencementg a speech at syracuse in 2011, he said you will find peace when there are certain rules that are not malleable. your conscience, your conscience should not be malleable. your values for another, these are the means, along with learning -- the learning you now possess -- they are the things that will guide you/ . they will also be the things to save you.
father, i have read some i are oldhow john and school. we used to treat each other with respect, hang out with each other. i are not old-school. we are the american school. you have to restore. when progress only comes you deal with your opponent with respect, listening as well as talking. class of 2016, this is not hyperbole. you are the best educated, most tolerant generation in the history of the united states of america. engage in the tireless pursuit of finding
common ground. because not only will you be happier, you will be incredibly more successful. that is where you will find your reward. and it will make us all better for it. it is an honor to be here with john, a great honor to receive this medal. may god bless you all. and may god protect our troops. [applause] >> thank you. leave, because there is only one thing more important. remember, i said do not prioritize. my granddaughter is graduating from the university of pennsylvania. so, so long.
[applause] announcer: c-span's commencement coverage includes the university of notre dame. and we are joined by the president, reverend john jenkins, who has been head of the university since 2005. president, reverend john jenkins, who has been head of university since 2005. you included two notable catholic, the vice president and john boehner, presented with medals. what is the meaning of the medal? >> the medal was founded at notre dame in 1883 to honor a catholic, to recognize a catholic in america who had made a contribution, in some way, to broader american society. we have awarded musicians, poets, political leaders, business leaders, religious leaders with this metal.
dal. whoreally, these two men, have given such distinguished leadership, two different parties, it was very important so it looked like we were not favoring one over the other, who have been distinguished political leaders in our country, we felt they were very deserving of this country. has been presented to john f. kennedy, former speaker tip o'neill, last year it was aaron neville. what did you hear in their message that struck a similar tone? >> well, that is interesting. because at our time in this country, as we all know, such acrimony and divisiveness, and a lot of cynicism about government leaders, what i found so inspiring, the two men expressed great friendship and affection for one another.
they disagree so deeply on so many issues. but i found that particularly inspiring. each ofe ways in which them have been inspired, guided by their faith, not to take any particular position, but to serve. vice president biden spoke movingly about the tragedy in his life, losing a wife and a to cancer.cent son and how faith helped him get through that. both of them were inspiring and that way, more on the personal level and the sense of serving the common good of our country. >> the commencement speaker was the former chairman of the joint chiefs of staff. martin dempsey, how was he selected and why? >> i have known them for a while. someone who has served, given his whole life in service to our someone who is
quite accomplished. it is not so much to be a compliment, but the real sense that iership of service find so inspiring and general dempsey. someone who really is not about himself, but about giving his life to our country. he is also a superb speaker, and knows young people. and his commencement address began with a commencement karaoke. he is a very good singer. and he asked our young graduates to sing along with him on a few songs, that were popular when he graduated, decades ago. and now that they are graduating, it was quite entertaining. >> as we wrap up, parents and students who are considering where to go in 2016 and beyond that, what is the reason you would say they should attend notre dame? >> well, perhaps it is embodied
in these individuals. asense of compliment, they were all very able and what they did. but central service, that they gave their lives to something bigger, a broader ideal of service. and i hope all the computer game have that aspiration -- to notre dame have that and will consider that. >> president of the university of notre >> congratulations to the class of 2016. >> the voices crying for peace and light because your choices will make all the difference to you and to all of us. >> do not be afraid of to take on cases or a new job or a new issue that really stretches your boundaries. your summer brought
on real ships, instead of internships. the spectre of living in your parents basement is not likely to be a greatest concern. >> watch commencement speeches to the class of 2016 in their entirety from colleges and universities around the country by business leaders, politicians and white house officials on c-span. >> science, business and technology pioneers recently discussed commercial space travel at the washington post transformers summit. charles bolden and other space leaders talk about what commercial space travel will look like. the ceo's of twitch and reddit discuss how their sites have changed how people communicate online. this is one hour and 20 minutes.
>> before the decade is out landing a man on the moon and returning him safely to earth. >> five, four, three, two, one, zero. all engines on. we have a liftoff. >> the space race inspired a generation of scientists and innovators. it has contributed to immeasurable technological advances that have improved her health, well-being, satellite navigation to water for purification, to medical engineering. ellites to water to aerospace to medical, once more inspiring wonder in a new generation. launching careers. is chris davenport. i am a reporter at the washington post. our next panel is about space.
particularly, commercial space. it is a really interesting time, where i think many people who 2011he shuttle retire in that there is not much going on, but there is much going on at sector, commercial enough to fill a book for one of our talents. let me introduce everyone. charles bolden, nasa administrator. julie, vice president of advanced space and launch. next her is andy weir. and george whiteside, the ceo of urgin virgin galactic. somethingout to face extraordinary that will happen. and i want you to talk to us about that. we are going to have a launch, from a government site activity space and are -- kennedy space center at cape canaveral,
launching at wer astronauts on a commercial vehicle. this is a very big deal. how does this come about? >> it is a huge deal. it actually started back in 2003, after we lost columbia. thelong story short, recommendation was made to the president at the time to face out the space shuttle from number of reason. one, we wanted to explore. the shuttle was a low orbiting vehicle. we felt that, as we have worked with industry partners enough, and they were fully capable of providing transportation to cargo and crew, we struck out. we did not invest in commercial crew illicitly. were kind of lukewarm. and president obama provided the impetus. he said we are going to do it. so we started in earnest, and now we are a year and a half away from launching american astronauts from u.s. soil. that will be incredible.
>> can you take us back to the early point? to even have cargo, and to rely on the commercial sector in that way, that was a really bold and daring move. do people tell you you were crazy? >> that is ok. i get told i'm crazy all the time. andy might not know this. we talked about mars, and it was not very popular in 2009. foras sort of verboten, reasons not be on my believe. but the president, he said this is what we are going to do. he did it and what i consider to be a major space policy address to the nation and the world in april of 2010. nobody paid attention to it. but that is when he gave us two challenges. by humans on an asteroid 2025. that is still strong. and humans on mars in the 2030's.
we are well awaited doing both of those things. >> i want to go to george at virgin galactic. different from deep your commercial venture, richard branson part of this, where you os, whatn musk, jeff bez they want to do is create the world's first commercial space line. i just like saying that. talk to us. i mean, it is amazing. talk to was a little bit about what the vision is, and what you are going to be doing. george: what we want to do is open space up to the rest of us. and i think that is an inspiring thing. is, how manyhing people have ever been to space? just guess/ . andy: about 600. george: you cannot answer, andy.
nobody onstage can answer. the answer is about 550. i am sure you are about to say that. which seems like a remarkably small number considering we have been going for 50 years. what we would like to do is provide the opportunity to travel to space, but also to give rise to this new category of satellites, because that is really an interesting area. we think that by opening up that experience to more people into more satellites, the benefits of space can accrue down to earth. that is what we are hoping to do. andome from it as a leader, entrepreneurial space that we are saying, i wonder if we are going to look back at this time in 10-20 years from now and say this is really an extraordinary time. when all of this spaceflight that nasa and the government have done leaped over into the private sector. you know, i think it is an extraordinary time. and i think a lot of the credit
goes to administrator bolden and the president. but also the congress and others for taking smart moves to open up innovation in the american launch industry. and the reason why it is important is because we are getting started on a cycle of innovation that should feed on itself over time. hopefully, we can get the price lower, safe access, which then leads to more activity, which then drives lower cost. and we can get on this wheel of innovation. and that is so exciting with the thingss, all of these will hopefully have a cycle to them that drive innovation, so that we actually end up in a place 10 times cheaper in the future than we are now. >> there is a side goal of the panel, to provide andy with material for his book. >> i did an analysis once. i presented it at a convention
in the bay area. but basically i said, what is the commercial space industry had the same overhead as the modern commercial airline industry? the commercial space industry is in infancy. it is just getting started is an extremely expensive venture. it takes a lot of money. but i thought, what if it ended up like having the same efficiency as the modern commercial airline industry, which has had decades and decades of competition. and like refinement and stuff like that. i worked out that i needed numbers, so i said, let us say they have the same fuel overhead ratio. what percentage of all the money that a martial airline makes, how much of that do they spend on fuel? and everything else? and it works out to be pretty much across the board, every
commercial airline spends between 70% of all the money they work out on fuel. let us say that was the same for commercial space industry. the user to get down to the kilogram for low earth orbit. which is unthinkable today. >> tell everybody what it is today. andy: it is thousands of dollars per kilogram. 9, i thinke falcon it is less than $10,000 per kilogram. but if the falcon heavy is successful, that will be the most efficient, non-subsidized at about $1600 per kilogram. spacex, the big rock in their building, i heard you say you for writing the martian before the new space movement
took off. if you want to write the book again, you might include some of this. is that true? andy: definitely true. i am not 100% sure that, because when i wrote the martian, that is my guy. my job i wrote it was, was to entertain. like, that is my only focus, my goal writing a book. it is not be 100% realistic. when i was writing the martian i shamelessly took advantage of the apollo era. and the program in the book is very similar in feel and style to the apollo era program. in real life, i'm sure our first manned mission to mars will be -- put into low earth orbit by commercial space industry's, government contract, i think will be a large multinational effort. it will not look anything like
it looked in the movie. making so many of the systems and components to go on these vehicles, you guys are really pushing the edge of the innovation and technology. which is what today is all about. you know, things like solar electric propulsion. another thing i like saying to give us a sense of what you guys are working on, that is really cool and how it works in two? julie: we support government and commercial. we do primarily propulsion, big inches, motors, those kinds of power. the things we're working on today, we are doing ion propulsion, a form of electric propulsion. we talk about decreasing the cost. everything we throw off the planet has to go on the rocket. the smaller you can make it, the cheaper it can get. so we have solar electric portion on these next missions,
working on nasa contracts and orernal, and it will be 1/10 one half of the size. you see the blue glow from the old star trek, it will be just like that. so, we are printing rockets now. we are doing 3-d printing of whole rockets. another people are doing it -- >> does that mean i can legally download rocket? [laughter] julie: you know, rocket technology is still protected. but you get to that. you get a model and you can do that. but you can certainly do the smaller ones. we talk about the small size, we can actually print one in one pass. those are things that bring down not just the cost of the product. they are more efficient. they bring down time. and all of this just continues
to fuel the cycle. as george was saying, is really a transformative time. we are building up things we have put in place for the last few decades. but now we can actually take that next that. >> and he talked about what he thought the martian would be like with commercial space available. and he is definitely right. if you look at what nasa is doing today. a big part of my life is spent growing national partners, looking at nontraditional partners, countries that want to be a part of the space program but don't have the money or the technical knowledge. working in partnership with commercial entities has been incredible. nasa has never been taped build rocket. we have been building rockets since we were kids. but that is just the way it was done. they were built on this contract. >> we own the rocket. we don't own the rocket anymore.
if i want to send my astronauts it should be able to do it. i talked to spacex. and we have two. if we go down to one, there is no more competition. what his community is doing is giving us competition to give the price down. it will allow us to do what we did two years ago. we lost a spacex vehicle. we lost a russian cargo vehicle. beat becausess a we had international partners. in the time that they were flying, our american partner was getting on their feet. >> they are now flying to leo.
you want usreneurs, talking about going to mars. does it mean competition? >> it does not mean competition at all. spacex recently announced they were in a partnership with us. what he is looking at that we want. coming back to the cave and landing somewhere. that is what we call hypersonic. we are talking about reducing the cost of the taxpayer. but as one of the most critical challenges.
how do you get big masses on the surface? that is all good information that we need. >> that analogy keeps coming up. every grocery store in america, they need to deliver. clearly, they should get to work inventing a truck. the complexity of going to mars. at it, youally look would need a lot of trucks. entity. no single it is going to be a collaboration. in going to take a lot to
achieve it. >> or you can send people you don't really like. [laughter] movie,who watched the "the martian", you have to go and read the book. mark and his crew did not land with that. they have been building that up over a number of decades. we are flying p kurt -- precursors. landers that can go out and survey. >> was in it this year that they selected about 50 potential landing sites?
i wonder if you can talk about the cultural differences and the ease those at a place like virgin or spacex. how are they different? how are they similar? >> it is an amazing organization that has a lot of different capabilities. the new companies are doing is trying to do one or two things well. i think it's the most exciting time to be a young aerospace engineer in decades. thereason i say that if are so many different opportunities.
younger and middle-aged engineers can come on board and get involved with real hardware that gets else. we have some of these new machines as well. you can work inside some company and work on a boat for five years. now you can build the systems really quickly. is -- it isg something i am required to say. >> we are saving money for the taxpayer. [applause] -- [laughter] no matter where you are, you have to move quickly. have ina great thing to our community now.
i think we're doing pretty good right now. hopefully we can maintain that spirit going forward. sandy, i wonder from your viewpoint, if you have charlie's job, what would you do differently? >> probably drive nothing to the ground. nasa to the ground. nasa, if iing of could have things go the way i concentrate on commercial spaceflight and get
as much money into the commercial site as possible because they will quickly drive down the price which makes the mars related missions more affordable. rather than having to go to the hill and asked for more money. i would go a little nontraditional. having ant benefit to astronaut on the surface is the astronaut has a brain. a astronaut does not have five-20 minute latency in communicating from mars. the very first humans to mars is area mission will be a whole bunch of rovers on the surface of mars and then humans in orbit
controlling them. you talk about envisioning. and we don't talk about a lot of stuff. ahead, you arear not organized. we are. we have got to be thinking 30-50 years out. i come people all the time. the very first beings on the surface of mars are going to be robots. think about what we do for american forces around the world. we don't send marines into a hot area first. we try to make fit environment safer for them. going to be ae is fleet of robots that are going to establish the habitat. they are going to go in with 3-d printing.
we may find based on what we know that we want to go rather than have cuts on the surface. with the wind that does not exist. i tell my wife it is a movie. it is a very important part. there are prefab structures. that is what we are going to do on mars. >> to give you a zero latency communication. it is like driving a remote control car.
if the robot reaches some issue, it has to stop. now it is going to be like this. >> you want to be able to have a human on board. some people do not even think we have people in space or. we are building the systems. there is a lot of different ways to do it. it is within our reach. . this is a habitat that has expanded out.
they have plans for bigger ones. do you see the day where the international space station is replaced? >> i don't see the day. it is inevitable. ands a human made structure feverishlye working to help george and others build this structure that is commercial. tothat nasa does not have use taxpayer dollars to maintain the structure. that should not be nasa. commercial entities have full capabilities to do that today. .hat is what we are looking at we are asking for bids and ideas. habitat isatable absolutely critical because for
the first time now we will be old to escape the tierney of the launch vehicle diameter. that is what it comes down to. hasything that is in space to fit inside of the launch vehicle. if you have a big inflatable thing, you can have a lot of volume for your service area. >> we talk about habitats, one of the biggest things that is happening now is the cube sat revolution. now they are developing salad lights inside of a shoebox. -- satellites inside of a shoebox. printing actually entire subsystems. proponents -- propellants that people can be around all the time.
it is revolutionary. you have to get it to be necessary. it is an interesting time. i have been in this industry. it is been under a different kind of model. mature enoughare right now. of things that are transporting. the really hard stuff that you're trying to migrate over. nasa pioneered the technology back in the 90's. it is amazing what he is doing there.
>> it was the first element is called to send a spacecraft into space. off theaunched international space station. station on an the orbital or spacex vehicle. there is an elementary school that can now brag about my spacecraft is up there doing stuff. i did science fairs. i never look back. that theyantee you are never going to be told that you can't do that.
this is where nasa does not get enough credit. >> it is really pushed the ball forward. iss, it has been heating the small set market. you cannot launch in their. there you can. interesting is that the u.s. is leading a new era, the small satellite sector. we are going to see tremendous growth. the number of geostationary satellites is not really growing right now. you're going to see this huge growth in constellations over the next few years which will establish a new information skin
the reason they are possible is because of your cell phone. the miniaturization of computer technology because of the market demand for will have these. now these can absolutely be the brains of a cube sat. go back in time 15 years. , even theile phones smallest most compact computers were these clunky laptops. take and develop. you don't have to reinvent the wheel. apollo program was the best and worst thing to ever happen to the space industry. i want to ask george, going back to space tourism for a minute.
you have 700 people who have bought tickets. what do you see the demand? there is really a demand. >> i think the demand far outstrips the supply for the foreseeable future. it is going to be hard to fly these vehicles. i think it is going to be one of .hese markets i think it is a good thing. we will have a very profitable is next. they really help their trying to
catalyze something and do something new. where does it go? that is an interesting question. that is one of the things we think about. usis frustrating to all of that we are still going mach .8 in our commercial air travel. we've been going that speed. the average speed has even gone down slightly. is inconceivable for us to go to transpacific. is that going to happen in a year or two? no. the technology that we are working on will feed into that. how do you find people safely?
those are all the nuts and bolts. those are all the questions that we will be dealing with. then we will be in a much closer place. >> we can take a couple of questions from the audience. >> i want to add one thing on the commercial side. the true and will happen when the price points are going in. razor and if you can go into in thend spend a week hotel for $10,000.
we are working on it. >> i want to take advantage of the opening george gave me. in the president's budget proposal for the coming year, critical art of it is new aviation horizons. the is not going to build supersonic airplanes in which people like george are going to fly. we are working on the regulatory in. to flyt is illegal supersonic over the ground. instead of assuming -- supersonic boom you get this. it is because you change the shape. sound is nothing but energy. it comes off a big spike.
that is a part of the new aviation surprise -- horizons. we awarded a contract to lockheed. you have companies like boeing who have plans on the drawing board. they just need the regulation to change. the game is on. nasa has done its job. questions in the audience? the world is also depending on space with communications. who is going to manage all the satellites and microsatellites going up? >> george mentioned the critical role that congress is laying.
one of them has mandated that will come together and decide how we put into place the instruments for management. we are going to work. year but bypen this it,.ime we do >> that affects the hundreds of satellites. >> where there is a profit motive, there is a way. -- planes manage to not crash into each other. you have a bunch of independent international countries flying their own planes over international waters but they
to not haveate anything bad happen. because the brains from the telephone and camera that came out of his telephone. it is going to have a micro jet. they are going to be able to maneuver around and most importantly, they are going to comply with the law. it will not harm anyone on the ground. . quick one. another >> nasa has been a driver for education. will that continue? we need a lot of help in some areas.
>> they do immensely. budgets a $19.3 billion that is focused on stem education. there is not a single thing that that we don't get into classrooms somehow. keep stats, that is getting kids interested in science and aerodynamics. does it promote an education? i don't care what the line is in the budget. is line for education usually skimpy. we improvise. company is involved and
>> it is a thing. it is for sale. >> i said oh you might like this. she said, what mom? she read it in three days. that is what is so interesting about expecting people to do space again. this is the best time it has ever been. >> you are writing a new book. >> we are big into education. that thing where we
got all the sixth-graders in new mexico to do a thing with our engineers. it gets our employees excited. we have an organization called galactic unite. >> i want to hear about the next one. it takes place in the 2080's. it takes place in a city on the moon. i came out with an economic reason for why there is a on the city on the moon. the main character is a woman who is a low-level criminal there. it is told in the first person style. >> that is all the time we have
our existence in this universe, how would we do it? more importantly, what would you say? i would say say very likely. language is a human construct. it helps us to understand communication. if we are being frank, what is communication? is it the word, the syntax? to understand what communication is, we have all entered all our data into this thing named watson. let's say that my mind wants to learn something. in this case, how to make an apple pie.
what to do? i go find my favorite baker and ask how to do it. or do i? in a post singularity world, communicating may be unnecessary? in my people to be transferred immediately. increase the efficiency and decrease the chance of misunderstanding. much like this copy of beyonce's lemonade that i want, communication is brought with inaccuracies. communication never achieves 100% efficiency.
at the time the answer chosen was to employ the universal language, mathematics. if we encode the basics of language using mathematical constructs, we can imply a common tongue. how to send math? we have tried two methods. we send a thing with math or we send a math listing. the biggest bang for our buck is to send light. it makes a lot of sense. our planet has been leaping are electromagnetism. you can get the message out all
over the place. this comes at a cost. our light fades with time and distance. it becomes harder to hear within the cosmic forest. the light that we send will not be anymore detectable. ok, let's send a thing. now we want to send ourselves. water is heavy and it is expensive to send weight in space. we have to hope that we are sending at the right way. he tried to send both.
what to do? the problem is with the premise. math is a universal concept, not language. it is like light. mathematics -- it needs to be a language that is tangible. something stable. that thing is dna. it is the only thing that is tangible to a consummate language. the internet's data can fit in a data form the size of the state of delaware. instead of sending ourselves on the cosmic fishing expedition, we can send fish with dynamite. we send our basic operating
system increasing transfer efficiency. the transfer loss could be minimized. how? it is very stable and space is very empty. it could hold all representative life on the planet but also passed life and encoded in the strengths and cells, how to use it. dna sent in all cosmic directions could have a journey be unscathed. synthetic dna could be encoded with our entire planetary history. as a genetic engineer, i must be honest. dna is not a great predictor.
rather dna is a great language. we see ourselves be a dna and send a condensed message of this planet, this silent tangible language. dna is cosmic language. now if you excuse me, i have an apple high to bake. [applause] >> how are we going to save the platform? all we need to do is build the platform. why are you asking me?
i am not the ceo. say what you will about the chair but it never told me how to build a box. >> hello everyone. i am the post-digital culture critic. i am delighted to be on stage today of the executives who oversee the internet communities. i am talking about steve huffman of reddit and the founder of twitch. first things first, i imagine we have maybe a couple of people who are not intimately familiar with reddit and twitch.
i want to explain what it is you do. you are not social networks. you are not media companies. what is up? >> twitch was started originally as a platform for gamers to share their game streams. it was user generated. we not only became a video platform, we became a place where users can connect with other gamers and form all of these micro-communities around
each broadcaster. reddit has a very similar story. we started off a little different. we were just one community. over the years, we have grown into many thousands of communities. now what we focus on now is where they can be themselves online. now we have it for sports, relationships and everything in between. we have thousands of communities where they can express themselves. as representative of what is going on in the internet at any moment in time.
we are trying to build a platform where communities can grow and thrive. >> planning communities work as well as planned economies are planned cities. it is a bunch of people who were there voluntarily and your role is more of a gardener. you have to have the community thrive and grow. if you can forcibly make that, you are going to have a bad time. you cannot force people to want to engage in each other. you can only provide favorable conditions and hope that it happens in a good way. like any garden, you wind up with issues like weeds. you put a lot of attention into what should be growing hair.
-- where. what will make that likely? like any fertile environment, you are going to get a favorable environment for something you don't want. >> if you were to use pesticides, you might kill your plants. >> that is exactly what happens. you start playing the round up of having to heavy hand. then the whole thing dice. that happens to a lot of communities that get overzealous trying to stamp out and put too many hurdles in the way. you wind up eliminating a lot of interesting and good behavior. >> as much as i love the garden metaphor, i would like to talk about how it works practically. if you have had some pretty profile incidents. with hate speech on reddit. i wonder if you can tell us a little bit about your philosophy
of monitoring that type of speech and how it is changed. >> in the early days, when we were a very small team and just had one community, we do not think too hard about it. the issue seemed a lot simpler. things like hate speech we didn't really talk about it. we had zero-tolerance for it. over the years reddit has grown to be much larger and encompass many more viewpoints that are not representative of my own for the companies. but now we also have moderators that did not exist in the early days. these communities are created by our users. they can use it anyway they want to. that is the approach we have taken.
these policies are only as good as that we can force it. we have to make sure to enforce the rules that we have. we have overwhelmingly good people. how do you make their an environment to grow and thrive? and feel safe and have a good time. we think of ourselves as a platform where people can express themselves freely even if the things that they are expressing makes us very uncomfortable. this has become very complex over the years. we are getting better at managing them. >> for twitch, i had the benefit of watching reddit go through some of this. this was before we started