Skip to main content

tv   Key Capitol Hill Hearings  CSPAN  June 30, 2016 4:00am-6:01am EDT

4:00 am
forever. i have watched her and it felt like i know her. many here are patient advocates. the stories of our children, spouses, brothers, sisters who have not -- who fought the good fight and ultimately suck comed, it's amazing the spirit of so many of them. she was telling me about carrie and i started talking about -- and i will not do this, i promise, about bo, my son. i was thinking when she was speaking that he was at three different hospitals over the year-and-a-half. by the way, if there are any angels in heaven, they are all nurses. the doc's are ok but they're all nurses. [applause] . >> male and female. you're looking at a guy two months in icu, i tell you what,
4:01 am
i used to love it when i would be in icu and be looking at all the machines and you knew that if it flat lined you had a problem. you just get tired. you're not in pain. you just get tired. and the next thing i know, a nurse in the icu, a doctor comes in, here's what we have to do for the patient. and they listen to the doctor. es, right. any rate, what i was thinking about, carol, is that i believe almost every nurse in the two-year period who took care of bo showed up and waited as long as five hours in line at wilmington, delaware, to be at his viewing and funeral, which is a hell of a testament to the nurses but also a testament to our children. look, carol has taken her
4:02 am
celebrity and focused it on this fight for a long, long time. and i don't think any of us can thank her enough. like many of you in this audience, you've given your time, passion, money, to deal with this god-awful problem. dr. frederick, again, thank you for hosting this summit, for your leadership. not only is this a great university but in the medical field it's in the fight against cancer, you're part of this whole effort. and as we used to say in the senate a point of personal privilege. stacy here, who is now i think chairman of the board down here. it's good to see you. i haven't seen you in a long, long time. but everything that was ever important or good at home, you were always there. and obviously you haven't
4:03 am
changed here. you haven't changed your stripes in retirement. let me thank everyone for being here. i want to thank everyone, gathered at more than 260 summit sites in all 50 states, puerto rico, guam, and here in d.c. from miami, florida, to anchorage, alaska, to kentucky, to nebraska, to my hometown of delaware. summits are being hosted serious undertaking, the department of health and human servicings the american lung association, the phoenix children hospitals. so many others are hosting summits all across the nation. this was the first time in i believe i'm told it is the first time that physicians scientists nurses patient advocates, families and cancer survivors, foundations, companies, institutions have all come together at one time in such extremely large numbers throughout the country to
4:04 am
simultaneously begin to decide what changes we have to make if any in this fight. all across the country, all under national charge in the white house to do something big , very possible, make a decades worth of progress in the next five years. i know, when i first was -- bhoonshot was first announced naive. d biden is being i believe we can make exponential progress. i firmly believe we can do in the next five years what would ordinarily take ten. and think of what that will mean. think of how many people you know who are saying, i just want to make it one more month to see my daughter get married. if i can just. if i can just.
4:05 am
if i can just make it. i can make it another four months i will be able to pay off u the house and my wife will be ok when i go. all i want to do is see my daughter graduate. these are real, real, real life things. time matters. days matter. minutes matter. there's nothing antiseptic about any of this. you all know that. we know the problem. right now there are 14 new -- million new cases a year in the world, 8.2 million cancer-related deaths worldwide per year. the projections are by 2025, if we stay on the exact course we are on now making the progress e are making now there will be o 20 million new cases a year crom 4 million dedses
4:06 am
cancer alone. this is preaches to the choir. but unlike other diseases you all know there are over 200 dis tiveraget types of cancer we've identified which makes cancer far more complicated, a far more complicated disease to treat and to understand. cancer is taking loved ones from us. and when i announced the decision to not run for the president -- by the way, i learned if you want to become popular announce you're not running for president. if i would known this i would have announced every year i wasn't running. but after bo passed jill and i concluded we couldn't -- anyway, i said in the announcement, because i was expected to make a formal announcement one way or the other. and it wasn't written on the page. it was spontaneous.
4:07 am
i said that my regret is if i could do anything, i would have wanted to be the president who ended cancer as we know it because i think it's possible. my mom had the expression, a little bit of knowledge is a dangerous thing. any time your loved one, someone you care about, someone who is part of your soul, part of who you are, is in trouble, all of you do the same exact thing. you try to learn as much about the thing causes that person trouble. you try to learn as much as you can. nd i had some great tutors and great hospitals we were in. m.d. anderson. jefferson. walter reed. i had great tutors. that cancer moonshot grew out of a sentiment i acquired that we're in the cusp of an awful lot of change. and the united states, after i
4:08 am
made that statement, it wasn't planned. it was shortly after the state of the union and the president didn't even tell me but he announced at the state of the union that biden is doing a moonshot. when i first heard it i thought he wanted me to get in the caps sull and head to the moon. he is one of my best friends. but look, he asked me to lead this effort. but he didn't just me to lead it. he gave me authority. like he did in the recovery act. authority over all the cabinet positions as if he were doing it to engage the entire federal government, any cabinet agency that has any possible impact in the fight against cancer. from outfits like nih to the department of energy. and i've traveled the country and the world touching many of the major nerve centers in the fight against cancer to get the ideas of the experts.
4:09 am
is it possible? can we double the rate at which we make progress? by the way, regardless of where i am, i do an awful lot of foreign policy. you know, that old joke, i'm referred to as the foreign policy expert. an expert is anyone from out of town with a briefcase. i didn't bring my briefcase but i must admit i know a lot more about foreign policy than i did at the beginning about the fight against cancer. i was recently in the middle east talking about isis and in the gulf with one of the leaders. i thought we were going to have this long discussion and i brought my entire foreign policy team, my national security adviser. he had his whole team sit on this beautiful dock outside one of these palaces. he starts off and he said can we talk about cancer? can we talk about cancer? when i was in jordan, when i was in israel, japan, south
4:10 am
korea, working on mou's with each one of those countries, because they want to be part of this effort. i've been stunned -- stunned -- stunned at the response of the president's announcement. just evidence. nothing about me or the president. it's about the intensity with which people feel about this subject. and the overwhelming desire to have some concrete hope of additional changes. and everywhere i go when i talk about what's possible in fighting cancer there's a consensus -- a consensus that we've reached an inflection point. we've reached -- let me explain what i mean by that. five years ago, six years ago, colleges weren't routinely working with imnuneologists, vireologists, biological engineers. but now they are.
4:11 am
secondly, there's a recognition by aggregating and sharing data of millions of patients, including genomics, family history, lifestyle, treatment outcomes, we have the potential to find new patterns and causes and successfully treat cancer in ways we never did before. we can now do a thousand billion calculations per second. it changes the world potentially. as to what, with aggregated data, we can learn. now we have the capability to do it. advanced technology, super computing allow us to analyze enormous amounts of data to find answers we couldn't do five years ago would take scores and scores of experts. years pouring over to find similar patterns. and there's new hope, new treatments, more accurate
4:12 am
radiation therapies which target cancer cells but do less damages to the healthy cells. transforming many types of cancers into chronic and manageable diseases when ten years ago they were literally a death sentence. but to view, to seize this moment we have to work together and get this all in our reach. one of the biggest problems we have in my view to solve is treatments need to be affordable. we need a strong continuum of generating and using knowledge to fight cancer and we have to change the entire path, in my view, of how knowledge goes from small labs to pharmaceutical companies to production companies. and the cost of life saving drugs is astro noncal. we have to come up with a better way. what is the possible justification when a life-saving drug is brought to market at the time it's brought to market it costs $26,000 a year and 15 years later it
4:13 am
costs $120,000? tell me. i know there are hundreds of millions of dollars of sunken costs that actually come up with nothing, that have to be accounted for. but i want to raise some questions here and i hope we get some answer. i was committed to bring together all the human financial and knowledge resources we have to break down silos to seize the moment and to double our rate of progress but i'm also committed to doing everything in my power to change the culture that too often stifles that. quite frankly, we have to change the culture a little bit. in my humble opinion. there was a report in staten news that although nih funding
4:14 am
for cancer trials requires -- when you get the funding, requires the results of that data be reported instantly. the number of institutions that receive the most funding don't report back to nih in a timely fashion. sometimes a year or more. nih scientists themselves, 75% of the time, are late or don't report their results. that's the study. i may be wrong and i hope the experts here will tell me that's incorrect. but under the law it says you must report. if you don't report, the law says you shouldn't get any funding. i'm going to find out if it's true, and if it's true i'm going to cut funding. that's a promise. that's a promise. because all it does is slow progress. change the culture. the moonshot effort has a few
4:15 am
missions. we have to reclaim the incentive for research within the research system. for breakthroughs and faster progress, preventing and treating cancer. we have to change the culture of research that turns scientists into grant writers, discouraging risk taking. we have to change our academic and publicication system to reward teamwork and results for patients not just raw numbers of publicications and awards that are granted. and by the way, i said this to an researchers hosted by organization in one of the other cities. and i noticed the heads of these organizations were a little dismayed when two thirds stood up and clapped. not a joke. we need to be sure that researchers are also available as soon as they are published so the field can move forward. we have to generate and share and integrate data with the
4:16 am
ultimate goal of enhancing patient care. we have to create better systems to share data and to empower patients to share and use their data in the way they want to. in other sectors like physics and aerospace scientists share complex information seemsly and ubiquitously all the time. but somehow i guess for hundreds of years of tradition, not in medicine. maybe there's explanation. i haven't heard it yet. i haven't heard it yet. we have to bring new prevention strategy and diagnostics and therapies to communities and places all across the world. the first place i'm going tomorrow is to cleveland to highlight a cancer screening program, a collaboration between george washington university and case western missouri university. both washington and cleveland have higher than national than average smoking rates.
4:17 am
lung cancer rites are higher especially in areas where fewer people have access to lung cancer screening. this problem uses social media and digital modernizing technologies to help people adapt to healthier lifestyles. you know the numbers beten than i do. prevention can save a whole hell of a lot more lives than anything we can do. other screening programs becoming available to help detect cancer early so it can be treatd with better chances of success. these include noninvasive, new genetic markers that allow us to identify those at risk developing cancer long before they develop. i've been to most every major cancer institution in the country and some of the work they're doing is absolutely mind-blowing. liquid biopsies. getting a whole lot of attention and may provide an even better way to screen for cancer very early in the process, with a simple blood
4:18 am
test. we can reach more people by taking the screening into their communities just like we did, i might add, with breast cancer and hiv and we have mobile vans rolling into all those communities. you helped set up in wilmington making sure we have a large -- we have a large african american population that was underserved. we have mobile vans roll in. as these techniques become more and more available and more precise, there's a lot we can do. finally, we have to accelerate getting treatments to patients by identifying any unnecessary regulatory barriers that exist at the federal level that stand in the way of improving researcher care. for example, patients should be able to seamlessly find a clinical trial that might suit a specific condition. doctors should have anize way of guiding their patients through the process.
4:19 am
but less than, as you all know, 4% that enroll in trials that might be key to discovering the next life-saving treatment. i've been in nevada, california, florida. i've been to i think 11 of the most highly funded and reputable cancer centers in the world and they talk about how can they get, how will they be able to get this life-saving capacity out to rural communities, indian reservations? he one thing about you doc's is you became doctors for a reason. you're devoted. you care. you care a heck of a lot. and it surprised me and pleased me to see how intensely the medical community is talking about the need to get services to at-risk communities that weren't available right now. on line critical -- excuse me.
4:20 am
on line clinical data base has proven to be far too complicated for most patients and most local oncologists to be able to navigate. under the moonshot we've created the new trials.cancer.gov to help people learn about and get access to cancer trials which will also be i hope a significant benefit to the pharmaceutical companies who are conducting trials and many times trouble finding enough people to be in the trials. that we can't come up with a map that is accurately able to be used that has this data is surprising to me. i was -- my son -- and it's not about my son. my personal experience. we put in the recovery act which the president asked me to manage over almost $1 trillion. and by the way with every
4:21 am
outside study less than 2/10% waste or fraud. in that we thought we were going to change the way we covered and we thought electronic record keeping would help a great deal. it all got spent. guess what, the five systems can't talk to one another. think about it. now, we're not computer scientists. my son bo had allegedly -- he was in a trial of one, anti-pd 1 and a viral injected into stage 4 gleeo blast oma requiring him to on a multiple times during the day do an mri to see the progress. at first the doctors were giddy at the progress that was being made. but he was up at walter reed md the doctors were down at anderson. an incredible organization, in my view.
4:22 am
but for the fact my son in-law is a leading surgeon in the philadelphia area, we had to gather up the information not recorded, get in a plane and fly it down. joe, can you imagine your company functioning that way and being able to make it? it's not anybody's fault. but we've got to fix it. we've got to fix it. we owe it to future generations to seize this moment to move with deliberate purpose and double our rate of progress by just doing things that -- if this were a high-tech firm we were running they would say we've got to solve this problem. it's within our wheelhouse to do these things. what i'm talking about so far doesn't even contemplate the enormous genius that resides in this room.
4:23 am
like one of the brightest men in all of medicines the guy sitting right there who is the head of nih. i mean it sincerely. the impediment isn't the lack of the gray matter genius and ingenuity in terms of new drugs, new treatments, et cetera. it's all this stuff that gets in the way. the only thing i'm good at in government is getting things out of the way. no, no. i am good at that. [applause] > i am good at that. so i don't want this to come across as somehow the federal government has the answer. we don't have the answers. we've got to figure out how to get out of your way and you guys have to figure out how to et in each other's way more. previous generations have successfully faced similar problems and given us longer
4:24 am
lives and millions of people fear that their children during polio epidemic in the 50's. but hope conquered here sooner than anyone could imagine with technology and breakthroughs with the polio vaccine. look what yeah all have done with hiv aids and how you've aggregated capability and the progress that's made. cancer is not going to be conquered by any one thing but i believe it's a challenge, with your brilliance, we can win if we're devoted to winning it in a timely fashion, meaning yesterday. today we're announcing a series of measures being implemented by government agencies, universities, institutions and foundations that address some of the problems and move us toward a goal of doubling that rate of progress. the federal task force has gotten to work and today is announcing a dozen new actions or policies including the department of energy and veterans affairs have now formed a collaboration to apply the most powerful comptational
4:25 am
assets at the national labs to nearly half a million veterans records in one of the world's largest research cohorts. the million veteran program. a cornerstone in the president's precision medicine initiative. the national institute of health is announcing a new partnership bringing together 12 biopharmaceutical foundations and philanthropies to invest together to fund research to make all the resulting data available to everyone ultimately bringing new therapies to patients in less time. earlier this month, i went to the university of chicago to launch the platform that includes genomic data associated clinical trials shared openly and broadly to advance cancer research and improve it. we're announcing today that with a commitment from the foundation medicine, a total number of patients has gone from when we announced 32,000
4:26 am
patients accumulated. excuse me doubled to 32,000 in just over a month. the expectation and hope is it will be exponential. private philanthropioc, patient academic communities have answered the call including the breast cancer, is doubling their annual research investment from 50 to $100 million aiming for an investment of $1 fwl by 20 21 to speed up connecting the dots, as they say, between molecular information we can amass and our understanding of cancer to accelerate turning new discoveries into effective treatment open. the partnership between intermountain health care, stanford, cancer research institute providence health, the henryford health system and synapse sis.
4:27 am
nounds like snap-sis. forgive me. but this network is going to link cancer genomic data for 79 hospitals and 800 clinics across 11 states. data from more than 50,000 new cancer patients per year that can now be shared openly on a network. a company will use medicare claims data released because of the administration's open data everett to publish reports describing medicare patients how they move through the health care system in years before and immediately after a cancer diagnosis. the report will show how factors such as geography, type of physicians, and providers they see, their treatment, their pathways affect a patient's experience and affect the outcomes. through collaboration with destination brands international and mt. sinai medical center the city of miami beach is providing dozen
4:28 am
of free sunscreen dispenseries on the beaches, parks, public pools for residents and millions of visitors every year. there's been no real progress in sun screen. new sun screen applications, in i don't know this for a fact i think it's almost two decades. it's a long time. the focus on prevention, miami beach is going to continue this program at least until 20 21. these are just some examples. there are 30 other announcements we're making today. in the early 1900s a bone surgeon in new york named william coolie following pioneers like coke and pass tour and von barren, developed a theory that most post surgical infections helped patients recover better from cancer by provoking the immune system response. he began injecting patients with streptococcus and dead
4:29 am
bacteria which became known as coolie's toxins. when he did, the patients survived a little bit longer. following pioneers like coolie, scientists there developing immuno therapies have a chance to make the threat of some cancer as distant memory. imagine a day perhaps when my grandchildren have children of their own when the threat of cancer is a distant memory, when their children can be vaccinated for cancers as routinely as we vaccinate for measles and mumps and others can be treated and cured, made into chronic conditions. i've spent the better part of the last year trying to learn as much as i possibly can to become as informed as i possibly can and yet i'm not informed as many of you in the audience. i can tell you more about the psi of an ss-18 soviet silo
4:30 am
missile than i can about some cancers. but i've worked hard and i've gotten a lot of help. and i think i'm in a position to say without being totally naive that we're on the cusp of breakthrough that is can get us there. the golden moonshot is to propel us forward today. supporters and skeptics alike ask us, what's the moonshot? the moonshot is all of you, people listening in these all around the country. all of you jumping in, doing what you can to help prevent, change life styles, detect, treat cancer. it's everyone who spends nights and weekend in their labs looking for the next breakthroughs. it's the patients being treated. hoping they can return to their lives and families as patients starting foundations and companies to develop cures for their children. it's organizations like nih and the department of energy and as
4:31 am
small as alex's lemon aid stand trying to understand cancer and help patients defeat it. the moonshot is carrying the hopes and dreams of millions of people who want us to succeed, make a difference in their lives and their families, not some day, but now. the work we're doing and the work we're doing together i hink can fulfill many of those hopes. cancer touches everyone in some way. we all have reasons for being here, survivors, patients, families, friends, physicians, researchers. but almost every one of us in here has lost someone relatively close to us. we're all here because we can do something about it. and that's what jill and i decided to do when our son bo passed. part of the moonshot is my view from my perspective internally is honoring bo, the life he
4:32 am
lived with courage and never giving up hope. this isn't about him. it's not about a single person. it's about us. not giving up hope, and having the urgency of now. the urgency of now. i won't mention the particular agency but we've had -- one of the agencies in the federal government said they're getting a new director and they'll have it by the end of 2016. i called the head of that department in and i said 2016? it is now june. if you can't get that in the next four months tell me. we'll go find someone who can. it's bizarre. some of your outfits are like that. e can do it later. because these are breakthroughs that are just beyond our grasp.
4:33 am
we need each and every one of you. i challenge all of you to think anew about this scourge of cancer. go beyond your comfort zone. set goals that are going to change the way we're going to do this. think about it tomorrow. i will conclude by saying that know i'm maybe -- i'm sometimes accused with total justification about being too passionate about the things i care a lot about. when we were doing the recovery act and i was in charge of making sure that my money got spent wisely and i met with the cabinet 16 times, i met on the telephone for at least an hour with every single solitary governor but one, most every mayor in the country, and most every county executive. i mean, from as few as one to as many as 80 at a time.
4:34 am
there was one program we had i won't mention it but we weren't able to get out x percentage of money about $28 billion that would have an incredible positive impact on energy and on the consumption of energy. so i turned to the heads of one of the departments, a brilliant guy, and i said why hasn't this been approved yet? this person said i have a 30-person department it has to go through it. ok. i turned to the other departments involved and i said why hasn't this been done? he said i have a 28-person department. i looked at my watch. i said, well, it is now 11 after 10:00. at the time it was a tuesday. if you guys don't have this settled by 11 after 10:00 on thursday, i promise you i'm stripping those departments. son of a gun.
4:35 am
it was done and well. it was well. [applause] guys, some things you cannot rush. they take time. but some things the only reason they're not happening is not we don't know how to do it. we're not urgently, urgently focusing on what has to be done, finding the director i promise you if we lost a director god forbid of the c.i.a. i promise we would have one very shortly. if we lost a general on the battlefield, i promise you we would have one very shortly. so my plea with you is -- and i know most of you are working. not a joke. i know most of you are working 17, 18 hours a day. help me today be able to go back to the president and tell me what i should be doing, what we should be doing to increase the collaboration, expand the
4:36 am
base of knowledge, and have a greater sense of urgency on the mechanical things. on the structural changes. that make a difference. you're extremely gracious to put up with me. we need you badly. and i really do believe it's within your power to fundmently change and turn despair into hope. turn despair into hope a lot sooner than later. thank you for -- the bad news is i'm here all day. i'm participating in your roundtables. i wish you luck. and help educate me. i mean this sincerely. help educate me as the best way to go about doing what we need to do. thank you so very much. [applause] insurance rates.
4:37 am
live coverage at 10:00 a.m. eastern. friday marks the 409sdz anniversary of the museum and american history tv's live coverage starts at 6:00 p.m. we'll tour the museum and see one of a kind aviation and space art facts. plus live events. learn more about the museum as we talk about its director, museum curator, and chair of
4:38 am
the museum's space history department. you can join the conversation we'll be taking your phone calls e-mails and tweets. the 40th anniversary of the museum live friday evening beginning at 6:00 eastern. >> at a senate hearing on the justice for victims of trafficking act a justice department official talked about the implementation of programs to assist victims and the creation of an anti-trafficking task force. thank you for being patient. i imagine a lot of people in the audience are part of organizations that's been very helpful getting this very important piece of legislation passed. so thank you.
4:39 am
before i give my opening statement. because we have a vote at 11:00, i hope we're able to keep the committee meeting going during that vote. another couple things for me either before i ask my questions or after i ask my questions, well, if it's afterwards i'll have senator cornyn take over the meeting. if it is down i may go down to finance to ask some questions on a medicare issue before congress. we welcome everybody. today we will examine whether the justice department is doing all it can to meet the important milestones established by congress under the new anti-trafficking statute. this statute known as the justice for victims of trafficking act was introduced by senator cornyn. i cosponsored it. and it was among the first
4:40 am
pieces of legislation that our committee reported out during my initial months as chairman. today's hearing provides us an opportunity to ask the department about this administration's efforts to implement the law since its enactment just over a year ago. at its core human trafficking involves the exploitation of another human being typically for the purposes of forced labor or commercial sex. its victims can include both men and women, adults and children, foreigners, and u.s. citizens. in most if not all such cases, the trafficker exploits a victim's vulnerabilities. for example, sex traffickers typically use some combinations of force, deceit, or -- and flattery to exploit their victims. they may ply the victim with drugs or alcohol to make them more compliant and then often
4:41 am
combine violence with manipulation to exert control. horrific only begins to describe the effects of sex trafficking on its victims. the mental and physical scars run deep, in fact, they never heal for some survivors. if that weren't bad enough, this form of trafficking is a growing domestic threat. for example, violent gangs find it highly profitable to sell young girls and women for sex in this country and human beings unlike illicit sex can be sold again and again. that's why sex trafficking has spread to every state in the nation with victims turning up in urban, rural, and even suburban areas of the united states. domestic labor trafficking, which primarily affects noncitizens of the united states, has received less media attention but its victims also suffer terribly.
4:42 am
much like sex traffickers, labor traffickers exploit the victims' vulnerability which might include limited english skills, isolation, or poverty. some labor traffickers may induce their victims to travel here under false pretenses and then confiscate their identification and travel documents. others may deceive a worker into believing they owe a massive debt that must be repaid. still others use a bait and switch technique promising to hire somebody for a specific job but then forcing the worker into a less desireable and more dangerous job at little or no pay. it's important that we ensure appropriate resources and support are in place to help these victims as well. for all these reasons the successful implementation of the justice for victims of
4:43 am
trafficking act is a top priority of this committee. in passing this law, we prioritize victims services by creating a mechanism to ensure that money flows into domestic trafficking victim funds. we focused on curbing demand by enabling federal prosecutors to pursue those who profit. we encourage collaboration by calling for federal anti-trafficking task forces to work with state and local officials in investigating trafficking offenses. we encourage strategic planning by calling for the adoption of a national strategy for combating human trafficking. multiple federal agencies are involved in fighting human trafficking within our borders. today however we focus rimarily on d.o.j.'sed efforts
4:44 am
subject under the new act. we provide new tools and a new source of funding. now we hope to hear how the department has used those. so we welcome you for coming today to testify about the efforts undertaken by the department over the last year as well as challenges that remain in implementing the problem. finally we will hear from the government accountable office which today is releasing a new report on the federal response to human trafficking. this report responds to two separate reporting requirements that senator flake and i champion during our conversation of the new statute. doctor for testifying before the committee for the first time and i presume you're very aware of what goes on here. i always compliment the g.a.o.
4:45 am
because i find them so helpful for so many of my investigations. and i think you do good work for us. i look forward to hearing. now i go to senator klobuchar. >> thank you very much mr. chairman and thank you for holding this important hearing along with senator cornyn. we let that bill. it wasn't an easy bill to pass but i'm pleased that people came together and supported that bill because as much as we talk about the problem of sex trafficking internationally, the third biggest criminal enterprise human trafficking is across the world after illegal drugs, illegal guns, but we really can't be a beaken on this issue until we clean up our own shop here at home. that's what the justice for victims of trafficking act was focused on. i think sometimes people think this is a distant issue. something that only happens if foreign lands. then you hear the story of a
4:46 am
12-year-old in rochester, minnesota, who got a text to go to a party, showed up at a mcdonald's parking lot with a friend, got put in a car brought up to the twin cities, raped, pictures were taken put out on the internet and then sold to two other men. the guy that did that was convicted in federal court. but that's a real story. and just as centuries ago, the british were one of the first industrialized countries to ban slavery, developed countries to ban slavery because of the stories because of what people saw when they saw slaved held at the bottom of ships. these stories are important because it makes people understand that this is happening right in our country. just last month a man convicted of victimizing seven women in minnesota was convicted to 58 years in prison the longest in our state's history. and a number of cases being handled since this law passed
4:47 am
on the federal basis. i know that attorney general lynch and the deputy attorney are devoted to taking on these cases both having come from the u.s. attorney's office, one in new york, one in georgia, and handled and supervised first-hand these cases. i think that's a positive development. we are seeing more and more of these cases being brought at the federal and state levels. so we know many of these cases will actually be brought at the state and local levels. that's why our bill has a very important provision, the safe harbor provision, and created incentives for states to develop safe har legislator laws. thags -- harbor laws. when you're a kid, 14, 15, 16, 17 years old it's not a crime. you're a victim. as the chairman was explaining people get lured into this in various ways with drugs because they are a run away, because they've been taken from their
4:48 am
home. the u.s. marshall noted that the bill already is bolstering an already robust partnership with the national center for missing and exploited children which has resulted in the recovery of more than 600 missing children by u.s. marshall personnel since 2003. so there's a lot of work going on. the other work going on which wasn't something we could mandate in the bill but i think the strong federal statement for a bill signed into ah law made a difference and that's that the private sector are stepping up. a number of hotel, airlines, are signing pledges to train their employees. we have a provision that's in the f.a.a. bill that would require training of flight attendents. this came from the flight attendents and not opposed by the airlines because they're on the front lines see this happening, the same as the hotels have come up to the plate and have been training their employees. so we're really excited about
4:49 am
the work being done in the private sector as well as the work that has come out of this bill. so thank you for holding this timely hearing. and i thank senator cornyn who i know will be with us for his leadership as well. thank you mr. chairman. >> let me introduce both of our witnesses. first is ms. jill stineberg serving as the justice department national coordinator for child exploitation prevention and interdiction. in that role she oversees the implementation of many of the department's human trafficking initiatives. previously she served as assistant u.s. attorney for the northern district of georgia. she also served as attorney adviser within the department's national security division and as assistant district attorney philadelphia she received her undergraduate degree from the university of georgia and law egree duke university.
4:50 am
our second witness dr. greta goodwin serves as acting director of homeland security and justice team at the u.s. government accountability office. her portfolio covers justice and law enforcement issues. since joining g.a.o. dr. goodwin has conducted research in a wide range of domestic policy issues. she earned her phd in economics from university of nebraska lincoln and received her bachelor's degree in economics from the university of houston. would you proceed, please. and i've been told that you have to leave by noon but i think we should be done by then, unless we have more than the average attendance at this committee meeting. but we will have to accommodate whatever your schedule is. so we thank you for being here. proceed, please. >> thank you, sir. i thank you for inviting me this morning to address the
4:51 am
important topic of human trafficking in the united states. the attorney general has made this fight one of her top priorities at the justice department. one aspect of the anti-trafficking work is our successful collaboration with the department of homeland security and mexican law enforcement to the u.s.-mexico human trafficking bilateral enforcement initiative. this has led to federal prosecutions of over 170 defendants. and the recovery of over 200 victims. we have also partnered with the d.h.s. and department of labor to develop high impact human trafficking investigations and prosecutions. in phase one, showed a 119% increase in cases filed and a 114% increase in defendants charged. in the fall of 2016 d.o.j. announced phase two to build on that great success. in september of 2015, d.o.j. announced $44 million in grants to combat human trafficking.
4:52 am
almost 23 million went to the enhanced model across the united states. this year's funding will support 16 anti-trafficking task forces. the 2015 grants included approximately $8 million for comprehensive services and almost $6 million for specialized services to trafficking victims. i'm proud to discuss the department's implementation of the justice for victims of trafficing act. first, creates a fund for the purpose of making grants to support anti-trafficking efforts and provide services to victims. the fund has two sources of money. the federal courts after the date it was enacted. this assessment is paid after a defendant pays all over fines and orders of restitution. second, requires the department of health and human services to transfer $5 million into the
4:53 am
fund. t received the $5 million in december. as of may the fund has received over $100,000 from assessments n criminal defendants. the remaining amounts d.o.j. office for victims of crime is funding fiscal year 2016 to improve outcomes for child and victims of trafficking. adds pate ronizes and sols sits. taken several steps to advise prosecutors about this change. the day after it became law d.o.j. sent written guidance with all the changes contained. is followed with training on child exploitation in june of 2015 and in april of 2016 both of which were attend bid over
4:54 am
1300 investigators agents and prosecutors across the country. both before and after, d.o.j. has procuted dts who pay for or attempt to pay for sex with children. for example, in florida prosecutors charged jonathan taylor for obtaining, patronizing and soliciting a 15-year-old girl. in texas prosecutors prosecuted two in engaging in a conspiracy. paid for a 12-year-old girl. in indiana prosecutors charged for soliciting and patronizing two minor females for prostitution. these are three examples of many cases brought against individuals who sought to have sex with victims of trafficking. finally relating to training for law enforcement and prosecutors on recognizing investigating and prosecuting human trafficking cases and assisting victims. d.o.j. provides several
4:55 am
training courses every year at our national training center. d.o.j. has also provided training to investigators prosecutors judges ngo's from over 20 countries and cities across the united states. multiple anti-trafficking training courses for federal agents. in particular the f.b.i. has developed a training course with the goal of targeting customers of sex trafficking. that has been provided to federal agents and state law enforcement as well. part of the work to combat trafficking and support sushvivers, but there is still more to do. thank you again for highlighting this very important issue this morning. >> thank you. now dr. goodwin. >> ranking member grassley, chairman grassley, ranking member clobe char and members of the committee i am pleased
4:56 am
to be here today to discuss the report on human trafficking. the exploitation of a person .or force, fraud and coercion trafficking victims span all age gender race ethnicity sexuality citizenship and nationality categories. human trafficking takes place throughout the country and often involved victims who are already vulnerable such as youth or persons with substance abuse victims. as we mark the one-year anniversary, i'm here to talk with you about actions, federal agencies taken to implement provisions, challenges faced by law enforcement, and grant programs intended to combat trafficking and assist victims as well as efforts to reduce duplication across programs. we reviewed 105 provisions across six statutes that called
4:57 am
for the establishment of a program or an initiative. the provisions cover various types of activities to address trafficking among others and include grants, victims services, criminal justice and public awareness. for many of these more than one agency was responsible for implementation. for the majority of these provisions, all responsible federal agencies reported taking actions to implement them. and instances where agencies had not taken any action they provided various explanations. moreover, specific to the provisions, we reviewed 20 of those and federal agencies reported taking actions to implement 18. law enforcement officials and prosecutors identified several challenges with investigating and prosecuting human trafficking including a lack of victim of cooperation, limited availability of services and difficulty identifying human trafficking. obtaining a victim's cooperation is important because the victim is generally
4:58 am
the primary source of evidence and is also the primary witness. yet cooperation is difficult as victims may be unable or unwilling to testify or talk to law enforcement for fear of retaliation by the trafficker. victim assistance programs like mental health and substance abuse services may help improve victim cooperation yet the availability of these services is limited. additionally, identifying and distinguishing human trafficking from other crimes like prostitution can be challenging. agencies have sought to address these challenges through public awareness, campaigns, grant programs, and the training of judges, prosecutors and investigators. for fiscal years 2014 and 1r5e, we identified 42 grant programs that may be used to combat human trafficking or assist trafficking victims. 15 were solely intended for this purpose. because these grant programs
4:59 am
have similar goals and can be used to similar activities there is overlap among them. however, the real concern is is whether these programs are duplicative. whether a single grantee is using funds from multiple agencies to pay for the same activity. we did not find duplication. we found that d.o.j. and h.h.s. have prosses in place to avoid duplication. for example, in response to our prior work d.o.j. requires applicants to disclose whether they currently receive or are applying for grants for the same activity. specific to human trafficking the operating group has procedures in place for agencies to coordinate their grant programs and minimize the risk of duplication. agency that is participate on the grant making committee share grant solicitation and information on proposed grant awards which allows them the
5:00 am
opportunity to comment on the proposals and determine whether awards are being given to the same organization for the same activity. chairman grassley, ranking member clobe char, and members of the committee this concludes my remarks. i'm happy to answer any questions you may have. >> thank you both very u much. senator corn i would like to proffer this to you. i know you want to make an opening statement. i would like to ask my questions and then go to senator klobuchar. and i'm going to go down to finance and you said you would chair. at that point make your opening statement. would that be ok? ok. in recent years the justice department, federal prosecutors have focused primarily on curbing the supply of sex trafficking victims by pursuing traffickers who advertise and sell human beings for sex. with the passage of last year's act congress shifted some of the focus to curbing demand.
5:01 am
this new law makes it much easier for prosecutors to chart buyers of sex trafficking victims. i have three questions along this line. since this law was passed, has the justice department issued idance and directed to assistant u.s. attorneys and if so cha form did you issue that uidance? i think push the button. >> the department shares the perspective of this committee that anti-trafficking efforts need to be all-encompassing. attacking the problem through prosecuting traffickers and also buyers, individuals who fuel the demand. and to that end the department has prosecuted a number of cases. there are many more. both before and after the jvta.
5:02 am
with respect to guidance, the day after it was passed d.o.j. sent guidance out to prosecutors with respect to the criminal changes in that bill. in addition to that guidance, we've sent out a memorandum to all united states attorneys first assistants criminal chiefs and prosecutors on the changes to the jvta including the changes with respect to demand issues. in addition to those guidance memos we've done a significant amount of training on the the prosecutor side, at our advocacy center two times through our child exploitation section, through our civil rights gigs and through the criminal division's asset foreat this time tur and money laundering. and child exploitation centers. >> on the second question, whether you have a ballpark figure or exact number, or maybe you'll have to respond in
5:03 am
writing. but how many buyers of commercial sex have been charged in the last year under the federal law? >> that number would be difficult. i certainly can take it back and see whether we can provide that number. what we do in our case management system is we record prostitution by stat -- sh prosecution by statute. how many cases are prosecuted. and as you know, this gave prosecutors more tools to prosecute individuals under 1591 which is a good thing. so prosecutors can charge a soliciting case, a's a patronizing case. the voibs that might be in 1591 but doesn't necessary record what that verb might be or how the act was accomplished. so we're able to give stats on 1591 but can't indicate how it was that the crime was committed. so we've compiled and taken a survey and been able to provide those examples in written
5:04 am
testimony. but i don't know whether we can get you an exact number. >> if you can submit that in writing. the justice or the act that we're talking about calls for the attorney general to ensure that all task forces and working groups including the innocent lost initiative engage in efforts to target child sex buyers. as the department -- has the department provided this technical training to law enforcement officials since last year's law was enacted? >> yes, sir. again, we share the committee's view that in order to tackle this problem we need to tackling it through prosecuting traffickers, investigating traffickers and through buyers of commercial sex. two examples of that is just this spring the f.b.i. violent crimes section had their conference relating to child exploitation offenses and they trained on the provisions. in addition the f.b.i. civil
5:05 am
rights unit had also developed a specific training relating to demand of customers of commercial sex. so in terms of the enforcement side and f.b.i. they've done that training. >> so i assume from your answer that the department has revised current human trafficking training material to include methods to improve the investigation and prosecution demand related offenses? >> yers. our trainings have reflected changes and indicated that there are new tools available. >> are there any other efforts that the department has taken to encourage federal law enforcement officials to consider the sex buyer as a potential sex traffic and offender in investigation and prosecutions? >> yes, sir. it's through all of those rainings that we do by talking
5:06 am
to the change and the methods in which these cases can be prosecuted increasing the capacity of all law enforcement agencies. >> and then now that i'm leaving this to senator cornyn, i thank both of you for participating. >> thank you very much. thank you to both of you. one provision of the justice for victims of trafficking act that we worked hard to make sure was included was the development of the national strategy by the justice department. it reminds me of domestic violence where we have work being done at localities across the country but we want to have best practices and data sharing all those things because that's worked well for the domestic violence. i understand the department has convened a working group of d.o.j. leadership offices to formulate the national strategy. could you give me an update? i hear that the department expects to finalize it in the fall of this year.
5:07 am
are you still on track for that timetable? and what's happening. >> thank you. we did convene a working group shortly after the passage. that working group includes all the components of the department that work in the trafficking space. the enforcement side, child exploitation and obsent section. united states attorneys and the f.b.i. in addition to that we have individuals on the grant-making side to make sure that we're all communicating thing that is involve parts of the department with respect to enforcement. since that working group came together one of the things that has happened is a guidance memo has gone out to all the united states attorneys. the strategy requirement includes districts specific strategies in every district across the country. in order to help that process along we gave guidance on how it is that the district can go
5:08 am
about doing that. not just the mandate but recommendations to achieve some uniformity among districts as well in terms of what it is they're thinking about. so that has gone out as one of the efforts. and then simultaneously at the national level we're working on that part of the strategy. so those things have been happening together and we continue to be hopeful that it will be done in the fall. >> very good. good answer. the hot line was part of the bill that we made sure got included in the final draft as well. and this is a national toll free hot line to give around the clock support for tips for trafficking victims trying to escape dangerous situations. last year 5,544 cases were reported through the hot line including 47 in my state. could you tell us about the role of this hot line and if there's anything that should be done here to make it even more effective? >> thank you. i'm familiar with the hot line.
5:09 am
and i think there's a consensus that it's an extremely helpful tool. i know there's been a lot of referral as a result the hot line. h.h.s. in the past has been the funder. provided funded for the hot line. i think the bill change that is or shift that is in some way. in 2017 that fund willing come from the office of the victims of crime. so that is something that the department is aware of and will shift over. >> trafficking that works across the u.s.-mexico border. two years ago we went down there and heard about the work that's been done between mexico and the u.s. i understand that these bilateral efforts have led to the u.s. federal prosecution of more than 170 defendants and the rescue of more than 200 victims from trafficking networks. what are some of the challenges with those cross-border cases? some of the victims coming up
5:10 am
from countries south of mexico. and where do you see this bilateral work going? >> you're correct. whenever there's a case that involves multiple jurisdictions it complicates things. but as i indicate in my testimony there's a great initiative now going on between the united states and mexico. the bilateral human trafficking enforcement initiative has been incredibly successful due to cooperation of law enforcement and their united states partners. one of the reflection is a case brought recently in the eastern district of new york just last week five individuals extra dithed and arranged on trafficking charges in brooklyn. the success of that program. we hope that will continue to yield these kinds of results. >> i mentioned in my opening statement the work that's being done in the private sector to train on the front lines flight attendents hotel workers and others. senator warner and i included
5:11 am
this which came to us from the flight attendents in the f.a.a. bill. and we're waiting to get finalized here. could you talk about training in the private sector and why that's important. >> yes. the department agrees that training of members of the private sector and also individuals who work for the government who might have interaction with trafficking victims is extremely important. that's part of the justice department's program. on the enforcement side through the criminal division and f.b.i. and office of justice program and grant-making component so that's happening on both sides of the the house and included in the district specific strategy is continued engagement with the private sector. >> thank you very much. senator franken. thank you. >> thank you. i want to thank you and senator cornyn for the work you've done on this.
5:12 am
there's a lot we can and are doing and should be doing to fight trafficking. this includes strengthening trafficking enforcement, providing supportive services and ensuring that we treat victims as victims. not as criminals. but prevention is also a critical piece of the puzzle. and this requires the right policies backed up by sufficient resources. as we've explored previously in this committee and as research continues to demonstrate run away and homeless youth are particularly vulnerable to trafficking and exploitation. indeed, covenant house new york's 2013 survey found that youth involved in commercial sexual activity frequently report exchanging sexual acts for basic necessities. like food or a place to sleep. and a more recent study by
5:13 am
covenant house new orleans found that a quarter of the homeless youth they interviewed had been victims of trafficking or sexual labor. this is obviously horrific and unacceptable. what more must we in congress do to ensure that these kids have access to shelter and to prevent them from falling victim to trafficking and in your view how would increasing appropriations under the run away and homeless youth act provide necessary services to -- to youth in our communities? >> you're correct in that our vulnerable populations including the run away and homeless youth population are particularly targeted and are overrepresented in the individuals who are victims of trafficking. and we share that concern. as i indicated, we have a substantial amount of grant funding that goes out to support victims and services
5:14 am
for victims of trafficking. there was approximately $8 million in comprehensive services and over $6 million in specialized services this past fiscal year and we will continue to do what we have with the appropriation that is we have to serve those victims. >> i would also like to prevent it so that we don't have to service them. i would like to talk about another community disproportionately affected by trafficking. in minnesota -- minneapolis american indians make up 1.2% of our overall population but represent over a quarter of the omen arrested for prostitution in minneapolis' third precinct. many of these women and girls have experienced long-term homelessness, poverty, sexual and physical abuse, and interactions with child protective services. american indian women have also
5:15 am
discussed their experience with racism and generational trauma that has developed from the targeting of their community since the beginning of our country. ms. goodwin, how is funding either from jvta or other related sources being targeted for communities that are disproportionately affected by trafficking, and specifically to our american indian communities? >> for the specific report that is we've recently released we didn't focus on native american human trafficking but we do know that some of the programs available native americans would be able to access those services. and a separate request from the senate indian affairs committee g.a.o. has undertake an review to look at specifically native american human trafficking. and part of the research objective that is we have will include the funding for services and programs that will
5:16 am
be available to them as well as we're going to be looking at or examining and questioning law enforcement personnel as well as service -- victim service providers for that community. >> thank you. and can you elaborate on phase two anti-trafficking coordination team efforts in minneapolis and how those will be used to address the overrepresentation of american indians among trafficking victims? >> as you know, one of the new sites is in minneapolis. and the reason why those teams are successful is because of the cooperation between all the different federal partners, the department of labe, d.h.s., d.o.j., and also local as well. and the help from headquarters into these to generate leads and create high impact investigations and prosecutions. part of the training that we do in putting up teams is making sure that every person on that
5:17 am
team, throughout the department. it's a whole department approach in investigating and prosecuting case. that doesn't mean taking a victim center approached. that's inherent. but also to be attuned to thing that is are unique to each population. that's inclusive of individuals that are native american or come from indian country or been victimized. >> thank you. and thraunching for your work on this subject. -- thank you for your work on this subject. >> under the justice for victims of trafficking act the department was required to implement a national strategy coordinating federal state local and tribal efforts to prosecute human trafficking. the appointment of a district attorney to effectuate this. has the attorney general created that national strategy? >> there was a work group that
5:18 am
was put up immediately after it was passed that included all components of the department that touch on human trafficking. all are subject matter experts and through the leadership office including the deputy attorney general and the attorney general's office. that started immediately after it was passed. one of the things done is to put guidance out to all the u.s. attorneys about the necessity of having a district specific strategy. so that process is under way. and we have given very specific guidance to them on how to go about doing that. one part of the district specific strategy is to have an ausa in each district who is the point of contact. so farto part of the strategy has already been accomplished. the final written document we expect to be done in the fall. as you know, the jvta created domestic trafficking fund, i think you alluded to that earlier. it mandates the victims fund be
5:19 am
-- that there be a levy of a $5,000 assessment of offenders convicted of human trafficking, sex abuse, child pornography, interstate transportation for illegal sexual activity and human smuggling. this was at the time we estimate that had some $31 million in obligated assessments could accrue based upon fiscal year 2012 data from the united states sentencing commission that this additional special assessment would apply to more than 6,200 offenders per year. unfortunately we haven't seen the fund -- seen the benefits of the fund to the extent that we had hoped for. how much money is in the fund today? >> about $102,000. >> what do we need to do to get that number up? >> well, we obviously are in agreement that we would like to see more money in there but some of it is the function of
5:20 am
the concern that meaninging an individual assessed under the jvta needs to have committed after the enactment. so after may 29 of last year. so these investigations are subject to that assessment generally are long-term investigations. so the crime would have had to occur after may 29. tin vestgation would take place, the case indicted and proceed to sentencing and judgment and conviction. so as time goes on there will be more individuals who will in effect be qualified to be assessed. the other component is that the individual needs to be nonindigent. so they are going to be a substantial portion of people who will likely be considered to be indigent and therefore will not be assessed by judges under the jvta. so that's our experience as well. but over time we do expect to see those numbers increase. >> so they've got the money to buy sex but not enough to pay
5:21 am
the fine. according to some preliminary analysis by some of the trusted victims advocacy groups there have been at least five cases in which the conduct occurred and the case was closed after it was enacted where the special assessment was not assess ds. is that for the reason you mentioned a moment ago because of expose facto concerns? >> i would be happy to look at the fact of each case. but generally, our experience is the offense conduct occurred prior to the enactment or the individual was considered to be indigent. those are the two factors that have the most impact in terms of assessment and collections up until this point. i think you'll see another year go forward and additional questions will be able to detect whether there are any other patterns. >> you know, one of the biggest concerns under the jvta is lack of adequate resources for
5:22 am
victims. and obviously we're interested in making sure that the aspirations we have about the size of the fund come into play and are realized. so that's a serious concern. but i understand your answer to the question. $5 million was directed into the fund for health services -- health care and services to the victims under the patient protection and affordable care act. can you tell us us when that was transferred? >> in december. and the first assessment from a criminal defendant hit the fund in january. >> what is the plan for disbursement of the funds in 2016? >> they will also be disbursed in 2016 in the fiscal year. there was a $2 million that the jvta provides. so that money has been transferred over. it will go into the child advocacy center subgrant
5:23 am
program that will be disbursed into subgrantees of that program to service victims of child pornography. the other amounts have been put into a grapt program for office of victims of crime on improving outcomes, a jurisdiction wide approach. there will be one or two grants that come out of that program for state or federally recognized tribes effort to identify gap and services and other issues that relate to trafficking come up with a strategy and then fill those gaps. >> i have a statement that i will ask consent to be made part of the record which will happen without objection. and i know that senator white house is the next questioner. thank you. >> thank you, chairman. thank you for your work and the work of the department of justice in this area. i want to commend peter, the united states attorney in rhode island and his colleague peter
5:24 am
kill martin the torne general of rhode island for the work that they're doing together on trafficking. i don't know how many of the different districts have such a model but to have the attorney general and the united states attorney to have federal state and local law enforcement to have groups like the sexual assault victims group, the hospital emergency rooms all join together on this has really made a difference in rhode island. so i hope that that's a commendable model i note in your testimony that you provide a significant array of case udies that are examples of prosecution. i wonder if you would be able to provide the committee in response to a question for the record any case studies that are examples of the way in
5:25 am
which the department has been able to use these authorities to help rebuild the lives of the victims. the stories tend to end with the conviction, which is the ordinary way in which the department of justice looks at this. but i think part of our intention in this legislation was to make sure that these victims who at one point were actually seen as criminals and to be treated as such, not only had that point of view shift about their circumstance, particularly when my gosh they're too young to even be able to provide consent. but also to make sure that they got the resources to try to rebuild their lives. because very often there's not a whole lot of structure or support there. so if you have a favorite case or ten that you would care to share, obviously protecting the privacy of the victim, i think we would all like to hear about that side of the equation as well.
5:26 am
and my last question has to do with looking at the summary of these cases. i'm wondering how often the rack tiering statute figures in any of these child trafficking prosecutions. >> senator, you're right there is in some circumstances a possibility that the rico statute can be utilized. i believe it's been utilized in california. but our prosecutors are trained on all the tools. there are a number of different tools in the tool box. they're trained in all of them, examine what the facts are and use the tools that we give them. in terms of our training to determine what the best charging strategy is. so i'm familiar with the fact that it's used in california. there might be more. but that's the case i'm familiar with. >> these do tend to be organization that is do this in some cases it appears that criminal organizations that cut
5:27 am
their teeth trafficking in narcotics or engaging in cyber or other fraud schemes switched over to human trafficking because they saw how lucrative was given the international scommonent of this i would be interested in your thoughts on what we could do to make sure that the reach of law nforcement into these overseas trafficking organizations is at its maximum constitutional capability. >> i agree with you that when there's an international component it does make cases more complex as what is so great about the u.s.-mexico bilateral enforcement issue. it's a great example of what it is we're capable of doing when we engage with other countries and cooperate with them not only building but prosecuting both here in the united states and in mexico.
5:28 am
so we're going to continue to work on that success not just with mexico but other countries where we find those same patterns. >> and given the infrequency with which the rico statute is used at least in the cases that you have identified in your testimony is it fair then to conclude that the recent decision limiting the reach of rico overseas is not a significant concern for these prosecutions by the department? >> i think i would have to take a look more carefully about these decisions that you're referencing but right now prosecutors have an array of tools to use. it would depend on the facts. i haven't received information from the field they're having difficulty employing the statute. i think whether the circumstances fit the charge. >> if you take a look at it you
5:29 am
know the case. the case in which the court said nope we don't do -- overseas u you can be a rack tier all you like and we're not going to worry about it. if that is affecting your prosecution in any way, take that as a question for the record. and i will yield my time. thank you. back when we were doing the jvta in the committee i offered an amendment that unfortunately didn't get into the final bill ut it was expedited removal of illegally present personses after they served their term if they were convicted of human trafficking. i'm kind of curious to know if you have any data on what percentage of either arrests or convictions of -- in your experience, are actually people who are illegally present. >> senator, we didn't include that within the scope of our
5:30 am
work. however, when we looked at human trafficking we did look at we included in our definition of human trafficking whether someone was here illegally or not legally because our focus is what was happening on our soil. i don't have that information but we can see if we can get it for you. >> it would be helpful because we were trying to figure out ways once again they've been convicted served their time how we can get them out of this country. i would be interested in knowing what those numbers are. so thank you. am i correct that you went to duke? >> yes, sir. >> couldn't get into the a-school down the street. >> fair criticism. >> it's actually a great school. proud of all our universities. i'm kind of curious. law enforcement agencies, what more do we need to do? i mean, is it implementing some of the provisions of the jvta that hasn't been complemented?
5:31 am
what other things do we need to do to make sure that law enforcement at every level has the right tools that they need? in this bill we almost doubled he funding, a little more to 26.6. but more than throwing money at it what other sorts of things should we be looking at it to fighting human traffic sng >> the jvta gave the department a number of different tools and we are working on implementing the items that are in the jvta. one of the examples on ways that we continue sort of to build capacity and just improve what it is the department is already doing i think very well is with respect to the foreat this time tur and restitution provisions. we've always done work with respect to restitution in terms of training and things like that. but criminal decisions forety tur and money laundering we hired a dedicated attorney and ausa to work on the money
5:32 am
element and to do additional training with respect to forety tur and restitution. again, one more tool that we have that we are employing out into the field in terms of not just building cases but also in terms of taking a survivor centered approach ensuring that restitution is getting back to the victims and utilizing the tool about forfeiting. so that's a great example of something that's in the jvta that we're making great use of. >> do you have any else to add? >> well, the issue of restitution wasn't really a part of the work that we did in the course of the work that we did reach out to d.o.j. to get some information about restitution. what we discovered we were looking at about 22% of the defendants were actually ordered to pay restitution. >> did any of the work focus on tsa and whether or not they're realizing any success in
5:33 am
identifying trafficking victim or criminals? >> we didn't look at the extent to which that was happening at tsa but one of the thing that is we found is training of the agents to help them identify human trafficking when they see it. >> i'm just curious. for some of the provisions that have not yet been implemented, is it -- can you give me an idea why in terms of is it a prioritization or an indication from the department that it is not necessarily a key element in your opinion of how to go about dealing with human trafficking? >> center, we prioritize not only anti-trafficking efforts generally but implementation of the jvta. there's only one provision that has not been complemented refers to the website that is supposed to be put up. they've been working on
5:34 am
implementing that. it volves interagency work, work with nonprofits, private entities in terms of gathering information and finding the best way to abrogate it. i believe every provision is implemented at least per the g.a.o. report. >> just as a final note. if i could see if we can get any information on any arrest or convictions related to people illegally present i would be very interested in that to know whether or not the amendment that we sought to get worked into the bill is something we should go back to. i don't want to address a problem that doesn't exist. but if it's a significant number i would be interested in getting that data. >> we will get back to you. >> we talked about training for prosecutors. are you aware of what training has been made available for the judiciary? >> there has boon training for the judiciary. one of our grant making actually does judicial training and so that's a grant program
5:35 am
that existed previously. and continues to exist into the next fiscal year. i know separately that the administrative office of the united states court put out a memo of the passage to advise judges about the changes to the law. that's separate from d.o.j. but i know they're aware as a result of that memorandum. >> very good. you were talking about the difficulty of getting cooperation from the victims of human trafficking. and of course the this is one of the unique things about this crime is that frequently the victim is willing at least initially until they find out that they were basically in a trap and become literally enslaved. are you aware of any victims services programs that are particularly useful in dealing with victim cooperation? is there any social science, any experience we have out there that would help us do a better job of getting cooperation from the victims of
5:36 am
trafficking? >> wole, of the 15 programs that we looked at, those grant programs, we also did conduct site visits to various places within the u.s. and we talked to a number of service providers as well as a number of law enforcement officials. what they told us is that while victims cooperation can be difficult part of the reason it's difficult is because the victims fears talking to the police officer or to the law enforcement official. but they also fear retaliation by the trafficker. because in some cases you could have a case where it's not just the victim. it's not just the person that's being trasked. but the trafficker might actually have someone from their family also being for lack of a better word being held hostage andholding that over their head in an effort to force them. so some of the providers have done a lot of training for the pligs officers.
5:37 am
-- police officers. there are cases they're working in tandem. when you see someone how do you have a conversation with that individual to help them talk to the law enforcement person but you also have to take care of what's happening to the rest of that individual's family. human trafficking is frequently engaged in by organized criminal networks. right? it's not just an individual pimp or somebody who has decided to target an -- a one person. it's organized crime. isn't it? >> it could be. yes. >> it could be transnational as well. >> that's another reason why it would be so difficult to get the victims' cooperation. while that particular victim might be being trasked within the u.s. they might have other family members being held outside the u.s. >> o so a trafficking case is not particularly a one-off or isolated instance. these are part of human
5:38 am
smuggling networks and sometimes fueled by drug cartels and people who transact in other ill lissity activities as well. >> that is beyond the scope of the work we did. i imagine d.o.j. is probably better positioned to answer that quefment >> ok. i will ask ms. stineberg to answer that. >> our experience is that it happens in a wide variety of ways. there are more complicated trafficking networks that might involve smuggling individuals over a border but then there are individuals who have one or two victims that they might be trafficking. so we see a wide range of activity that relates to trafficking. some of which is as complicated as you describe and some of which is fairly straightforward might involve only one or two victims. >> within that range you do agree that international human trafficking networks are part of the problem. >> yes. >> do you have any other
5:39 am
questions toupt ask? >> i know we've got a vote coming up at 11:00 and you all have been great. thank you for your testimony today. we appreciate your good work. what we're hoping for is as we get that fund up because there are a lot of victims and a lot of organizations could use the grant funding to help provide services to victims. my friend former judge ted poe from houston over in the house has pointed out that we have more funding for our pets than we do for victims of human trafficking which is just a terrible contrast. and we need to do much better. fortunately, the justice for victims of trafficking act enjoyed broad bipartisan support and created this new funding mechanism that would make more funds available. so we hope more d.o.j. prosecutors prosecuted these cases and seek the restitution and seek when the assessments.
5:40 am
so we can get the fund up not only because they deserve but also because the victims deserve the benefits of the fund. >> the hearing will be adjourned.
5:41 am
5:42 am
>> on wednesday president obama traveled to canada for a summit with canadian prime minister and mexican president. the three north american leaders held a conference where they answer ds questions about trade and globalization.
5:43 am
all three were asked about donald trump and were critical of the republican candidate's positions on trade agreement. >> please welcome president obama president of the united states of america, the right honorable justin trudeo prime , and his f canada
5:44 am
excellencey enpeno president of mexico. >> thank you for joining us today. the tone was friendly as you might expect among friends but also a little noignant. we're thrilled to have president peno here as president of mexico yet at the same time it's a little sad that this will be a chance for all three of us to get together in this capacity given president obama's impending retirement. something -- something he pointed out to us more than once i should add usually with a little smile. but i do want to once again thank both leaders and their delegations for coming and
5:45 am
being truly open for the discussions that took place today. one of the first items we discussed is diversity and firm upport for lgbtq rights. >> the united states and mexico both lost citizens in orlando. that tragedy has strengthened our determination. protect the rights of lgbtq people and we urge all leaders throughout the world to do the same. we also talked about the need to ensure a clean and prosperous future for all of our people and for all the people in the world. >> we are unanimous in our belief that on this issue north america can and indeed must lead the way. today we resolve - we turn that resolve into action with a
5:46 am
negotiation of an ambitious and enduring north american climate, clean energy, and environment partnership. this partnership will see our country stand side by side as we work toward the common goal of a north america that is competitive, that encourages clean growth, and that protects our shared environment now and for generations to come. it's a partnership that lays out some very clear deliverables and that identifies realistic paths to achieving them. together we will advance clean and secure energy with the goal of 50% clean power generation across the continent by 2025. we will drive down short-lived climate pollutants, things like methane, black carbon, and hired flureo carbons. we will promote clean and efficient transportation creating clean jobs as we reduce energy consumption, air
5:47 am
pollution, and greenhouse gases. we will work together to protect nature and to advance our scientific understanding of the environmental challenges that we share. and finally we will respond directly and decisively to the challenge of climate change working to make our own countries more resilient as we encourage others to do the same. this is what can happen when countries come together in pursuit of a common goal. when we have a big idea and the political will to make it happen. today's climate agreement stands as proof that cooperation pays off. and that working together always beats going it alone. there were of course other ssues on the agenda as well. >> we also have the opportunity to talk about ways of advancing trade and competitiveness in
5:48 am
north america. it is essential to each of our economies and it is vital for the creepings of good jobs. furtsmor -- the creaation of good jobs. we recommit ourselves to human rights and we discuss the aspect on which we can be better partners to ensure the protection and defense of fundamental rights. we also discussed regional and worldwide issues that are urgent and we talked about the way we will work together to meet these common challenges 6789. >> how to better cooperate on deeves but it also meant forging a closer working relationship when it comes to providing development and humanitarian assistance as well as finding ways to more effectively combat public health challenges, the illicit flow of drugs and human trafficking. as i said the conversations
5:49 am
with friendly but also frank and i am reassured and encouraged by the progress we were able to make today. relationships between the citizens of our three nations have always been strong even in the past when our governments haven't always seen eye to sigh. it's gratifying that once again we are able to come together as leaders of three truly great nations to honor that enduring friendship and to once again deliver real results for the people of canada, mexico, the united states, and indeed the entire global community. thank you for all your hard work today and every day. i would now like to introduce the president of mexico. >> thank you very much, prime minister of canada. honorable barack obama.
5:50 am
with this press conference we come to an end of this day in canada, two days of visit. and today at the north american summit. prime minister, allow me to say once again how grateful i am for your hospitality, for the we were th which received myself and my delegation. we were warmly welcomed in this country. we're going back to mexico with memories of the warm welcome that the canadian people showed in question beck, in toronto and ottowa. we are going back to mexico fully convinced that we have renewed our bilateral relationship with canada. canada in -- has a leader going back to universal value that is makes canada stand out in the
5:51 am
world. president barack obama, i would like to say that we acknowledge your determination to have a more united integrated and competitive north america. a more prosperous and inclusive north america. i would like to highlight specifically being the last north american leader summit that you will attend to as the president of the united states. i would like to acknowledge that mexico recognizes the fact at you have promoted along mexico a strategic partnership and you have always been willing to work towards a bilateral agenda that covers different funds beyond security in the process of generating
5:52 am
clean energy you have favored those efforts. you have always favored a more expedited trade, a safer border, more competitiveness in our trade. you have always been in favor of having cooperation and education in cultural matters, have always been willing to push technology and science forward. your ere is no doubt that legacy also covers other regions of latin america. you have reestablished a relationship with cuba. u you have supported the development of central america. and in the summit of the americas as well you have contributed to its advancement. we would like to acknowledge as well your tireless efforts made towards the investment of the environment and to addressing the challenges of global warming. there is no doubt that your presidency has helped to build
5:53 am
and reaffirm the candid relationship that the united states and mexico have. during this summit the governments of canada, the united states, and mexico, we have reaffirmed our decision to work together with a vision, with result to advance economic integration in north america. in order to fulfill this goal mexico values that in the transpacific partnership there is a great opportunity to reaffirm this level of integrate between the three countries that are part of nafta. but besides that, we are taking this opportunity to other regions of the world specifically towards asia. i believe that the advantages, the benefits, and the beauties that this integration will
5:54 am
carry and has carried along for the benefit of our societies can be extended. when the transpacific partnership is approved mexico supports this effort with enthusiasm. this partnership, this agreement is at the protches of being approved. we are fully convinced that by working together and by taking stock of our complimentry, we can be the most competitive region in the world as prime minister trudeo has said during is summit we have worked for priorities, climate change, clean energy, environment, competitiveness at the borders, and trade security and defense and regional and global issues. specifically, mexico addressed
5:55 am
the area of competitiveness and trade in our borders. i would like to highlight some of the most important agreements we are going to create. single trade windows to enable our border exchanges. our goal is to have one foreign trade single wid window for north america. secondly, we're going to map north american. this will be a vital tool for our decision making and to bolster economic trade in the region. we have agreed to have a try lateral cluster map as soon as possible. and thirdly i should mention that try lateral program for trusted travelers. mexico has proposed that this program uses global entry platform that canada and the united states already has and this year we will implement the
5:56 am
electronic key of course platform that is already present in different airports in the united states and canada. this system will be used in north america as a whole. and this will be a system that ll enable and expedite the flow and traffic of individuals in north america. finally, i would like to use an example to describe our level of integration. the preservation of the monarch butterfly conservation. this is a species that in its pilgrimmage we can see how our countries are intertwined. and back in our last summit we agreed that we would take care of the species and make sure that in its journey the monarch
5:57 am
butterfly from canada winds through the united states all the way down to mexico. and the figures speak for itself. in the year 2014 in our country the area where butter flies reached that, eventually reached only covered less than one hector. due to the efforts made by our try lateral task force created for that purpose last year this year the surface in my country hectres. s to 4 hth 1 by 2018 figure will grow to six and that would be our goal for e monarch butterfly in mexico. by that we will be making sure the migration of this speechie is the symbol of the relationship that we have.
5:58 am
the north american leader summit bears witness that isolated national efforts are insufficient. if we want favorable results for the benefit of our societies it is better to work together at the region. we all know that the global challenges isilationism is not the solution. in contrast with what happens in other corners of the world the countries in north america we have decided to be closer to work as a team and to compliment each other and to make progress together as the most competitive region in the world. thank you very much. >> good afternoon, bonjour, buenos tardes. my friends and partners. justin and the people of ottawa,
5:59 am
canada, thank you for your wonderful hospitality. this is my fourth north american leader summit in the first that canada has hosted in nearly a decade. this reflects the new commitment that the prime minister has brought to our shared vision of a strong and integrated north america. they give very much. -- thank you very much. let me start by commenting on the horrific terrorist attack that took place yesterday in turkey which is one of the busiest airports in the world. the american people, our prayers are with the people of turkey and all those affected by this terrible crime. we have offered all assistance that we have available to our ally and we stand to pay to assist them during this difficult time. we're still learning all the facts but we know this is part of our broader shared fight
6:00 am
against terrorist networks and we will continue to work closely with turkey to root them out. meanwhile, we will do what is necessary to protect our people. i'm confident we can and we will. we will defeat those who offer only death and destruction and we will always remember even as there are those trying to divide us that we are stronger when we come together and work towards a better world together. i'm reminded of the fact, combined are three nations are home to nearly 480 million people. we are bound together by family including millions of immigrants. not only among each other's top trade partners, we are global hub in the nation. with integrated economies and supply chains and productions th

8 Views

info Stream Only

Uploaded by TV Archive on