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tv   Key Capitol Hill Hearings  CSPAN  July 1, 2016 12:00pm-2:01pm EDT

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we have been issuing guidelines in terms of folks who are childbearing age, who are thinking about starting a family. transmithat men can men ifhrough their se they are infected. we have issued some guidelines on how to approach this problem. but the most important thing we can do right now is to actually reduce the incidence of zika. we can issue precautions for travel to areas that have zika. we can give people guidelines in terms of how to deal with it if they are affected. this is something that we could reduce the risks, if congress does the right thing and allocates the dollars that are needed right now to get the job done.
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nih, theiefing at the good news is, we feel. confident we can develop an effective vaccine for zika, and that would help a whole lot of people and allow us to get out in front of this problem before it is in the continental united states, but that requires research money. order for a vaccine to be widely available, it has to be tested to make sure it is safe, tested to make sure it is effective. we are beginning right now on a whole bunch of promising pathways to get those tests done , so in fairly short order, we may have a vaccine available, and people will not have to worry about this. the problem now is that money is stuck in congress. the house anden
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the senate come together in a sensible way to put forward the dollars that we have requested, that have been budgeted to get the job done. what i want the american people to understand is that i expect congress to get this funding done before they leave for .acation, before they adjourn that is part of their basic responsibility. we have put forward a budget request of $1.9 billion. we did not draw the figure from the clouds. it was based on the assessment of our scientists and experts in terms of what would be needed for basic mosquito abatement, vaccine development, making sure we have the proper diagnostic tools, so we can respond
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effectively to protect the health and safety of the american people. that request has been up there for quite some time and it's been caught up in politics, as we have seen people try to attach legislation on a bunch of unrelated topics to this funding. it has been politics as usual rather than responding smartly to a very serious public health request. summarize, number one, we had put forward guidelines in terms of travel to areas that have zika and we are recommending that pregnant women or women of childbearing years who are thinking about being pregnant, or individuals who are traveling to zika-infected areas, male partners who want to make sure they are not infecting their spouses or their partners,
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that they have to take a look and see whether they are traveling to the right places. that is point number one. you can go to the cdc website to find out how you can check your. stay informed and protect herself in the summer. point number two, we have a crisis right now and puerto rico surrounding zika. resources obtain the to make sure that we are engaging in mosquito abatement, providing the basic health services to reduce the effects of zika in puerto rico. at a time when puerto rico is already going through a tough time and its public health infrastructure is being strained because of budget constraints and that problems, it is especially important that we are responsive to the millions of american citizens who live there . and keep in mind, there is a lot of travel back and forth between puerto rico and the continental united dates -- states.
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this is not something that may ultimately just being isolated there. number three, we need to get the money from congress over the next two weeks to make sure that we can begin to develop the effective vaccines, mosquito abatement tools, the state , sogency response dollars that all of us are safe and we are not seeing families deal with tragedies that can last a lifetime. this is just common sense. this is not the time to play politics. there would -- there will be all kinds of negotiations around budget items for the remainder of the year. and that is to be expected. during what happens budget negotiations, but when
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there are public health emergencies, when we know we have the chance to prevent serious tragedies in the lives of families and protect the health and safety of our populations and particularly our children, then those politics need to be set aside. congress should not leave, should not adjourn until they have this done. i want all the american people chance toat we have a develop a vaccine quickly that people, as lot of long as congress over the next few weeks does is job. >> we will go back to live coverage of a discussion on racial justice and education with a number of education activists.nd youth the national education association is the host. it should begin at around 1:00 eastern. a voice forheard
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many years at national public radio. . here is the face, tom gjelten, the correspondent who authored the book titled "a nation of nations: a great american immigration story." good morning and thank you. guest: good to be here. host: what is the book about? isst: the hook for the book the 50th anniversary of the 1965 immigration act. this past october, 1965, so it just that the 50th anniversary. i argued that this is many ways the most important law passed in the 20th century with respect to the character of america because it fundamentally changed the profile in, ethnic the country. up until 1965, immigrants were largely limited to the limit -- to the european countries. 1960 five immigration act open american stores to immigrants of color from all over the world. in the last 50 years, the
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immigrants that have come to the country are not coming from -- nine out of 10 are coming from outside europe, so it changed the face of america. the book is about what that has meant that the country and what does it mean to be american? who are the people? todd they change the country? and have they been changed while coming here? host: forward the needs for the new law -- what were the needs for the what were people hoping for when the law passed? this: that the thing is was in the midst of the civil rights movement. there had been an awareness in the country that our immigration policy was to discriminatory. it favored white people, people from europe and this had bothered a lot of legislators over the years, but it was only with thed-1960's and fever of the civil rights movement, when there was a real movement to end discrimination,
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it was only then that there was really a consensus that it was time to change it. host: let's put the phone numbers on the bottom of the screen for our guest tom gjelten who has written a book called "a nation of nations." the numbers on the screen, democratic, republican and independent and a fourth line for recent immigrants. i will read that number, (202)-748-8003. we would like to hear from you. thebook itself, a lot of focus is on the community that is not far from here. tell us about this community and light decided to focus on it. county inis fairfax northern virginia, not far from here. i have to be honest and say one reason i focused on fairfax county is because it was convenient for me to spend a lot of time there because it is close to home. apart from that, it is remarkable. in 1970, at percent of the population was quite and about
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9.5% african-american and 0.5% people from other countries. over the next 30 years or 40 years, that changed. -- three out of 10 people in fairfax county were born out of the united states, so this county was transformed by immigration. it was also a county going through desegregation, urbanization, so these really dramatic social changes were taking place there, so it is really a perfect place to look at how immigration has really changed this country. host: is there a specific story from the community that struck you must? guest: i profiled the family from libya, olivia -- bolivia, south korea and el salvador. when i really looked for in each of these stories was what did it mean for them to be american? what had america come to mean
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for them? it is interesting because they had four different answers. the family from libya, i who only inm and the united states sort of discovered his islam. he came from a muslim country, but it was the religious freedom in this country that provided support for him to sort of explore his faith. i thought that was really interesting. , foroman from el salvador her, it's security. she came from a violent country. the family from bolivia was economic opportunity, and the family from korea, political ideology, the democracy democratic values america represented three each of the families, i zeroed in on what america meant to them and i found that interesting and inspiring. in 1965,k to the law he said the legislation has forced americans to reconsider
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what it means to be american. how has that mindset changed? guest: i think that up until 1965, we sort of confused the idea of the american identity with a white european identity. that is no longer feasible. we are graphically -- we are rapidly approaching the point where more than half of americans of the nonwhites, so we have had to to find the idea and look at america more in terms of the values the country represents, ideology of americanness, and i think it is forcing us to take a more broad view. we are forced to attach our thes from the country about racial, cultural and ethnic heritage that characterized the for 200 years. host: here is a map from germany, italy and mexico. you can see ireland dominating
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the eastern part of the country back then, and germans settled largely in the middle part of the country, mexico and what became california. you mentioned a couple of other countries of people who have come here. where else are the present date immigrants coming from? how many and why are the coming? guest: they're coming from asia. the percentage of immigrants from asia has exploded. more immigrants are coming from asian countries than from latin american countries, which is sort of reversed in profile. we have seen a lot of immigrants coming from africa. immigrants coming from the middle east, muslim countries, all sources of new immigration. visas that the allowed you to come here as an immigrant really given predominantly to people who were
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in european countries. for example, each country nation was allocated 100 b says a year. whereas, germany had 10,000 pieces set aside. set aside.isas this enabled us growth of immigration from africa, asia and the middle east. in contexthis present day. we have legislation that cannot get past, a presidential campaign in which immigration is at the top of the loudness of many voices. put it in context related to present-day conditions and where the country is headed. right now, about 14%, one out of seven americans, born outside of the country. in 1965, it was only 4%, so this is a different country than it was years ago. this is something americans have been forced to accept. i think this has created
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anxiety, tension, more competition for jobs, so the whole issue of immigration is seen differently than 50 years ago because it is much more of a reality. it was easy enough to be generous 10 newcomers when only 4% of americans are born outside of the country. now that it is three times are four times that much, it is more challenging time. host: lynn has been waiting in new york, independent caller. good morning. caller: good morning. thank you for taking my call and for driving the show. that in mye to say profession, i worked for southwest in the 1980's -- i don't know if you can hear me. host: we continue just fine. caller: good. anyway, i left southwest and came back to my northeastern hometown where my family was in the late 1980's.
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recently i said to my friends down here, how are things going? you really loved working down here when you worked here, but you would not want to work now. insaid, the immigrants come with a lot of medical conditions and disease and we immediately take care of them. from ake the bed senior, said the person knew us lived in the country whole time may not get the caregiving needs because rick taking care of people to just come across from different countries and cap because we are taking care of people to just come across from different countries. there given medicaid. when my parents immigrated here back in the early 1900s, they came here, they worked, and they had to be allowed with a certain criteria of health, probably
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financial support. i do know that my family actually helped house incoming immigrants who were cleared to an assignment and had money, had health concerns cleared, and divided support that them so they were able to stand on their own two feet and our country with a job and continue grow in their own and their journey of independence here. as well as understanding and knowing the english language. all of that has changed. we are letting so many people come here who do not have to follow rules. what do we have? a melting pot of people who come over and use the system. people are not trying to retire and the pie is getting smaller and smaller and it is not fair or rights. i do not believe anybody should be able to come here and get anything until they put -- until they are put in the system for five years or 10 years.
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host: thanks. tom gjelten? has a point, lynn a that immigrants do claim disproportionate share of welfare benefits. they're more likely to be receiving welfare benefits. however, that is only true in the first sort of phase of their life in this country. if you look at the point after they become integrated into society and assimilate in the take lesshey actually than their share of welfare benefits. it is true that in the first few years that they are here they have problems with poverty, health and housing and all these things, and they do need a lot of assistance, but they do not remain in that dependent mode indefinitely. they actually are able to gain independence. one of the things about emigrating is that it is a self
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collecting process. it is the people most willing to take risks, who leave their country. it is very hard to leave your country. the idea is you are going to take a risk in leaving a risk in leaving the country with the reward.ion of a future it seeks out the most experiments of people, often the most adventurous or innovative. thosea couple of years, attributes exercised themselves and people get successful in this country. says is true in the short-term term but not necessarily true in the medium and long term. host: john in florida. good morning. caller: i have to disagree with what you just said. this whole idea of comparing immigration of 100 years ago to today is erroneous. 12 million people came tell assignment from -- came to ellis island to the early 1950's. 12 million was [indiscernible]
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you have to make that distinction. when you talk about immigrants, i always hear that word, we are all a nation of immigrants. we are not a nation of illegal immigrants. we do not have the welfare stamp five years ago, as this woman who just called pointed out. when you talk about how the nation's changing, why do i still have to listen to press one for english and press two or spanish? and then you go on to talk about we are going to become a nation of colored. if i go to the each and i get a tan, does that make me a person of color? martin luther king, we don't even remember what he said. buyer we judging -- why are we judging the pigmentation of their skin inside of the character that they have inside them? that is what makes the american dream, if you believe in
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independence and the individual. there is no melting pot. i do not see anyone and washes the spanish people -- and why should the spanish people become part of us? host: tom gjelten? guest: let's just take the last quotes, why should spanish people become part of us? that theshington said bassam of america is open to receive not only the respectable and opulent stranger but all nations and religions. this is the idea of america from the beginning. it was not put into practice for many years, but this has always been the idea of america. not just the country for people of one race or people of one language. immigrantss that from non-english speaking
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countries have always come here speaking other languages. it has always taken a long time to learn english, and it is often the second generation that becomes fluent in english. there is nothing new about the fact that immigrants have trouble speaking english. my own grandparents came here. my grandfather was 19 years old when he came to the country and did not speak english. it was years before he became fluent. you have these ethnic communities that are in the cities, little italy, chinatown, etc. if you went to those communities, hollywood here is that foreign language, so there is nothing new about the fact that immigrants speak other languages. the greatness of america is that over time, we have always managed to emigrate people from different backgrounds. now they are coming from even backgrounds, and they are coming from nonwhite countries. it is part of america's mission in the
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world, to integrate people from different backgrounds. host: our guest tom gjelten has been with npr since 1982 and covers issues of religion and faith. and hases of belief authored several books. here is a tweet -- ahead of the 9 -- how did the 1965 immigration law affect african-american employment then and now? guest: that was vigorously debated in the 1960's and it is still debated. there was a lot of concern in the african-american community about the impact of immigrants on particularly those workers at the lower end of the wage and education spectrum. there was fear immigrants would compete with african-american .nd other working-class workers what we know from looking at research on this is that in fact, there has been some
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affects at the very low end of the training and skill spectrum. example, nativeborn workers who lack the high school education have lost out in the competition with them. if you look at the economy in broader terms, you see that immigration has had net effects and some positive effects in terms of innovation, growth and so forth. now we see african-american leaders generally embracing immigrants and seeing them as sort of natural allies in the struggle for social and economic justice. but there has been an ongoing issue since the beginning. host: there is a table here that we can show you from the few organization-- pew and they break down the sources of immigration to the u.s. by year and talk about 1965 until
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present. , 16illion people total million people from mexico. southeast asia, 14 million people. europe, 6 million. africa and the middle east, just some of the numbers. the next section goes deeper into history with southern eastern europe, the way that led by italians coming over and germans coming over. we will look at these numbers as we take the next call from race in utah. a republican. caller: good morning. that they one thing are getting to is why don't we talk enough about the fact that undocumented immigrants pay taxes? we're not talking federal taxes.
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we're not talking about federal taxes and economic policy. in 2013, undocumented immigrants paid $7 billion in sales taxes, 1.8 billion dollars in income taxes, 3.3 billion in property taxes. they will not see the very welfare system that a lot of people tend to worry about them taken advantage of. now, wecountry right are not having a sensible discussion about the best way to deal with it. do not get me wrong. i do not when people in masses continuing to come to the united states without holding a partisan block. we give that foreign aid to countries like mexico and south america to try to help sustain those governments for people to be ok, but it is not working out. how come we cannot come to a sensible policy that if we are taking so many of the illegals out her year, why can't we take some of the foreign aid we are giving them?
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in turn, the people in our country, why do we talk about the more positive thing that without the taxes they are paying, we kind of falter a little bit worried that is all i believe i have. i should say that first of all, i have been primarily interested in the book on legal immigrants. i was interested in the official decision of the u.s. government to open america's doors to countries from a wider variety. i am primarily focused on legal immigration in the country, what to do about undocumented immigrants, illegal immigration. there is a much more vexing issue and it is what i do not get into in this country or book. debateow, the biggest actually does not have to do so -- it has to do with the undocumented workers who are already here.
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what you do with people who have come here, gotten here, who are working in a shadow economy, their children are citizens and they are not, these are the tough issues. i try to stay away from the policy debate about what to do about that. thinkmake a point that i has been made and partly by others, which is that it is a myth that undocumented workers or immigrants do not pay taxes. they do pay taxes. they may not see the benefits of those taxes because they are here without an official status, but they do pay taxes. host: where did the idea for the book come from? guest: i was overseas for many years and i came back with a curiosity about this country and what made it different, what made it stand out. i was looking to write a book about america's character and identity. i was looking for what would be
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a good way to get at this and i saw this anniversary coming up and i decided to seize on that one moment, the passage of this act in 1965, as a transformation moment. it gave me the opportunity to explore america's identity and character in a deep way. host: some of the points of the 1965 immigration and nationality the origineplaced quota system. what was that system about? visa ton order to get a come to the united states legally as a resident, he had to fit within a quota. there were quotas set aside for each country in the world. if you're coming from scandinavia country, like my grandparents, or northern europe, germany, there were thousands and thousands and thousands of visa slots ready
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for you, so was not that hard to come. if you are coming from africa or asia or the middle east, you had to compete for a few dozen the says. -- visas. demand to move to the united states was great and the doors were essentially closed. the key act was the elimination of these quotas that you just mentioned. after that, every country had the same: bill, so all countries, all nationalities or put on the same basis. that was the single most important change in the act. was granted 7000 thousand of total visas in the 1968,n hemisphere and in the western hemisphere was given visas0 viasa with no -- with the country limits for it was this hard legislation to get through? in 1964-19 65, there were
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a lot of important laws passed. the voting rights act, civil rights act, their housing act, this was in the after -- the housing act, this was when the huge majority, so it was one of those times in american history when the president and his party in congress were able to get almost anything they wanted. that is not the case anymore. that is why he was able to achieve that in 1965, when presidents truman and even eisenhower, a republican, had favored this change, but they had not been able to do it. host: here is congress and , this is the johnson treatment aboard air force one on a trip to cleveland. he put heavy pressure on him to support the new immigration legislation. that is from the princeton university library. below that, young senator
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kennedy. ronnie inn to tennessee. a democrat. good morning. issue ofhe real kennedy supporting this was nothing more than political. over after theen democrats had been elected in 1964. it was another voting bloc because even jackie robinson would not support the candidates in the early 1960's. the immigration issue was simply to set up a voting block for the .andidates to run for president his brother was going to run in 1968 and he was eventually going to follow him, so even today, we talk about the bloating -- the voting block of immigrants. you have to have the immigration
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votes, so it had nothing to do a job opportunities or anything else that your author is proposing. it was only for politics so that all of them would return and vote democratic and they would be able to control most of the politics in the coming decades. thank you. host: any reaction? guest: very much sort of hindsight kind of analysis of this. it is flawed. on mostenator kennedy had no role in drafting this legislation. he came in at the end is a floor manager. this is the work of congressman manny seller, who had been working on this for 15 years. michigan,il hart from and it actually had more support among republicans than it did among democrats in those years. the 1965 act got a higher percentage of republican votes than for the democratic caucus.
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another thing is that immigrants did not necessarily both democratic. for many years, they actually tended to vote republican. including in the years after 1965. there was no way to know in 1965 that these new people that would come and would be reliable democratic voters. if you take immigrants from muslim countries, some estimates of immigrants90% are voting republican. it is easy to say, it was all political and this was kennedy's or this was a popular analysis but it requires hindsight vision of history and it does not conform with the facts whatsoever. host: jim in delaware, republican caller. caller: good morning. i disagree. the 1960's, [indiscernible] it totally changed the country
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and it was done for political aim. i remember at the frustration over the fact that they were andting interest groups lack of groups and things like that. look what has happened to the civil rights act, and this immigration act, most of the small towns in this country are ghost towns and a lot of the inner cities are bombed out shells of what they used to be and the only thing to revive them is federal spending in this allows the federal government to be a great the bias on because they created these news interest groups. host: let's you from our guest. guest: you are saying that the civil rights act, passage of the civil rights act, which ended publicmination and accommodations is somehow responsible for the deterioration of our cities with the passage of the immigration act is responsible for that?
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essentially what both of the laws it did was and discrimination in the country. -- end this commission in the country. in the 1960's, there was a lot of opposition to the passage of the civil rights act. there was opposition to integration. at that time, there were people thateard or who argued america was fundamentally a white country and should remain a white country. i am not saying that those are not arguments. i am saying that the counterargument that discrimination had no place in america was the one that won out but it was a bitter argument at the time and a lot of people and they preserve correctly saw that this act was going to sort of change that status. host: on to connecticut, stephen. independent caller. caller: did he just say 90% of muslims were republicans?
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10 years ago? guest: yes. caller: that is amazing. i think johnson was an amazing president. i think the stuff he got through was unbelievable, but the foreign immigration today is changing politics, not only in the united states but across the west. u.k. just went down because of all the immigrants pouring out of syria and damascus and pushing out of the middle east. all because of immigration. peanuts.gn aid is i do not think we give any money. in mexico, leave the mexicans alone. they are on our border. are rebuilding baghdad, but we cannot do something for our friends in the south? it is unbelievable. what do you think about what is
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happening with the immigration today? it is putting incredible strain on the west and why can we move legislation along? what is going on? is one thing to remember. migration, let's call it migration, people moving from one part to another. migration has been part of human history for one million years. when people find that the conditions where they live are to sustaindequate them, they move. this has been true forever, and it always will be true. right now, because of improvements in mobile communication and global transportation, it is easier to move than it used to be. it used to be that is required in on this effort to move, particularly across the ocean. now it is easy to move. i think there is a kind of inevitability that this. it is a challenge that we will
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have to deal with and there is no question that it is problematic and we have seen this in europe. europe is much as it to africa and the middle east than we are, so their receiving the brent of this. can you put up walls and enact policies to keep people out? you can, but it will be partially successful because the pressures to move are going to be there and they will build and build. i think the caller has a good point that you really need to have an internationally focused policy that aims to improve the conditions in those source countries so that it is less urgent for people to move. that is sort of the only long-term practical solution to this problem. host: a little flavor on this from the president with an event in ottawa where he held a news conference with the leaders of mexico. a question from a mexico reported that had to with donald
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trump's anti-immigrant remarks. [video clip] president obama: we have at times about history where and immigration sentiment is exploited by demagogues. it was directed at the irish, it italians,ed at poles, and you can go back and read what was read about those groups and it is identical to what they are now saying about mexicans, guatemalans, salvadorans, muslims or asians. same stuff buried there are different, they're not going to ,it, they will not assimilate they bring crime. same arguments. if you go back to the 1800s, the language is identical. guess what? coming.t and they kept coming because forica offered possibility their children and grandchildren
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, and even if they were initially discriminative against, they understood how our system will over time allowed them to become part of this one american family. take some of this rhetoric seriously and answer it you shouldarly, but not think that that is representative of how the american people think. host: any thoughts? guest: he is right. there is a lot of this in my book. if you look at the end of the 19th century, there was something called the immigration restriction feed, and argument that that group was making was all most identical to the arguments made right now, but president obama is right, the focus is not and on asian immigrants are accident immigrants, it was on the slavs,
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greeks, italians, people considered to be un-american in some sense or coming from countries that were not part of america's heritage. wasrhetoric against them almost word for word identical to what you here today. host: steve in phoenix, democratic caller. good morning. caller: good morning. my question is pretty mild. my question is just, when did job qualifications start being considered in the immigration process? guest: that is a really important question. in 1964, when johnson first opposed immigration reform, he said that america should be open to countries, to people, to immigrants, not on the basis of where they were born, but on the basis of what they could do for the country. the original idea, that immigrants would be selected on the basis of the skills and
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education that they brought. the ones i would begin clarity where the ones not necessarily of a particular race or ethnic background, but who had skills that were considered advantageous to the united states. that link which got changed during the negotiation. instead, the emphasis was put on immigrants who had relatives already living here, so this is what produced the family unification provision, so priority was given to those not on the basis of the skin they had but on the basis of how many relatives they had in the country. the idea was that this would favor those groups who already were well established here, which would be another way of keeping america largely white .nd european what happened was that over time, with all the immigrants of other countries, you only need one or two immigrants from an asian or african country getting here, and then they would bring
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in their brothers, sisters and their brothers and sisters families, spouses, and the spouses brothers and sisters and before long the, you have this explosion of immigration from nontraditional sources. hindsight, there are a lot of people who say that we should not have made that change and we should have kept skills as the most important criteria for immigrants. this is a policy followed in canada, and as we discussed immigration reform, this is an idea that will combat. host: here is another chart from the folks at pew. as a guest mentioned in 1965, when the immigration and nationality act was passed, a be about 10 million immigrants in this country. about 45 million, roughly, not projected to go to about 78.2 million. 78 million by 2065.
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what will that number mean for the country? this commone seeing stages. one thing that is important to remember or take into account is that the millennial generation is already way more diverse. only 45 percent of millennials in this country are from a nonwhite, non-european background. if you take children in this country, children under five, already the majority of american children under the age of five are nonwhite, the majority, so is as these generations grew up in the country, it will be a different country. not surprisingly, they're much more accepting of diversity. there was a hole that just came out this week that showed the breakdown of the attitude of taking refugees from syria and other middle eastern countries. two out of three millennials strongly support taking immigrants from these other
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countries, whereas, people in my generation, 55 or older, much lower percentage. the younger generations are much more diverse and more accommodating. they are not bothered by diversity. this country is changing and will change, whether people like it or not. it will continue to change in that direction. host: a couple of calls, connecticut, independent caller, richard, good morning. caller: good morning. i keep hearing everybody talk about immigration. they do not want to separate most of the times legal from a legal. -- legal from illegal. in connecticut, we are facing a big deficit, and we spend 15% of our budget on illegals. in this country last year, we spent over $120 billion on illegals. you say they pay taxes, but they also get tax credits.
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i read an article that said $54 billion was sent back to mexico from illegals, so how are illegals helping this country? host: richard, you said connecticut spends half of the state budget -- no, 15%. that is $3 billion on the a $20 billion budget. host: thank you for clarifying. guest: i do not know. to say that 15% of connecticut's state budget goes to undocumented workers, that is hard to believe. i would have to see the source for that. i am not convinced of that. and the moneyy and document it workers sent that, he is referring to remittances, which is that people who are here illegally continue to work and they continue to earn money, and a of of them, the majority what they earn, they send it
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back to their families, so it is not that we are spending tax money back, it is the immigrants sending their own money back to those families. again, i agree with richard that it is important to separate the issues of legal immigrants and illegal immigrants. what unfortunately happens is that there is a lot of resentment for people here illegally for understandable reasons, but some of it becomes more generalized against immigrants altogether, so immigrants who have waited their and and come here legally worked legally, sometimes to get the brunt of this hostility. all the people that i write about in my book came here legally, are here legally, so i try to keep the attention on ism, and i think it unfortunate that they sort of stuff for consequences of this hostility that is directed against people who have come here outside the law. host: one last call from
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florida, ann, republican. caller: how are you all this morning? host: doing fine. did youin the book, happen to look into the history of the peace corps and its relationship into the educational component? helped programs in the peace corps during the kennedy administration and actually got a letter from the kennedy administration, and they decided to quit that program. it helped people coming from other countries and people who are here from different backgrounds assimilate into the program in universities and higher education so that they could get qualifications are jobs through testing and find out what their aptitudes were. these are important things to help people assimilate and the kennedy administration abruptly stopped the program. host: thank you so much. thank you for calling. guest: i am not familiar with
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the program. look back at the 1960's, a lot of the programs have proven their importance and have been the source of controversy, and that was the so-called society period, when a lot of the welfare and social programs of areas kinds and education .rograms were enacted as i said before, the immigration act was a much a product of that whole reform spirit at the time. host: our guest has been longtime correspondent for national public radio and author of "a nation of nations: a great american immigration story," tom gjelten, thank you. guest: the fourth of july weekend, 7000 new u.s. citizen
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>> well, coming up in just a few moments, live coverage of a discussion on racial justice and education with officials and youth activists. the event hosted by the national education association gets underway at 1:00 p.m. eastern here on c-span. on july 1, 1976, the smithsonian's national air and space museum opened its doors to the public with president gerald ford on hand for the dedication. american history' tv live 6:00 p.m.,rts at touring the museum, and seen artifacts, and live events at the front of the building. learn more about the museum as we talk with its director, curator, and chair of the space history department. you can join the conversation as we will be taken or phone calls, e-mails, and tweets. the 40th anniversary of the smithsonian air and space museum
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c-span3s evening on american history tv. lastly, the american -- the manhattan institute held a discussion on unemployment and the impact of drug abuse. >> unemployment is associated with more suicides. this is a very will sony and point. we are social creatures. it is less it is ourselves successful. the bonds around us keep us healthy, whole, make us stronger. the terrible thing about unemployment is you break those bonds. you are away in your home, watching television. networks andort this has a catastrophic impact on life satisfaction and catastrophic impacts on divorce
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rates. this was the most legible version of this. this is from finland, i think, but a very easy-to-read metric -- divorces her thousand marriages. unemployed, the divorce rate goes up 80%. ast you look across -- where -- if you look across husband's income, there is a must know different. income is not causing the difference, it is unemployment. judges, very moderate effect on income, large effects of being nonemployed. about 18% of the unemployed have used any illegal substance in the last month, as opposed to 8% of the population as a whole. massive difference here. this is from my own work on or really -- on opioid deaths. with the rise between 1922 and
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2012, and shared the possibility in 1991. it is the variables in the dataset that has the strongest correlation and what share of the population. that is a lot joblessness, hopelessness, and obviously also about things that happened with disability as well. and that was just a portion of an event held last week by the manhattan institute. you will be able to watch the entire thing tonight at 8:00 p.m. eastern here on c-span. we will quickly go to live coverage of a discussion on education. speaking now is lily s: garcia, the president of the national education association. ms. garcia: they will back me up. diversity means you found a presbyterian. [laughter] the first time i used the line, but i love it because it is true.
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i like the line, except this time i want to tell you where we have some bragging rights. while we talk about institutional racism, homophobia, some the discrimination of our age and our time, i want to talk just a few seconds the four minutes i have left about women. lesson.little history before the u.s. constitution was signed, there were lots of states, new york, new hampshire, massachusetts, new jersey, they all allowed women to vote. as soon as the constitution was signed, they rescinded it. so, from the beginning of our country, we have denied women the right to vote. it took over eight decades fighting for the cause of women's right to vote to move a state legislature to actually granting it, and it was actually a territory at the time.
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in 1869, which states -- wyoming. give it up for wyoming. yes, wyoming pace -- -- [applause] mr. eskelsen garcia: yes, wyoming. then the next date, utah -- here is what i want you to remember. it will be on the tested we held the election a few weeks before wyoming, so utah women were the first women in the country to be able to cast a legal ballot. and i want to tell you about our legacy. it is just incredible. we elected the first woman state senator martha hughes cannon. she was an immigrant. she started as a teacher. she went to medical school at the university of pennsylvania, and then she decided to get married.
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wife of mr.fourth cannon, so a family with room for big love. [laughter] mr. eskelsen garcia: and good times. and she ran for state senate in the 1800s as a democrat, defeating the republican, her husband, angus cannon. and that -- yes for my five minutes i just wanted you to note, don't mess with utah women, ok? it is a very cool story, and i thought that i would mention --t because as i talk about as we talk about where we are today, as we talk about breaking, maybe the highest glass ceiling for a woman, and as we move into making big decisions about where we will be
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in this race, i know that you know, whether you are fighting racial injustice, whether you lgbtq,hting equality for whether you are fighting for the equal rights of women, nothing that we have was given to us. by, not,ught for, sometimes, history. sometimes it is being fought by people sitting amongst us right now, here and now. years after the constitution was signed and women's votes were taken from them, we will now see a woman at the top of a major party's ticket. this is historic. [applause] mr. eskelsen garcia: and we will be talking about the
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presidential race. delegates will have a big decision in the endorsement process in the general election, and we will be hearing from hillary clinton the second day a. the r i know you all know that. [applause] mr. eskelsen garcia: and, so, this is going to be a very, very historic r.a. we will be celebrating our 50th anniversary of the merger of the american teacher association that represented black teachers in the segregated south, and the nea. we are going to be looking back at some of the legacies of the first african-american president of the united states of america, and we are going to be preparing for the possibility of having a madam president of our country.
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this conference has dealt with history before, and i think it is because so many people in this room right now were the your of something in local, in your state. you are looking at the first latina president of the nea standing right here right now. [applause] mr. eskelsen garcia: so, we understand those beginnings. we understand that we are standing on the shoulders of giants that led the way for us and that we will lead the way for others after us. i am so proud. i am so proud of us. i am so proud of you. and i am very proud to introduce the chair of the black caucus, who will introduce our keynote, jackie grading 10.
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[applause] >> thank you, lily, and good afternoon, everyone. it is my honor to come before you this afternoon and to talk about this awesome man that sits to my left. an 11th comment made by grade student is one of the driving forces behind dr. ivory tolleson's lifework. this is what that student said. he said being a young black male is a blessing that people have tried to make a curse. how about that? wise 11thle like this grader are the reason dr.
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tolleson travels the nation debunking the myths about african-american students. the other driving force is his family legacy of black empowerment. when his grandfather became the first black man to vote in north louisiana, a white supremacist -- supremacist trying to kill him and destroy his legacy, but the racist failed. grandfathers triumphed and went on to raise toldson'ss -- mother, who went on to be an advocate. scholar,r -- renowned
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dr. toldson talks with educators about misleading statistics that link black youth with crime in question their ability to learn. dr. told has worked as an associate professor at howard university, editor and chief of the journal of negro education, and senior research analyst for the congressional black caucus foundation. named one of the 30 top leaders by "newsweek" magazine, dr. toldson has appeared on msnbc, c-span, npr news, and numerous radar -- numerous media programs. his work has been featured in ," and "thegton post new york times." today, dr. toldson serves as executive director for the white house initiative on historically
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black colleges and universities where he is a shining example of the talent cultivated at our .ations hbcu's welcomeive a warm nea to activists, scholar, and myth to dr. ivory a. toldson.- [applause] dr. toldson: rarely do i need a introduction,n but thank you so much. i am always inspired when i talk with jacqui.
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i will be sharing some of the things i learned. first, i want to put a correction in my bio. this is the first day i am not representing the white house initiative on hbcu's. lead qualityn to education for minorities, and i will assume that role as president and ceo next week. [applause] dr. toldson: and i have had a wonderful time working with president obama administration. president obama's administration. my team and i have done some forbu -- four hcbu 's. i am happy to say what i could not say before. i am ready for hillary clinton. the first time i could say something like that on a panel. today i am going to talk about some of the things i have learned through my research and
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interaction with various people trying to do the best things for young black males specifically, but black students in general. i also have to say i was very inspired by the words of the young people earlier today. i did not want to let this moment pass without telling you all that. i did get a chance to get here a few hours early, and i am very happy i did. so, i'm a researcher that has delved into hundreds of thousands of variables, looked at many, many different students represented within these large datasets, but i also want to tell you that i represent someone other than just a researcher. who, inent a child fourth grade, a teacher identified as a slow learner and placed in a select class with a dumbed down textbooks, and a group of students that she felt
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weren't achieving at the standards of other students. that very next year, i was in a teacher's class who thought i , so between fourth and fifth grade, i didn't know what i was. i didn't know whether i was a iow learner or gifted, but made it, both in spike of and because of a teacher. -- in spite of and because of a teacher. [applause] dr. toldson: i also grew up with many of the markers that i hear people used to identify students that they think need extra attention, most of the time negative attention. i grew up in a home with only my mother present. being very well at taking tests. challengesith some manners thation in
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the traditional learning environment often requires. so, as a researcher, i was sensitive to, not just the students who do it right, but the students we do not quite understand. when i started research on black achievement, and i had an early relationship with nea as i was doing that research, i knew there were some things i wanted to do different with my research. one, i did not really understand the achievement gap research. i did not really understand what people were suggesting. when i saw a research, and all they did was measure how white males were doing, and measure how black males were doing, and look at a gap between them, and left it open like that, i didn't understand what kind of solution that was giving us, and i also didn't understand the implication that somehow we needed to measure up to the
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standards of white people in order to do what we needed to do. [applause] dr. toldson: you know, there is a famous sauce for named ice cube that the philosopher named ice cube -- philosopher named ice cube who said "who are they for us to be like." i knew that young black male was not achieving because the way -- not because they were managing in a way that was achievable for white males, but they were managing in a way that the needs of their communities. we often say to stay with from trouble we stay away from the wrong crowd. i was working with young black males were that was not really an option, because the wrong crowd was around them, the corner boys they went to middle school with, the uncle that came
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out of prison and stayed in the house for a period of time, but they still achieved in spite of that, and they did not achieve by disconnecting. they achieved by influencing. they achieved by developing characteristics and attributes that made them able to sell an agenda that was broader and bigger than what their narrow environment was showing people around them. onlso knew i wanted to focus solutions, not on problems. a lot of the achievement gap research really just shows us problems with no solutions. i also wanted to focus on the ,trengths, and not the deficits and the outcome of the really -- earlier research i did was a report called "raking barriers -- breaking barriers." many of you are familiar with the "breaking barriers" report, and it was in open breaking theiers" that i featured
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quotes from young black males, one being the quote that jacqui shared earlier, where the young man said being a young black man is a blessing people try to make a curse. about to be seen with a person with a name, and then a statistic, and then to many, in memory, and then a shame. now, once i had the "breaking barriers" report and the focus on solutions, with the help of some foundations, including nea, i was able to get this message out, but one of the things i was met with early on was the cynicism. these people that, even when they saw the research in front of them they just didn't believe
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it could happen. they thought it was some kind of exception. to tryso seem unwilling anything different than what they had already been doing. it is, kind of, like when i was trying to potty train my two-year-old daughter, and i went to the internet for clues, and the first article that i "how to the title was have your child out of diapers by their second birthday," and i read the first paragraph and it said the first in you need to do is get rid of disposable diapers and switch to cloth. i stopped reading after that. i felt like that is a people stopped that started doing with my report. when iopped reading showed them evidence that metal detectors in an environment was harmful to the psyche of the students. they weren't ready for that. [applause]
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biasesdson: now, the that we have in our schools are deeply pervasive and troubling. there was an in-service training i did wear teachers openly admitted to their bias. in fact, they were proud of their bias. now, i did trick them a little bit that i misled them. i asked the question -- i said how many of you all, on the first day of class, the first time you meet these students, you have a sense about who is going to be good in your class, and probably successful in life, and most of them raise their hands. then i asked the question, how many of you all, on the first day of class, you get the sense from certain students that they will cause you some problems and they probably won't measure up up to be much in life, and still, most of them raise their hands. then i asked, how do you identify -- what are some of things you pick up on, and i
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heard things like "who their parents are." "whether or not they had a themng" that cause problems or did a good job. theirrd things, like, " ability to pay attention." now, these are biases they admitted to. how many biases do you think are thathere swirling around they are either unaware of consciously, or too ashamed to admit? now, often times i will hear things, like, "the reason why we had disproportionality and suspensions is because so many back -- black students come from households." what research is associated with that? i heard people say the reason why we're having problems in my school is because we have so
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many students who are on free and reduced lunch. thatt is these markers even the teachers that fly right under our radar as the ones we biases,eting for racial there are all types of things in our environment that us, as a community of teacher activists have to address. barkede reason why i am on this exercise of being the the buster is because of things i was being confronted with when i was trying to promote what i found through the research to be the best strategy for educating young, black males. so, one of the things you're going to get from me through this conference is a packet of
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articles, or links to articles where i wrote a series of articles where i challenge all of these things that i kept hearing. i am going to tell you what the articles are about without going too deeply into them, but these are what i call the 10 biggest lies that i hear about young, blackmails. the -- black males. the reason why it is important to understand they are lies is because these are often used as the excuse for why certain people in our field are doing what they're supposed to do for our children. black one, there are more men in prison than in college. in fact, right now there are more than 600,000 more black men in college than in prison. [applause] black boys 50% of drop out. most people believe that because
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of their interpretation of some very popular reports, including report with a's look at graduation rates and not dropout rates. you have to understand the difference in order to interpret that report responsibly, but the true dropout rate among black males as characterized by the national center for educational statistics is right around 12%. now, that is nothing to clap about, but when we look at a room full of black males and we think that one of them are going to drop out, that is not the type of perspective or mentality we want our teachers to go into the classroom with. number three, black boys can't read. now, most people are identified as non-leaders because of our standardized tests. now, there are all kinds of reasons why a student who may be
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able to read functionally won't do well on a standardized test, and if we don't understand those reasons and just use these blanket indicators to say what percent are not proficient, and then interpret proficiency as their lack of an ability to do the things we need them to do in the school, then we are not going to exercise the best practices when we work with the students. black youth of today are more violent than any generation in history, when, in fact, crime among black youth escalated in the 80's, reached a 1990's, has been going down since the late-1990's, and this is the least violent of any generation
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of youth since before the 1960's. [applause] number 5 -- one in three black boys will serve time in prison. in fact, most of the reports that have claimed this have never looked at black males as they exist right now. they use projections. the article or the study most site is an people article that looked at the year someone was born and then projected their odds of going to prison. he did this report over 10 years of, and the only group cohorts that had a one in three chance were those that were born a year before he wrote the report. so, in other words, he was looking at two euros and saying they've -- two-year-olds and
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saying they would have a one in three chance of going to prison based on what he thought would be an escalation in the crime rate, not a de-escalation, which is what we actually got. are at a natural disadvantage because most are from single-parent households. i have written two articles in this regard, but the summary of those articles is it doesn't matter the composition of your household. it matters who your parents are. [applause] dr. toldson: it matters the value they place on education, their engagement with the school, their socialization of their child to the academic environment, and it has nothing to do with who is in their that. -- bed. number 7 -- black students purposely underachieve because they associate being smart with
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acting white. now, there is a lot i can say about that, but i have written an article on it. you can see the evidence that that is not true, and, in fact, among black girls, most of the strongest service show that black girls actually have the for education than any other group of students out there, and, in fact, there is a lesser known function that has been constantly found in the literature, and that is called the attitude achievement paradox. that is the fact that in most survey research black students also show -- actually show a higher attitude about the abstract notion of education, but their achievement is not measuring up to that. males areht, black avoiding the teaching profession. again, i have written an article about all of these. you will get the link soon. when you look at young, black
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males who are college-educated, teaching is actually the number one profession. but you ask, why is it less than 2%? that is because we are only 5.5% of the population. 5.5%, only 17% have at least a bachelor's degree, and among those who go on to get their degrees in education -- and this is a little-known fact, but it is in the report that i have written -- black males are more likely than any other race group to be promoted out of the classroom into administration. black men are underrepresented at institutions of higher education. the nation has 12.7 million black men who are 18 years and older, and we make up about 5.5% of the adult population, and 5% of those that are in college.
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where we are underrepresented is the most competitive colleges. so, those colleges with selective admissions criteria have an underrepresentation of black servants, and those that have open admissions criteria, like community colleges, heaven overrepresentation of black students, and that is largely because a lot of the factors these students talked about earlier, especially a young lady who says she was advised to go to a community college when she clearly had the academic credentials to go to michigan state. finally, black men are a dying breed. now, one of the things we have to understand is that when we are in a nation that only refers -- only uses the terms breeds, endangered, and species for black men and animals, then that
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is a problem, but, in fact, black men have an increasing representation in the population. our numbers are growing. white males, their numbers are decreasing. now that doesn't mean either one is in danger, but when all we are doing is using these kinds of terms to deal with humans, then we are dehumanizing them. -- athis is a summary quick summary of about 10 articles i have written, but the more important things i have witnessed are from the young, black males themselves. i shared a few quotes earlier. by reading you all a passage from a young man -- smith, who was in the audience of making meaning i was
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on the panel of, and he shares some notes during the q&a portion, and i asked him to e-mail me his notes because they were so profound. this is what he said -- he said "there is no polite way to be rude. marginalized people have been oppressed. oppressed people have been labeled. when you imagine a marginalized person, think of a box with a label placed on top and those inside could close it if they internalize the oppression. those that do not internalize the oppression can try to break free. will you let them? will you help? society is so full of stereotypes and most people do not recognize how bias they are. their bias has become a habit that defines who they are. if you are trying to help people who have been oppressed, you have to detox biased judgments from your mind. trying to help someone that has been marginalized when you have biases is like trying to walk in the flog -- in the fog with
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blurry vision. clear the vision because you cannot lead the person who has been blinded by a box when you are wayne blindfolds. the change starts with yourself. the resilient. realize your true passion. if you love when you are doing, respectively you are helping, because helping no longer feels like work. that is when you are living the change. love the people you are helping to the point where you don't need to be paid." [applause] so, the most important thing that a teacher can do for a student is to help him or her discover things that they can do well, things that they are good at, but too often times our schools become the
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environment where students learn what they are bad at. they learn they are bad test-takers. they learn that they are slow readers. they learn that they are not met , but the math people reason why our schools have become these incubators of teaching students what they are bad at has nothing to do with the students, but has everything to do with the sinister revelations that we receive s., and by b.s., i mean bad stats, and also the lower expectations that drive the biases. i learned this from jacqui. americanago, the
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teachers association, which was a predominately black teachers union, merged with nea, which, in effect, diversified nea to the point that it opened up the door to other race, ethnic, and special interest groups. today, nea stands very strong with 3 million teachers serving nearly 90% of the students. students, black students, hispanic students, latino, asian american, native american, american indian, and all of the other students that we represent have a chance, it will become -- be because of the seeds of change that are in this room. so, thank you nea for all the work you are doing. thank you for this joint convening, because you are the
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conscience of nea, and understand that as long as i am working in this space, i will be there to both give you the research to support your work, and challenge you like a true friend would. thank you. ms. greadington: dr. ivory toldson. give it up. [applause] ms. greadington: thank you so much. .ow amazing, amazing, amazing. i took notes. it will be on the test. and now for some information that you don't want to leave without, let me turn the time over to our director of human and civil rights. >> thank you, lily. thank you, dr. toldson, and
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thank you, nea and justice advocates for putting your heart into the conference. i was especially blown away with the courage and candor of our students and members on this [applause] >> today's educators face issues that touch and transcend the classroom, saving our schools and communities requires a movement, not a moment. movementsen what can do. they can win the women's vote come and centuries of sevres is -- they can win the women's vote, end centuries of segregation and young dreamers can plan for their future. movements can start with a small
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group of passionate people and end up changing the world. today, social media makes it possible for anyone to start a movement that spreads like wildfire. any student come any community member. leave the joint conference and go back to your schools and communities, be that person take your message to the connected and keep the movement and the moment alive. thank you. acias, all, or making this desk for making this an outstanding conference. thank you. s, all, for making this an outstanding conference.
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thank you. [applause] [captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit ncicap.org] [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2016] >> president gerald ford on hand for the dedication. today marks the 40th anniversary of the museum and american history tv's live coverage starts at 6:00 p.m. eastern on c-span3. we will see one-of-a-kind aviation and space artifacts, including the spirit of st. louis and the apollo lunar module. learn more about the museum as we talk with its director, jack daly. museum director jeremy kenny and valerie neal from the history department. we will be taking your phone calls, e-mails and tweets. the 40th anniversary of the smithsonian national air and c-span3'sum on american history tv.
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employment's impact is on suicide metaphors and disability benefits. you can see that tonight at 8:00 p.m. eastern on c-span. earlier today at the ideas forum , loretta lynch discussed criminal justice and civil rights and explain her decision to meet with bill clinton in phoenix earlier this week and her intention to accept the findings of the team investigating hillary clinton's use of a private e-mail server. >> you have a reputation of having the highest integrity, utmost solid judgment. when people heard what went down in phoenix, a lot of people were friends, supporters, backers of, what on earth was she thinking talking to bill clinton?
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so, what on earth were you thinking? what happened? attorney general lynch: that is a question that is called by what happened in phoenix because people have also wondered and raised questions about my role in the ultimate resolution of matters involving the investigation of the state department e-mails. to the extent that people have questions about that, my meeting with him raises questions and concerns. believe me, i completely get that question. and i think it is the question of the day. the issue is again, what is my role in how that matter is going to be resolved? let me be clear on how that will be resolved. we usually do not go into those deliberations, but it is important people see what that process is like. as i've always indicated, the
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matter is being handled by career agents and investigators with the department of justice. mr. capehart: which predates your tenure. as attorney general. attorney general lynch: they are acting independently. they follow the law, the facts. that team will make findings, will come up with a chronology. the factual scenario. they will make recommendations how to resolve what those facts lead to. the recommendations will be reviewed by career supervisors in the department of justice and the fbi and the fbi director, and then, as is the common it tos, they will present me, and i fully expect to accept their recommendations. mr. capehart: you "fully expect to accept" the recommendations. one thing people were saying this morning when the news broke was that you were recusing yourself from having any kind of role in the final determination. is that the case? is that what you are saying?
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attorney general lynch: recusal would mean that i would not be briefed on what the findings would be. while i do not have a role in those findings, coming up with those findings or making those recommendations, how to go forward, i will be briefed on it, and i will be accepting their recommendations. mr. capehart: when you say -- this must be the journalist and linguist in me -- accepting means here, madam attorney general, here are our findings, and you completely accept them wholeheartedly and issue them to the public, or you accept them, look them over, and make your determination as to what these final determination will be? attorney general lynch: the final determination will be contained in the report and in whatever report they provide to me. there will be a review of the investigations, what they had
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to have happened or occurred, and it will be there ir determination how they feel the case should proceed. mr. capehart: when you say there will be a review, the review will be done by you once you accept the recommendations and determinations -- attorney general lynch: i am not involved in how this case will be resolved. this will be resolved by the team that worked on it from the beginning. supervisors will be career people in the department of justice, and the fbi will review it, including the fbi director, and that will be of the finalization of the factual findings, the next steps. >> on american history tv on , this evening beginning
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at 6:00 p.m. eastern, american history tv is live at the smithsonian national air and space museum for its 40th anniversary. we will tour the museum and speak with the museum director, we will also talk to jack kinney and valerie neal. we will take your phone calls, e-mails and tweets. saturday night at 8:00 -- >> we are increasingly focused on her position as a mother, which is driving her focus for suffrage. to say that women are different from men, that women can do society better than men have done. heather cox richardson on the new roles women assumed in the workforce and politics during the late 19th century and the growth of political organizations run by women that focused on issues like
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prohibition and women suffrage. resolute, without being bellicose. strong, without being arrogant. that's the kind of an america that will help build the p eace of this world. >> the time has come for us to leave the valley of despair and claim what is ours so we can claim the day of don. a new dawn for peace and freedom. >> richard nixon and said the gop presidential nomination in miami beach. hubert humphrey accepted the democratic nomination in chicago. ruth bader ginsburg and sonia aboutyor share stories supreme court food traditions. >> whenever a justice has a birthday, the chief brings in
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some wine and we toast the birthday boy or girl. .d sing happy birthday we are missing our chorus leader because, truth be told, most of them cannot carry a tune. [laughter] >> catherine fitz will talk about culinary customs dating to the 19th and 20th centuries. for a complete schedule, go to www.c-span.org. this past wednesday, president obama delivered remarks to canada's parliament during his visit to ottawa to take part in the north american leader summit. he talked about the importance of the u.s. canadian relationship and was given a tribute by prime minister justin trudeau. this is about one hour 10 minutes. [applause]
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billm wearing socks today, . i'm sorry, you will not like the sox. [laughter] >> secretary?
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>> [indiscernible] [laughter] [applause]
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[cheering and applause] >> order. [laughter] the honorable prime minister.
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[applause] prime minister trudeau: thank you, mr. speaker. mr. president, it is an honor to welcome you to parliament on behalf of all canadians, welcome to our house. [applause] prime minister trudeau: i would like to ask everyone here today to join in a moment of silence in memory of those killed and injured in yesterday's attack in istanbul. [moment of silence] [no audio]
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trudeau: thank you. mr. president, the house we sit in today has witnessed many extraordinary moments in history. it's where governments made the difficult decision to send young men and women to war, decisions that forever changed our country and the world. agnes,here in 1922 that our first female member of parliament show to generations of canadian girls that yes, they could. [applause] prime minister trudeau: finally,
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this house gets to see a bromance up close. [applause] trudeau: thank you for making that possible. i think dude diplomacy is more appropriate. while barack and i are friends, it is a relationship that is far from unique. the links between canadians and americans are everywhere. it is through those relationships we give life to what president kennedy explained when he addressed this room. what brings us together is much greater than what divides us. canadians and americans are united in their quest for peace and prosperity.
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all want real opportunities for success but we must understand that economic growth means most when it improves the lives of the people who work so hard to secure it. especially the middle class and .hose working hard to join it we echo the valleys of president roosevelt who said the test of our progress is not whether we add more to the abundance of those who have so much, it is whether we provide enough for those who have too little. canadians and americans are also to leave tor desire our children and grandchildren a better world, a safer, cleaner world than the one we inherited from our parents. goal, but ambitious not one beyond our reach. today, we made an important down payment on that cleaner future with a new continental climate
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change strategy. [applause] prime minister trudeau: and finally, and at this moment, critically, canadians and americans are united in our ityerstanding that divers is a source of strength, not weakness. generation after generation, our countries have welcomed newcomers seeking liberty and the promise of a better life. and generation after generation, our identities and our economies have been enriched by these new perspectives, not threatened by
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them. the north american idea that diversity is strength is our great gift to the world. --ad or where you are from no matter where you are from or the faith you profess nor the color of your skin nor whom you love, you belong here. this is home. [applause] prime minister trudeau: let us reaffirm today with our american cousins the spirit that 153 years ago abraham lincoln called the last best hope on earth, openness, diversity, inclusion,
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responsible self-government, freedom for all people, these ideas are as important today as they have ever been. and we will promote them together. , on economicthings opportunity, on the environment come on building more inclusive and diverse society, canadians and americans agree. when people say the president and i share a special relationship, there is something they often don't realize. we were not inspired by each other, but by the people whom we have the privilege of serving. overtime toho does and a little money to help her parents. to the retiree who gives his time to teach children the importance of protecting
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wetlands, communities that come together after a natural disaster or walk hand-in-hand to affirm the right to love one another, these stories i will think of when i consider president obama's time in office. history books will record the signature policies, but i will remember what i hope we all will remember, the lessons you taught us, not by executive order, but by example. that we are accountable. [applause] prime minister trudeau: we are accountable to each other, we
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are stronger together than we are a part. we are more alike than we are different. and there is a place in this world for politics that is hopeful, hard-working, ambitious and kind. mr. president, in your last state of the union address, you said of the american people that they are clear eyed, bighearted, undaunted by challenge and optimistic. way tohink of no better describe their leader. barack, welcome to canada. ladies and gentlemen, the president of the united states of america, barack obama. [applause]
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president obama: thank you so much. thank you. thank you very much. thank you, everybody. thank you. thank you so much. thank you. thank you. please, please, everyone have a seat. thank you. good evening. bonjour. mr. prime minister, mr. speaker, members of the house, members of the senate, distinguished guests, people of canada -- thank you for this extraordinary welcome, which tempts me to just shut up and leave. [laughter] obama: because it can't get any better than this. obviously, i'm grateful for the warm welcome.
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i'm extraordinarily grateful for the close working relationship and friendship with your outstanding prime minister, justin trudeau, and his extraordinary wife, sophie. but i think it's fair to say that much of this greeting is simply a reflection of the extraordinary alliance and deep friendship between canadians and americans. justin, thank you for your very kind words, and for the new energy and hope that your leadership has brought to your nation as well as to the alliance. my time in office may be nearing an end, but i know that canada -- and the world -- will benefit from your leadership for years to come. [applause]
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president obama: so, canada was the very first country that i visited as president. it was in february. [laughter] president obama: it was colder. i was younger. [laughter] president obama: michelle now refers to my hair as the great white north. [laughter] president obama: and on that visit, i strolled around the byward market, tried a "beaver tail." [laughter] which is better than it sounds. [laughter] president obama: and i was
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struck then, as i am again today, by the warmth of the canadians. i could not be more honored to be joining you in this historic hall -- this cathedral of freedom. and we americans can never say it enough -- we could not ask for a better friend or ally than canada. [laughter] [applause] president obama: it is true. and we do not take it for granted. that does not mean we don't have our differences. as i understand it, one of the reasons the queen chose this site for parliament was that it was a safe distance from america's border. [laughter] president obama: and i admit, in the war of 1812, american troops did some damage to toronto. i suspect that there were some people up here who didn't mind when the british returned the favor and burned down the white house. [laughter]
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president obama: in more recent times, however, the only forces crossing our borders are the armies of tourists and businesspeople and families who are shopping and doing business and visiting loved ones. our only battles take place inside the hockey rink. even there, there's an uneasy peace that is maintained. as americans, we, too, celebrate the life of mr. hockey himself, the late, great gordie howe. [applause] president obama: just as canadians can salute american teams for winning more stanley cups in the nhl.
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[audience "ooh's"] president obama: i told you i should have stopped after the applause. [laughter] president obama: but in a world where too many borders are a source of conflict, our two countries are joined by the longest border of peace on earth. and what makes our relationship so unique is not just proximity. it's our enduring commitment to a set of values -- a spirit, alluded to by justin, that says no matter who we are, where we come from, what our last names are, what faith we practice, here, we can make of our lives what we will. it was the grit of pioneers and prospectors who pushed west across a forbidding frontier. the dreams of generations --
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immigrants, refugees -- that were welcomed to these shores. the hope of run-away slaves who went north on an underground railroad. "deep in our history of struggle," said dr. martin luther king, jr., "canada was the north star. the freedom road links us together." we're bound as well by the service of those who've defended us -- at flanders field, the beaches of normandy, in the skies of the balkans, and more recently, in the mountains of afghanistan, and training bases in iraq. their sacrifice is reflected in the silent rows of arlington and in the peace tower above us.
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and today, we honor those who gave their lives for all of us. [applause] president obama: we're linked together, as well, by the institutions that we've built to keep the peace. a united nations to advance our collective aspirations. a nato alliance to ensure our security. norad, where americans and canadians stand watch side by side -- and track santa on christmas eve. [laughter]

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