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tv   Politics and Public Policy Today  CSPAN  July 29, 2016 4:00pm-6:01pm EDT

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the second speaker next to him, professor carol flynn. >> i think she is bringing a very rich background and experience as you can see from her bio of working with the cia for many years. i will mention how many but at any rate as an executive in operations and positions in africa and asia and back in america and she is currently professor at the university dealing with some of these issues and the private sector. following her, lisa also has very extensive government experience.
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i won't go into details, it's up to you, but at any rate, what is very important is that she contributes now on asian issues of national security and form policy on the heritage foundation. next to her is [inaudible] on the middle east media research the middle east media research institute. i would like to mention that he has extensive experience with the world bank and focusing on the middle east and elsewhere. then to the left of him, is professor alexander.
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he is currently director of homeland security research program and professor at the school of law enforcement and justice and i vividly recall his first research and publication was ten years before 9/11 and i'm glad to see that he continues with his work and as always, as i mentioned before they will bring in much insight on the rule of law and also in terms of balancing security concerns with privacy and the role of human rights and so on.
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i would like to also welcome the audience which includes academics, colleagues from different universities, members of the diplomatic immunity and community and we will all sit rate here with the speakers and last but not least, i would like to mention the students who are here, particularly the interns who are completing their work for this summer. will you just and up at least so everybody can see who you are? we don't have time now to introduce each and everyone that they are preparing for graduate and they are the next generation of scholars and we are very proud of them. now, let me just move on, and try to make some footnotes of
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what general gray mentioned. in general context i will be very brief on this. first of course, i think all of us have to put in some that theve, meaning i lone wolf threats that we are going to focus on today is clearly one of the many challenges and threats that we are facing all the way from organized crime to terrorism to cyber threats and weapons of mass destruction, et cetera. the rationale for our discussion today, particularly because of the very dramatic menu of carnage that we have seen in the
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past few weeks, few months, all the way from orlando to nice to bangladesh and the report yesterday about an attack in deranged,erday by a crazy if you will, individual but it still had some ideological message we can go into there.
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now, fundamentally, i think we have to keep in mind that the issues that are being developed today, you can see it in the communities and academically and in law enforcement, related to the lone wolf because we are dealing with the question of myth and reality about it and hopefully our penalties will provide some analytical clarity to the issue, for example, who are the lone wolves from the definition of an conceptual point of view and we can go into details. secondly, the argument that the lone wolf is a nominal threat is something new, obviously we have to go into the lessons and understand that nothing is really new under the sun , including the lone wolf. we have to look at the motivations that triggers the so-called lone wolf. we have to look at their capacity and capability in terms of usingoperandi
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, stones to knives to shooting and what really concerns many enemies and policymakers is the escalation that the lone wolf will utilize some of the weapons of mass destruction. the impact and implications nationally and globally so we hopefully we can have some recommendations of our analysts in terms of what are some of the best practices to reduce the risk from terrorism. i have long believed, which i tried to share what we are going
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to cover, i'm not going to go, each and every issue all the way from the historical lessons of the nation's characteristics, radicalization, intentions, capabilities, case studies. what are some of the strategies to deal with the lone wolf and some conclusions and recommendations for consideration by governments, democracies at least. now i would like to mention for three and number four because when people talk about the lone wolf, we have to talk about the ultimate weapon, which way over 60 years ago that man himself as long as we have been human beings on the planet, we are
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going to have challenges all the way from organized crime and terrorism and so forth and even the russian proverb is not complete. we talk about the birth, we talk about the wolf we have to talk about the dragons and the snakes in the so-called garden of eden or the universe. the two questions hopefully that we can respond to today whether or not the worst is yet to come , and for example, if you follow what the terrorists propaganda is communicating on a daily basis, you will see that one of their next targets is the rio olympics. obviously everyone is concerned
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about what might happen in terms of the attack or the impact in the olympics or elsewhere. him then of course, can we survive that kind of attack. as democracies, we have to look at the balance between security rights. and human it's a big menu and we cannot cover everything adequately but it is a beginning of a study and scholarship and not the end of it. with that, captain, you are the first to share your views. you can come up here.
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>> good afternoon everyone. first thing i would like to do is thank professor alexander and general gray for asking me to return this year. i was here about the same time last year talking about the role of law enforcement in the fight against terrorism. when i looked at my fellow panel members before i came today, i decided it would be best for me to stick to state and local topics as they are the experts on the international picture in those types of things. i welcome any comments or questions you have. first just to explain, i am a deputy sheriff. i am a captain with the sheriff's office. i'm employed by the sheriff's office in the central part of maryland. i a detail lead to the state am fusion center which is a maryland coordination and analysis center in baltimore. there are 78 fusion centers around the united states and in the u.s. territories.
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what the fusion center purpose is as they were formed after 911 is to help coordinate between federal, state and local entities. i think post-911, one of the things we can all agree upon is there was a lack of information exchange amongst organizations who had pertinent information that could have helped to possibly prevent some attacks or at least to be a little hotter on the trail than we were that day. the fusion center role is to create a routine and predictable path for the information flow. generally in the u.s. we have two types of fusion centers, either all crimes as we are in maryland or all hazards, places like the western region of pennsylvania called region 13 is an all hazard center so they do hazardous materials, weather-related events as well as the threat picture. our main goal in the fusion
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center and the national network of fusion centers is to share information nationally. unlike some of the european countries where they have a single police force that covers the entire nation, we have many different police forces and law enforcement agencies. in maryland we have 120 law enforcement agencies. in neighboring pennsylvania we have 1200 law enforcement agencies. you can imagine by the time the officer on the street sees or learn something that it takes a little bit. you have to make sure the information is getting to the right place, and the fusion centers are that process for getting the information shared. looking at some past lessons and as i said i am going to focus on domestic instance based on my experiences. i will give a very quick
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definition of lone wolf terrorism. from a 2015 doj study lone wolf terrorism is political violence perpetrated by individuals who act alone, who do not belong to an organized terrorist group or network, who act without the direct influence of a leader or hierarchy and whose tactics and methods are directed by the individual without any direct outside command or direction. so over the past year you have started to hear the terminology a little bit to try to account for what's happening. the latest thing that this definition doesn't account for is isil inspired terrorist attacks. that's something that someone is acting as a lone wolf, they're not receiving direction from an outside source, but they are taking inspiration from things they have seen or the call to take action. two of the attacks i was going
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to touch on today were, and i started writing my notes more than a week ago so i did not include anything that has happened in the past week which we have all seen on the news. the two that came to mind that i thought were fairly significant for different reasons, the first one was eric rudolph who is the 1996 olympic park bomber from atlanta, and if you know anything about him you know that was not his first time of committing an act of that nature. he had been involved in bombing numerous abortion clinics across the south in the previous years and had not been identified as a suspect yet. also, one of the trademarks of eric was that he would set secondary devices so the first device would go out, drawn the first responders and then an hour later the second device
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explodes injuring the first , responders. part of that was his view of these people were coming to help this organization that i'm so terribly against so that's why rudolph stood out to me. also he was on the run for more than five years after being in the hills of north carolina but was ultimately caught when he was going through the dumpster in a supermarket looking for some food. he was run into by a local rookie officer. the second incident i wanted to talk on very briefly was from last year in december and the 2015 san bernardino california shooting, also a lone wolf, yes they were two people, two , suspects but they were not , receiving outside direction, there is no master plan and what they did was they used firearms in order to commit their act.
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they also had ied's that did not detonate, some at the scene, some in their vehicle, and more at their home in the searches that were conducted afterwards. are two pre-9/11, post-9/11 situations we have seen right here in the u.s.. fbi has jurisdiction over the investigation of terrorism events. conversely when someone dialed 911, your call goes into a local into a local communications center. your first responders are people like me work for local organizations and agencies who come out and we are the ones that begin. we don't know what it is until we get there, even though the media is right on top of the stuff because they hear the scanner calls go out that we are being dispatched somewhere for such and such.
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they will actually call our front desk before we get our first person on the scene and say what's going on, what's involved and are trying to write the story. it's very difficult to deal with that type of thing. it takes a while before you are able to determine what's going on. i think if i could say something about orlando, just a few months ago, that was the case there. they did not immediately say terrorism. we are at a great rush to put the label of terrorism on something because that's the buzzword right now. that's the thing that gets everyone stirred up in watching the news and the coverage and looking for that next report. we have to be careful to examine it closely enough to determine whether or not it is terrorism related. our federal partners that do international work such as the department of state, the cia have definitions that define terrorism as something that acts
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intended to influence a government. that's why it really takes a while to determine if someone is trying to influence the government and actually what we and actually what we are seeing , now in the u.s. in particular is a bit of a paradigm shift where it's not necessarily trying to influence the government as much as to revenge against the government or revenge against other causes. so anyway, when a federal investigation starts on terrorism, they are going and looking to the local agencies. the reason that is is because the people that commit these acts are the ones who live in our communities, we have had contact with them over the years and might have some sort of background information that we can provide to get the investigation started.
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future outlook on terrorism. some indicators of lone wolf terrorism, like i said in the international definition it's about influencing government. what we are seeing in lone wolf attacks is that many times there is personal motivation in which to do something. you also have to remember that acts of terrorism in and of itself are crimes. crimes consist of means, motive and opportunity. anything that i have mentioned before whether it's the olympic park or san bernardino, you can go back and dig down and somewhere in the story you can find out we know they had the means because they committed the act. we could find out what their motive is, is it personal for or politically motivated and obviously the opportunity existed as they took advantage of that. san bernardino was a holiday party at a government facility and the suspect who worked there left and when they returned with
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his wife and then the shooting started and the chaos erupted. as far as the future goes, the reason a lot of these things are able to take place is because they are committed by individuals and individuals are , much harder to detect than organizations. our federal partners have done an outstanding job in the past 15 years since 9/11 with detecting groups and organizations that are ramping up who appear to have the intent to commit some type of act and i would wager to say there are many times that plots are disrupted that we do not hear the story on the backend about what happened. that is for reasons of security and perhaps there on two other
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are other investigations with that information. so, unfortunately it takes these incidents to happen to learn from them. we do the best we can upfront to figure out how would we approach these things, but until they do, we really don't know we have the best way. some of the things that have resulted, not just from 9/11 but other things like hurricane katrina and hurricane rita is a was a national incident management system. that is something we use at the local level, there are mandates for that the national response , framework and from what were talking about today, the the national strategy for information sharing. that is to say that we have information that we gather at the local level that then gets put into a system where our federal partners who can actually do some these investigations can see it. they share information with people who live in our local jurisdictions and we work together from the beginning.
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some of things we can do, if you've heard of the department of homeland security see something, say something campaign. it simple and that's the message i like to deliver. if you see something, say something. please report it. that's the message we pass out to our citizens and constituents in the field, please let us know if you come across things that seem out of the ordinary. i remember san bernardino, one of the neighbors who thought the shooters were suspicious but they did not report it a cousin they didn't want to appear as though they were profiling them based on their heritage. they didn't report it, you can see the result, 14 dead and 17 and 17 wounded.
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they had ied's, more than 5000 rounds of ammunition that were not expended an active and even worse than it was. that's what were looking for. as i mentioned were currently seeing a shift in the cause and motive of the lone wolf attackers and a shift in the targets. i chose not to focus on the past couple of weeks because a law enforcement has become one of the targets in the past few weeks. the vast majority of the public is good and does work with law enforcement realizing that here in this country we are essentially, when you call 911 it's one of us that shows up. the things that general gray and the foreign services have dedicated their lives overseas to keep the united states the best country in the world, those are the things were trying to do at home too.
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we can't do this alone. we depend on the public to be our eyes and ears, especially in these recent times. thank you. [applause] >> first of all, thank you professor alexander and general gray for inviting me here today. i am especially honored to be here given the caliber of my fellow presenters, and they showed me the list of some of the attendees and the caliber of those of you in the audience so i am grateful. thank you. grateful and honored. on the subject of lone wolf terrorism, there are a lot of different definitions of what is a lone wolf.
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some people even hate the idea of calling them lone wolves because it sort of glorifies them. some say they should be lone dogs but i guess that's an insult to dogs i guess, or lone offenders but for the sake of today i will call it lone wolves definition of lone wolves are all over the map. last summer i let a task force at who isown to look a lone wolf, and what is a long wolf. the definition we came up is one that we thought would help you develop a framework whereby you could really analyze the different kind of lone actors. we came up with a definition that is, first and foremost, deliberate creation and exploitation of fear through violence or threat of violence.
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they are terrorists and they have an ideological political agenda they are trying to further through fear or violence or acts of violence. the second criteria we came up with was it's a single actor. this is different from a lot of definitions. a lot of people will say san bernardino couple were lone wolves, the stern i have brothers were lone wolves and i suppose you can do that but they often have a different profile and the means by which you detect a person operating alone is different and more difficult. and the process of radicalization is also a little different. i will talk about that in the
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a moment. the third criterion pursues political change linked to an ideology. that links to the first, are they terrorists. finally no command-and-control or material support from an outside organization. that is what we decided for the purposes of our study we would call a lone wolf. we've already talked about the difficulty to detect lone wolf. the tools of intelligence are and the tools of law enforcement really don't work very well if you have an individual who's not talking to anybody else. law enforcement and intelligence use sources and sources are someone who is being talked to
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in here about this. if you have an individual who's not talking to anybody or couple who are just talking to themselves, it's very hard to detect. we find out through sources and their conditions. if they're not communicating with anybody, you won't know it, so it is devilishly difficult to detect. one of the other findings we had was that you can't really use profiling as a detection tool. most lone wolves are male. most of them, not all are unmarried. they've also had a brush or two with the law in the past. sometimes minor and sometimes more serious.
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they often have issues of the social isolation or they're not socially very competent. unfortunately, this profile fits a large proportion of the general population, so it's not helpful if you're trying to figure out of this particular individual is a lone wolf terrorist. let me talk a little bit about the trends we are seeing in the growth of the last few weeks that have been just dreadful what's going on in europe and the u.s. in terms of these seeming lone wolf attacks and i would say lone wolf pack attacks, where it's not just a single actor. there has been a growth in these attacks over the last few decades. in the 1950s in this country, we have on record a handful of attacks. maybe that's a matter of
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reporting but there weren't very , many. there were about 32 attacks in the 2000s, i don't have numbers for this next decade, but seemingly these attacks are going up a number. the barrier to entry is really , really low. if all they have to do is get a knife or hatchet, i can go over to home depot and by it and i it and i won't raise any suspicion by doing it. again anybody could do this. the other interesting thing is, i think as european authorities get better and better at preventing these potential foreign fighters to traveling to syria, the number of potential lone wolves in europe is swelling. it's growing now because they
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are stewing and not able to travel. the other interesting trend is that isis has become very quick to give attribution. i sort of wonder, do they really know whether these guys were motivated by them or do they have any sort of connection or are they just quick to claim. i think more research and study and more information about these recent attacks in europe will give us a better idea of that. another phenomenon we have all talked about the use of technology and social media to fuel the rise in these lone actors. in terms of radicalization, that's a big trend trend. there are more of these folks self radicalizing and self radicalizing more quickly. another disturbing trend, for me personally, is the increasing use of social media during the attack itself.
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it sort of what i think of the selfie generation. they are taking selfies of themselves and videos of themselves and tweeting it out, they are communicating with 911, we saw that with omar mateen in orlando, we saw yesterday in the dreadful attack where they took a video of the attack. again, these are some of the trends that are worth watching. in terms of the actual radicalization process, i won't go into all the details. there are people who are absolutely experts about radicalization. historically most terrorists get recruited basically through others. they have personal associations with someone who is involved, maybe their community is sympathetic, maybe they have a relative or brother but with
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lone wolves it's really about self radicalization and about having an ideology that is attractive to them, personal kernel of often a grievance or projection of their anger about some sort of historical events or foreign intervention or perceived social injustice that leads to radicalization. those are some of the trends i see. again, i'm afraid at this point it's hard to be optimistic at about detecting them given the lack of communication with others. there is one interesting statistic though, and it gets
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back to the if you see something, say something something. even for these lone wolves acting alone, more than 60% of them tell somebody else what they're going to do. there's a neighbor, relative, a buddy. dylan roof, a little over a year ago who waged a dreadful attack on the ame church in charleston who had a blog and this white supremacists ideology, he went drinking with a buddy a couple weeks before he was going to do it and had too much to drink and told him exactly what he was going to do. often when this happens, the buddy dismisses it. oh he just had a little bit too much to drink, he's kind of like that, but it goes back to that see something, say something. another model we are looking at, we have a task force that's looking more broadly at violent extremism. one of the models we are using
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to look at it is the public health model where you have primary secondary and tertiary models. if it's a heart disease, primary prevention is diet and exercise and going to the doctor regularly and avoiding stress. secondary prevention is again, maybe you're starting your high blood pressure so you're taking medication of some sort to lower your cholesterol. tertiary is where you have heart disease and you're doing bypass surgery or having a medical procedure. again, with terrorism a lot of , causes for radicalization are sort of the same causes that cause other social ills like drug abuse, gang activity, crime and the cures for those, the , primary prevention is opportunity, job training, public health, all those things
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that go into making strong and healthy communities. now you'll never be able to study and get a metric for that terrorist you prevented but it's , easier than trying to catch end when theyher are ready to throw a bomb, so i will leave you with that. [applause] >> professor alexander, general gray, thank you very much for inviting me here today. it's an honor to be with the distinguished group of panelists. the more we learn about the isis foreign fighter phenomenon, the more we uncovered domestic
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terror plots right here in the u.s., the more we see there is no one path to radicalization. we see it as a very complex process and the motivation for engaging in this activity very widely. the heritage foundation did a study bringing together many of our different regional analysts looking at the isis foreign fighter pipeline and looking at a global approach to dealing with this. what we found is initially, when people started looking at the foreign fighter problem year ago a lot of people were motivated by the atrocities being committed by the asad regime against the syrian people. however, now what we see is many people are motivated by religions, feeling it is their religious duty to fight for the caliphate in iraq or syria or commit terrorist acts in their home countries. so we've seen since 911, 90 plots have been uncovered here
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in the u.s., 25 of those in the last year and a half and of those, 21 have had connections to isis. this means either people were inspired by isis ideology or in some cases they had contact with isis operatives or were even directed by isis. first, we have to understand what contributes to the radicalization process. doctor alexander raises in his opening remarks. second we have to also better understand seeks finds and nurtures people who have already started down that path toward radicalization. online activities. this brings me to the case of
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bangladesh. he can probably talk more about it later, but let me say a few words about that horrifying terrorist incident that we saw on july 1 when five young bangladesh men attacked a cafe in an upscale neighborhood and murdered 20 people, mostly foreigners. they had asked people to recite oran, and when they could not, they were tortured and stabbed to death. what has really surprised bangladesh people is that most of those involved in the attack were actually from wealthy families and they went to expensive private education institutes. this is something that i think has really shocked the bangladeshi nation and something that we need to keep in mind.
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twoe was recently a raid years ago on a local militant hideout and the government said , they were behind the attacks but there also seems to be an , isis connection. even though the government denies any isis presence in bangladesh, it does look like the local militants had some kind of links to isis. threeis a hunt on for bangladeshi ex-pats. it looks like they may have been running recruitment and training pipelines for isis. in a recent study from the national bureau of economic research actually backs up the idea that isis is not targeting those from the lower echelons of society. , those from a lower
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socioeconomic strata. another study done by the eu, found that out of 140 cases of so-called lone wolf terror attacks actually only three of wolfs,were actual lone wolf' and all of the others had some kind of contact with radical or is streaming groups. we can dig deeper into this lone wolf phenomenon and explore how is isis tapping into these lone wolves or do they start out as lone wolves but then have some contact, whether it is virtual or face to face. looking at the bangladesh investigations move forward and we learn more and more, i think it will have an effect on how we address isis globally. i think counterterrorism efforts have to take into effect this connection between islamic
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of terrorism and the attacks that are born of it. it would be impossible to uproot islamic ideology and the attacks that are born of it. it would be impossible to uproot support for ideology unless we can talk about it candidly in our society and political environment. a recent study by the center on religion and geopolitics found that half of 100 violent jihadists that were surveyed initially came from nonviolent islamic groups. one in four came from the muslim brotherhood or groups associated with the muslim brotherhood. we have to think of political islam as providing the fertile ground for extreme terrorist mindsets to grow and develop. at the same time, out outline large organizations like the
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islamic brotherhood or excluding them from the political processes of the country of which they are part of. that is not the answer either. , we have to find a way to simultaneously counter islamist ideologies without driving the parties underground. home, we have to figure out how to best counter islamic extremism without trampling on civil liberties in the u.s.. here i would like to talk about report was published by the new york police department in 2007, radicalization in the west, the homegrown threat. it produced a backlash from the muslim community in new york who claims it tries to justify racial profiling and aggressive surveillance of mosques. ande was a lawsuit brought
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i took down the report from the website as part of the settlement with the muslim community there, but i would also say that this report in some ways was ahead of its time. this was back in 2007 when he was talking about lone wolves and some of the findings we should actually pay attention to. not to throw out the baby with the bathwater. so what else can we do? , we heard a lot from captain martin's about what our local enforcement is doing. i can't emphasize how important it is to develop relationships with the muslim communities. that helps produce intelligence on potential extremist networks, and just continues to keep the communication flow going. there is an inherent tension in this process and i will point out an example from australia.
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many of you remember the attack in sydney, australia. this was when a terrorist held hostages at a cafe in downtown sydney. one of the requests from the local enforcement was to have an islamic state like. it was part of the negotiating process they were trying to find an islamic state like and they contacted some of them also the community and asked them, could you find an islamic state flag? it turns out after the attack was over, the next few days, law enforcement actually raided the homes of those people who the muslim community members had contacted. obviously that caused tension between the communities that also we can ask yourselves, is it legitimate to worry about somebody who has an islamic state flag?
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i would say, yes. second in terms of way forward, when it comes to countering radical messages it is the private sector that has to be the way. the government is just not credible when it comes to trying to counter radicalization messages. i think the recently announced department of homeland security program to provide $10 million in grants to private organizations who are working on countering radicalization and violent extremism, this is a step in the right direction. i also think the state department is moving in the right direction and it's adapting the way it engages in the ideological battle against extremism. previously a small office called the center for strategic counterterrorism communications in the state department had its diplomats directly engage online with radicals and try to counter radical messaging but it was , known that the messages were coming from the state department. they have this state department moniker. they figured out that was a really working in achieving the
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objectives. so now to replace the office with a global, the office of global engagement which focuses on partnering with other nongovernmental groups and also other governments in developing counter messaging strategies rather than trying to directly engage online. i also want to highlight the work of a nonprofit here in the u.s. called the world
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organization for resource develop an education, or word. the actually are operating in montgomery county, maryland, which i can understand is hold no the work from frederick county but even though they're next to each other, but this group is doing really still a work in talking about youth radicalization with the muslim communities, engaging, encouraging a lot of communication with other faith leaders, community groups, law enforcement but they are a small group. what they are doing needs to be scaled up i think they can serve as a model for other groups working in this space. i think also we have to consider about talking about radicalization in our schools. we see children are going online younger and younger. we see at risk, even lone wolves are getting younger and younger, teenagers, in many cases. so i think it's not out of the question to start teaching about these things. if you think about it, the way extremists prey on younger minds over the internet is a lot like sexual predators and how they prey on children online. i think we have to think about the problem in the same way. so in conclusion let me just say , that thwarting homegrown
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terrorist plots in the u.s. requires both an understanding of the islamist extremist ideology that drives them, but also a recognition that the religion of islam itself is not responsible for the terrorism. it's rather the people who are are acting in the name of the religion. this is important when we talk about upholding our values and religious freedoms. it is also important for practical measures in that we need to cooperate with the vast majority of american muslims who are peaceful and who are fighting the same fight as everyone else is. i will just end by making a quick plug. the heritage foundation has on its website an interactive timeline of all of the nearly 90 plots that have been uncovered over the last decade. each incident has the full details as part of this interactive timeline, so i think it might be very useful for those of you who are researching this issue. thank you very much. [applause]
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[captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit ncicap.org] [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2016] >> general gray, professor alexander, one of the create principles of economics is competitive advantage. comparative advantage is that i rub in the middle east and i speak the language of isis and al-qaeda. by way of introduction i would , like to make two comments. first of all the relationship between the terrorist organizations and the social network. social network, including publication of videos promoting
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or depicting acts of violence, have become the most important weapon in the hands of terrorist organizations in recruiting, training, indoctrinating, encouraging, directing and and glorifying lone wolf terrorist. these organizations have become savvy in warfare. the war against of them can no longer be limited to military action. second, 9/11 was perhaps last of the most strategically well-planned and operationally effectively executed act of terrorism in modern history. where there have been many such activities on a smaller scale since then, we are now beginning to witness smaller but more frequent operations carried out by lone wolves who may or may not be associated with terrorist organizations. in fact, today the "washington post" captured the change in an article on page one about the amateur attacks.
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the new strategy leading terrorist organizations is to achieve maximum terror results with minimum input of resources and man power. i'll mention briefly three terrorist acts, one in the u.s. and two recent ones in europe to underscore the importance of social media and the role of the lone wolf. the first is a bombing on boston marathon in april 2013. the second is the attack in nice, and the third is the attack on train commuters in germany. the last two were carried out in july 2016. the marathon bombing investigation had revealed that the two brothers involved in the
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carrying out of the bombing were inspired by al-qaeda magazine, ironically called inspire, which published an article in 2010, how to make a bomb in the kitchen of your mom. the article was found with the terrorists. following the bombing of al-qaeda, following the bombing, al-qaeda in the arabian peninsula, this is one of the branches of al-qaeda, posted a special issue of the magazine, inspire on the "blessed boston bombings." the magazine contained pages of glory and praise of the brothers, but it hit an emotional crescendo on page 26 with a photo of the two brothers against a background of
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heaven, designer sunglasses, the clouds behind him. ayman al-zawahiri also released a video in which he praised the boston bombings and rallied lone wolves in america to carry out similar operations. these dispersing strikes he said can be carried out by one brother or small number of brothers. a brother here means muslim brothers. such tactics will bleed america economically by provoking it to ending its massive expenditures on security. i should also point out that the inspire magazine uses the word -- as a clearinghouse for jihad. i looked up at the second case now at the second case in
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nice, and lone wolf terrorist by the name of mohammed, a french runs a truck into a large crowd celebrating bastille day and the city of nice. the islamic state also referred to as isis, sometimes isil and daesh and arabic publishers and an electronic magazine called depth. in an article addressed to isis fighters, and i quote the "now mytranslation, , brother come let us be honest with one another. let me tell you the truth. there are not many of us here , but there are enough of us for the infidels. allah be praised. we're facing the beast. we are breaking its teeth and we
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hope to chop off its head. but we are in the belly of the beast, my brother, so if you want islam to be victorious, why would you want to come out of the beast and face its fangs when you could tear out it's ?"art and its liver. since the nice attack on july 15, supporters have posted several of banners on various telegram channels gloating over the terror attack and saint isis asserting isis will continue striking friends in till it conquers the country, raises its light over the eiffel tower and on the rules of paris, most notable landmark. the third case is the one in germany on july 19.
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isis and the news agency released a video featuring a message by the perpetrators on the train attack recorded a day before the attack. isis claimed responsibility for that attack, which was carried out by a 17-year-old afghan refugee. the video identified the attacker as mohammed riyadh, explaining how he planned to attack the unbelievers while living on german soil and vows to perpetrate an attack greater in magnitude than that in france. the social media is also used by the terrorist organization to encourage action by lone wolves. al-qaeda in the arabian peninsula published on july 19, 2016, on telegram channel a piece that will inspire the believers which identified a list of 17 targets for lone wolf
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attacks in the upcoming 2016 the summer olympics. the post included an english-language schedule of events for the olympic games . wolves byges lone claiming that the traveled to brazil is relatively cheap and easy. and i quote, lone wolves from anywhere in the world can move -- sorry and tickets and travel to brazil would be very easy to get, it said. god willing. end quote. suggestions for attacks include attaching a small explosive on drones, perpetrating a knife attack against americans and israelis, and entering bars and pubs in the area to attack, kidnapped or rob drunk patrons.
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social media is also used to recruit volunteers for new initiatives. on february 20, 2016, isis announced the creation of the islamic state scientists and engineers. fields such as chemistry or aeronautics. what's the problem for the future? this is precisely the danger emanating from the lone wolves that has become a source of great concern to agencies dealing with terrorism in general, and with lone wolves in particular. in charge of the eu terrorist organization, terrorist coordination, raises a serious question for the future which is how does one capture some sight of someone who has no contact contact with any organization? just inspired and started
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expressing some kind of religion to a terrorist organization such as the islamic state. most significantly is the fear that self radicalized assailants, which i would call terrorism entrepreneurs, will have little or no communication with militant or terrorist groups that could not be intercepted by intelligence agencies. let me just quickly make a difference what is, one commt, the difference between al-qaeda and the islamic state. al-qaeda from the very beginning was organized to attack western targets.
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isis by contrast is an organization determined to occupy territory. and to introduce islamic sharia into those who are under its occupation. in keeping with the practice of the prophet mohammed, isis demands that those who, under its control declare oath of allegiance to the head of the organization. what is arab reaction to all of this? some has already referred to i think a skirmish. most arab world has been concerned about the emergence of islamophobia as a result of a
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terrorist actions in the west but organizations like isis. here i quote abdullah, a saudi writer, he wrote an article on the crime of nice and the root of terrorism. and i quote here, contemporary terrorism is largely associated with islam. this is a fact. many nations and peoples during many stages of history have engaged in terrorism, but at this moment of human history, the vast majority who practice terrorism are those who claim islam as their religion. and one more quotation from, on the significance of education and the relationship between education and terrorism. so get on july 17 in an article published by the air the daily in london by a palestinian writer and academic, he called on muslims to admit that
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terrorism perpetrated by muslims is indeed tied to islam, and that education and their schools and mosques establishes implicit support for isis here and then to work to improve, he writes we must first of all admit that education in our schools and mosques lays the foundation for implicit isis ism. it is the largest and most important source feeding the barbaric i see some that has acquired weapons and implement large parts of the implicit isis-ism that was not given a chance to express itself. finally, i make one little, and then i finished.
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the glorification of the lone wolf. as a rule a person killed in the line of duty is considered a martyr. and i have one particular case about which i wrote an article in february 2005. a suicide bomber detonated a car bomb in front of a recruiting station for soldiers and policemen south of baghdad the explosion killed 152 and injured 120. the car bomb was the work of zarqawi, made a name for himself as the chief of the slaughterers slaughterers. eventually killed by u.s. forces. this so-called martyr families honored this act by holding a festive ceremony known as the wedding of the martyr. in arabic, to symbolize his
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wedding in paradise with 72 virgins. on these occasions i guess congratulate the family for the sons of martyrdom. these kind of weddings are performed often. thank you. [applause]
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>> i appreciate the opportunity to show some perspectives, also honored to be on the panel, these distinguished individuals. in light of the background that was set out by my colleagues, i thought it might be helpful to focus on a few different issues, what a particular trying to find these lone wolves. in particular islamic state inspired individuals in the u.s. but some of the same lessons can be utilized with transnational jihadists or same thing with lone wolves here, either with traditional crime or other political extremism. so with the type of topics i'm going to be covering our manyfold initially the with a
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few cases of isis inspired attacks year, as professor flynn noted, the issue of lone wolf is complex him in some cases you're talking about a unitary unit, one person individual and in some cases you have a cobol, designate as lone wolves but generally speaking focusing on the former, not the latter but we will talk about some other issues as well. a couple of items. next, my contention in others as well, they don't operate in a vacuum so some of these folks are discoverable and these are some methodologies that can be utilized. there are eight types of terrorism that in some cases people follow step-by-step whether it's lone wolves are more complex into this. we've also seen unfortunates unfortunate submit signed. it's not a monday morning quarterback but the are some examples where some people were monitored by law enforcement either here or abroad, subsequent giunta took attack. again it's impossible to find all lone wolves all the time. there are also charges of having so many radicals. according to withstand, there
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are more than 10,000 radicals in france and obvious a limited manpower your people cannot be monitored 24/7. in some cases using electronic bracelets as a saw with one or two perpetrators with the attack yesterday at the church. also noted other mechanisms to come across these folks are views of leveraging traffic stops. also the use of informants and undercover agents, also leveraging community orienting and policing, dennis will reaching out to the private sector. nonprofits, ngos, some discussion on the cd and then leveraging as well international operation. i was told i have an hour to speak on this last night i will touch lightly on these different topics.
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as we saw in the attack in orlando, omar mateen come again teen, by many ma accounts lone wolf, some discrepancy regarding what motivated him, the fbi a we go to noted he appeared to be not involved with any homosexual activity, and then by and large obviously he called 911 saying he had done the attack on of the islamic state. he referenced some other individuals or other groups we negotiated with the law enforcement in any case that is viewed as a lone wolf attack. we will see there were some missed signs, to investigations of him but obviously by the fbi but there wasn't adequate evidence to prosecute. we will get to those issues as well.
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so 49 killed, more than 50 injured. and then we have attack undertaken in university of california merced, perpetrated college students. he undertook the attack, took a knife to a classroom, stabbed several of his classmates and then several others who was openly killed by a police officer at the campus. according to law enforcement, he was radicalized on line. so again we need to weigh the issue of whether someone declares their undertake an attack on behalf of ideology x, y or z. busy these folks in many cases have conflicting issues, some cases perhaps mental challenges as well but we can't discount when these folks say their undertake an attack on have x or y ideology. then we have attack against police officer in philadelphia. also undertaken on behalf of the islamic state. again areas backgrounds. the individual came from an
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affluent family. mr. mohammad came from an affluent family. mr. archer had a criminal record. so does not want cookie-cutter by which you can say of the wolf comes from this background. they may be marginally dashed in some cases they come from the affluent backgrounds. again as i as a note that don't operate in a vacuum. they are not phantoms. in some cases they are but mostly they are not their friends, family. the articulate sometimes their animosity to the target. they're online or off-line which will get you. they are active. they shop. they have credit cards because of cases they purged component parts for weapons but in some cases we'll see the private sector comes across these folks and in some cases notes some peculiarity and in reaches out to law enforcement. the omar mateen case, and when is it they didn't have enough information about him so they were concerned about his
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interest in buying a large amount of ammunition and bulletproof vest but they didn't have come they didn't get his name. they didn't get his phone number they didn't get his license plate. so give law enforcement could only work with the content as provided by the private sector and others. these folks as well go to school, and recreational centers and religious institutions. we see sometimes the role of various religious institutions, concerned about radicalization in their own communities and reach out to law enforcement. so we see several dozen cases whether muslim community in u.s. has been concerned about operatives and to contact law enforcement could sometimes be a sting operations or other meetings with the operative. they also leave economic footprints in some cases.
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we have seen in some cases they have a real desire to articulate their radical tenants, either off-line or online. in a very non-stick it in manner. -- non-sophisticated manner. cases radicalization process occurs quickly, some cases it can take that much more elongated. and in some cases these lone wolves are not lone wolves. they're impacted, talking about the terrorist lone wolf, impacted ideologically. they are impacted by a content that has been disseminated by darius to impacted by content
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that has been disseminated by various extremist groups. online and offso may be lone wolf in tumors of acting but their context they're imbibing is coming from an outside actor. we noted the marginalization and the mental issues. so, in terms of offramp, we can talk about later. there's indeed this notion of having a mental health professional becoming more involved in the cde process and that's helpful as well. and sometimes fighting or moving pre-attack or post attack -- we'll talk about the signs of terrorism as well. as some of others noted about the active use of online materials by isis and other groups, disseminating 24/7. different languages, different web sites, leveraging social media. utilizing telegram and other mechanisms that are sometimes difficult to discern. also modes for discovering by law enforcement or tips from the
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community. so, a lot of content regarding different modes of radicalization, recruitment, two to target, what operation to utilize. these lone wolves are impacted. a couple of examples. this one case in kansas, we have mr. booker, while he was in the u.s. military, he reached out concurrently on facebook saying he wanted to become a martyr, then the fbi met with him and subsequently he enter acted with -- interacted with an informant and tried to drive a van on to fort riley, kansas, and commit a suicide bombing. he also received $100 quote-unquote loan from a man he met at the mosque. his colleague knew he was planning on utilizing this money to undertake the attack put he did not want to participate. the lon wolves are not
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completely singular. another incident, mr. flores, he reached out online, how to facebook, invited different individuals to join islamic state, was a tip from a recipient to sheriff's deputy in florida, and then they contacted jttf and did a sting separation and he was arrested trying to place an explosive on a beach, and kill dozens. so, there oar opportunities for discovery. also offline, online and offline are the same places where people become radicalized. we won't focus on all of thus but include in prisons, at religious institutions, also we see during investigations for traditional crimes, opportunities to come across individuals that may be undertaking a traditional crime in order to erase another one. eight signs of terrorism, whether done by a lone wolf or capital or a directed attack by a group, either here or abroad,
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are these. conducting surveillance vis-a-vis the target. gathering intelligence, can be done online or in person. it it's done in purpose, higher propensity to discover. testing security. again, to see what level of security exists, may include some dry runs later. raising funds as was noted by some of the panelists. the barrier to entry for some attacks are low. purchase a knife, it's
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relatively inexpensive so the need garner funds is quite low in contrast to much more sophisticated attacks. -then gathers supplies and some cases the individuals acting suspiciously, either on the way to undertake the attacks, as we saw with the nice attack where the individual did a dry run, as well he had the truck along the path of his attack, and police interacted with him. he said he was going to distribute ice cream at the event but from what i recall they didn't check the back of the truck. so there are opportunities for law enforcement the public to interact with lone wolves. then some cases you have the dry run, as i noted, or deployment of the assets. sometimes you get tips from security guards or the public, as we saw the suicide bombing a day or two ago in germany, where a security guard had some interaction with the suicide bomber in germany and dissuades him from entering the location. some of the other signs, we
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talked tot omar mateen, two tips. fbi investigated both. again, same thing with the tsarnaev brothers, tamer lynn was an investigation by the fbi. we're not blaming anyone but just to show that there are examples of some interaction with these perpetrators, and given the threshold that the law provides not possible in some cases to arrest or prosecute individuals. so, the bledsoe case. he was u.s.-based individual. radicalized, while he was in yemen, and came back to the u.s., met with the fbi, they monitored him for a period and then he undertook attacks in arkansas in 2009 against an army recruiting station. and the incident in fort hood. you had two separate investigations by the fbi and the dod recording his radicalization, while he was in the u.s. army he was interacting
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online with al-awlaki. equivalent to being in the u.s. army and interacting with one of the spokesman or prop -- pop 'oghanaist for the islamic state. another example, a traffic stop. an individual stopped in michigan. the same time of the traffic stop, he actually had a -- two undercover agents interacting with him online regarding different plots. the traffic stop, the individual had a weapon as well as a marijuana. he is currently being detained. and some weapons charges. then in relation to calls for service, you had mr. sullivan. his parents called 9-1-1 in relation to him trying to burn down the home, and within about four weeks he interacted with informants in relation to undertaking an attack in north carolina.
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another example, utilizing informants, mr. cornell, and he planned to undertake an attack against the u.s. capitol. so, again, while these folks may be marginalwided or may have mental issues they're not doing these activities on an island; they do enter act and want some camaraderie. sometimes they development but sometimes they do. then with reference to finding these folks utilizing undercover agents, many cases discover these -- individuals have been prosecuted in the past two and a half years in connection with isis activities. some of them have been discovered through online activity, about 50% of the cases had string operations. so in this case he had an undercover agent interacting with mr. wolfe. he a was arrested at the airport
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with his wife and children. he was planning on joining the islamic state. so, some other modalities. leveraging the community, and getting the capacity which they have, building bridges, also, allowing for opportunities to insert informants, undercover agents there is some tension between on the one hand reaching out to the community and then concurrently targeting them, but that's at least the approach that's being utilized at the point. also different cve programs and again, there are a number that have been utilized both here and
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internationally with mixed success. some attempts to offer offramps for these folks that don't allow for an nexus with law enforcement, there's a higher likely -- likelihood. a example calms, mr. anaji did two trips to syria and provided different military supplies and other assistance to the islamic state, and was actually a tip from the muslim community in new york, saying that this guy was very aggressive, trying to find other adherens to the islamic state. then the role of the private sector. these people are not phantoms. they need to buy different products and services, depending on the complexity of the plot. sometimes may try to acquire very large chemicals, large amounts of chemicals and otherwise, or purchased weaponry or renting storage facilities. so no outreach as there has been in the past by the fbi to raise eight wareness by the private sector.
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amongst some two dozen business sectors, including storage facilities and otherwise. the report and provides guidance regarding suspicious activities and purchases or appearance of the purchaser. so, again, not to have hysteria regarding every commercial transaction but have congruity of reaching out. as well, utilizing nonprofits, nongovernmental organizations that have some connections and credibility in the communities and leveraging them, have some insights and contacts that can be utilized. also have some bridges with the community that perhaps government may not have and also not viewed as a credible actor as miss kurtis mentioned in some cases as well. lastly, more or less focus on the need to leverage international cooperation. a lone-wolf issue is a global
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issue and we also have seen some of the participants, 300 u.s.-linked individuals who have traveled to iraq and syria trying join the islamic state. some have been killed there. some have tried to return here. so the other some 30,000 plus foreign fighters. so, there are opportunities for various entities, interpol, europol, and the database regarding stolen weapons, passports, foreign fighters that can be disseminated and the law of ewes law enforcement and different instrumentalities. cia and others. fbi and others. providing contacts and garnering information and leveraging it here at home and internationally. so, in conclusion, a couple of points to leave you with. some of these folks can be found prior to these attacks but some
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of them obviously can't for various reasons. very important role that the public sector and the community can play in relation to fileddens these lone wolves. the propaganda and the tools that isis is disseminating 24/ 24/7 -- very impactful, both here and abroad. currently there are 900 isis related investigations in the u.s., all 50 states, and how do you designate the tomorrow lone-wolf? in relation to terrorism or in terms of traditional crimes. these folks have significant mental challenges and have been called the quote-unquote loon wolf. i'll take comments and questions later. thank you very much. [applause]
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>> in the interest of time we want to develop dialogue, and -- let me mention three or four areas that were mentioned. one in terms of the terminology, definition, if you will. i recall that going all the way back to the 1970s and '80s, some of the academics wanted to make life simpler in terms of the enemy so we had the three cs. one, the crazies. two, the criminals. three, the crusaders. well, the first two, we are looking obviously at other religions and ideologies. so, the point i'm trying to make is, when we talk about who are the perpetrators, and number
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two, what is their motivation? what triggers individuals to resort to violence in the name of some higher -- or whatever, and thirdly, the modus operandi, range from primitive to more sophisticated. and finally, the discussion about what kind of tools do we have as a society on the public level and the private level to dealt with it. some of you mentioned the role of education, which i endorse, the community relations.
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again, as a participant for many, many years, it seems to me that somehow we're not focusing on the role of the media in terms of trying to classify and to deal with that, but because even going back 50 years, 60 years, as i recall, we still have a problem in -- when the media uses interchangeably different terms and concepts. all the way from fighters, to commando, soldier, perpetrator, or so on. the same goes now to the question of the lone wolf, and
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we don't have time to provide a long list, even some leaderless offenders are going to terrorism and so on. so, it seems to me that because the public and policymakers influence the way by the media, so the question is, can we provide a bridge between the media and the law enforcement and the public in general and ngos and so on, to provide some clarity, what are we dealing with? so, what i'm really asking the panel maybe to react to that or to some of the other issues. start with you, captain. >> say that the -- that was one of the reasons why i tried to provide some type of definition right at the beginning of my portion of the presentation, was just because literally playing
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from the same sheet of music is so important and having informed discussion because terms that mean one thing to me might mean something different to someone who is currently working in the academic field. so, in terms of having apple to apples discussion, i don't have a specific preference on terminology, but whenever i do hear something, i think one of the examples i'd given was about -- we used to simply say, lone-wolf actor, lone-wolf terrorist, and now we have added in that -- the media has added in a caveat, isis-inspired. so that it's like at least we know it's not an individual grudge that the person might have, that is coming from some other source and social media or the publickization of the acts
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that tapes around the world are uninfluencing things that take place here in our -- or innuisancing things that tapes in our backyard. >> it's interesting. when you said "the media" i initially jumped into my mind not the issue of the different uses of different terminology but, rather, what role does the media play in exacerbating this problem? we see again through this use of social media to broadcast their intentions and real-time during the act, sort of a desire among these people to publicize what they're doing, to achieve some kind of fame, and is the media playing into that by publicizing these so greatly? of course nowdays the media is not a monolithic thing. much more of a democracy because of social media because anybody can contribute to the discussion.
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and unfortunately, the -- every time you see "trending by top of to screens it's the extremes people pay attention to which again feed this generation of more publicity for these type of offenders. on the terminology, i think terminology is important for a couple of reasons. one, it gives you a framework for analyzing and studying the different type of actors. it also in the law enforcement world, laws are based on certain terminology, and so, again, it's important for that reason. >> i would just highlight what carol has said and focus on social media when we talk about media. she talked about this real-time posting of photos as attacks are ongoing. this is exactly what happened in
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bangladesh in the dacha attack. they posted pictures of the people they had just killed. and in fact i know of people who identified friends that had been killed by the pictures on social media they saw. long before the authorities had gotten in touch with anybody. and so we simply have to find a way to prevent the terrorists from being able to highlight what they're doing, and to glorify what they're doing through social media. theirs a group called the counter-extremism project, which i know fran townsend is involved in and they are calling another facebook, instagram, twitter, naming and shaming, brought to their attention things that need to be taken down or death with and if they don't do it,
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pointing that out. so i think we do need to have this dialogue and i think you're right. the private sector can play a role in bringing the company leaders together other experts to prevent the terrorists from exploiting social media. >> has a large portfolio of reports and videos on terrorism and jihaddism if anybody is interested. you can consult this. i just want to make one comment about professor alexander's three cs. the three c is crusader. be ware not to use the term because this is a term used by the terrorist organization to designate the christian countries. the crusaders. i wouldn't say that a terrorist is a crusader. >> well, absolutely.
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absolutely. there is no question but -- the point now is how they try to -- the conflict, the war, between the civilizations and that's really the major challenge that we are facing, and particularly after this attack yesterday in france, we can see exactly what it can lead to. then you have one -- with reference to social media we see now a trend of litigation lawsuits against twitter, facebook, and other entities
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that are disseminating content, and you have civil suits but they're utilizing the statute of material support, saying that by disseminating the content, they're essentially directly providing material support and should be held civilly liable. so, that's also an emerging issue. >> professor wallace, this point, comments? >> i usually thank yona for putting together very rich panel but today i want to thank his son for an extremely rich presentation, dean. he was once my research assistant. several observations. i think i'm trying to guess what you think. this is an overwhelming set of phenomenon, number one. overwhelming set of phenomena put most of the discussion comes after the fact. post attack analysis.
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the question is, what can you do in advance? it's cop seeable we'll not be able to deal with everything in advance. are there any sort of solutions? i think that's what my wife would ask, my kids would ask, what i ask. i never liked mr. snowden because i think intelligence, surveillance of the nsa variety, with all of its dangers was indispensable. another thing is if you see something, say something. i think this has come up before in our programs. goes to the heart of the matter. is goes to us, our society. are we prepared to change our behaviors in such a way that we'll snitch more. that's what call it, snitching. the proof of the matter is -- this i annoys my wife -- many of the people -- they're different time service some a radicalized, some are murders and not caught up ideaolal motivation. many come from muslim communities but not all do. but usually there's a parent who
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knows, a brother who knows or a sister, and they think it's bad for them to talk. or in our culture, we are sympathetic to people with problems. i'm anything but a trumpist, i can assure you, i'm a republican but dislike him intensely. his approach is, just get tough, get organized, but that goes against the very nature of our society in many ways. we're soft in a nice, civilized way. and i think this -- dean had an awful lot of dat but it's post hoc, after the fact. the french say that 10,000 suspects in france, they can't stop them all. made some numbers. nine billion people on the earth, one and a half bill are muslims. talking about muslims often. would say ten million adults, ten million muslim adults who might be in or outside the range of suspects. there's no way, unless we change our society profoundly. another answer might still be stoicism, being tough, sucking it in. my wife is english. indecipherable stoic, and we're not in america. but i'm afraid that's also part of it. our culture is really a melon waiting to be ripped apart and
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we are very lucky it hasn't happened yesterday. i wonder -- i always admired general gray enormously, very can-do attitude. he used the word "warfare" before. this is a straining war and maybe war is not the right term. it is a definitional issue. what is lone wolf, what is war? those categories are not going to capture this. even in france, the same, i think we have to live with some of this even though we get better with what is coming down the road. jonas says the worst is yet to come. you have to have the power of denial and just not focus on all of this, just on your personal life you shouldn't focus on your problems. focus on your possibilities. i think this is really -- you have set up a very difficult challenge, with even your son will not solve completely.
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>> professor wallace? >> we would like to open up the discussion and dialogue and get the audience involved. we would appreciate, number one, if you identify yourself for the record. incidentally. we are grateful to c-span for covering our event, to bring it to a wider audience in the united states, and abroad, and secondly, please ask a brief
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question and not make another speech, and i would like to develop that and then we will have another chance to respond to that. yes? please. >> from the potomac institute. one question i have not understood is whoa there's a ramping up or speeding up of these attacks? if you take -- after 2011, a lot of material that al qaeda put out on encouraging much more systemic, instructions how to do it. granted most of it was in arabic and french so the man in yemen -- but you see this phenomenon in the u.s., the speeding up and see it in saudi arabia today. many more lone-wolf attacks.
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why now? it's not as if there was no encouragement, no direction, no instruction before, and -- al qaeda was every after 9/11. you can't find as much now. very little. >> i think one answer to that is the pressure that isis is under in its strongholds in iraq. that may be contributing. they may be calling out and looking to people overseas to conduct attacks because the four -- before the u.s. and iraqi forces were going after their strongholds, they seemed content to be building the islamic caliphate there. so i think that's a contributor.
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and then secondly, i would just say, you probably have the issue of copycats and that's probably what we have seen over the last few weeks, is copycat type of activity. >> i would agree with all of that. i add one other thing, as isis loses actual territory, their caliphate is becoming more of a virtual caliphate online. >> i agree with the two speakers. as isis loses territory, they're extending their activities overseas. but i think we should look at two other factors as to why terrorism is extending so
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rapidly across the middle east. one is political, and the other is economic. politically, 17 governments have no physical legitimacy. except tunisia, which is a democracy, but the rest of them are disintegrating states, and economically, we have 30 to 40 percent of the young people between the age of 16 and 24, according to figures of the international labor organization, are unemployed and likely to be employed anytime during their lifetime. there's nothing for them to lose except to make some sacrifices. >> next question. dr. murphy right here. >> lone wolves. i mentioned to a a couple of you before i have been watching ever since september 11th for a pro american or anti-terrorist rally by american muslims, and i have yet to hear of a single one. if they would organize something
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like that it it would do a lot to diffuse the attitude of americans towards muslim. i also suspect some of the muslim leaders are afraid of being taken out by isis if the try something like that. do you have any comments? >> i can't -- >> the same sort of thing. not a rally -- you get it. >> i can only speak about american muslims bum if you read the arabic papers, find numerous articles on a daily basis, disassociating the arab regimes from terrorism, condemning this act of terrorism and concern about the rise of islamophobia in the west and how it will affect the relations between the arab countries and the western countries. anyone else? okay, we have right -- there in
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the back. >> thanks. i've heard from several people dissatisfaction with the tomorrow "lone wolf" partly because it's too broad and includes loonies and these are not lone people. the ones we're concerned with apt the loonies. they're the ones with the shared ideology and the shared loyalty to some islamist or terrorist movement. so it seems to me we're talking about a self-organizing isis adherent or self-organizing islamist terrorist or some variation on that, and i wonder if all of the several people who are dissatisfied with the term "lone wolf" could get together and come up with a better terminology that doesn't divert us and minimize the issue and at the same time doesn't distort the issue. >> i'd like to take a stab at that. not so much on the terminology of "lone wolf." but in terms of
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how we looked at lone wolves, we said, yes, they must have an ideology and a political objective but doesn't have to be anyone else's. the unibomber. we would cull a lone-wolf terrorist. he had a political alleged, operated alone and used violence to try to further his objective. and anders breivik in norway, the one who mounted a shooting attack against the student camps, summer camp. he had his own individualized ideology but he had a political objective. so i want to distinguish between some of these lone wolves do have their own videoedology. others have borrowed an isis ideology or white supremacist ideology or an antiabortion ideology. just depends.
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>> basically talking about single issue, and again, there's alexander tried point out, it's not only the religious inspiration or direction, but also the antigovernment, let's say, motivations. or the racist, let's say, or right-wing and so on. so, it is a broad, i think, -- that encourages people to rise up and, of course the copycats, as jill mentioned, before -- let move on to one more -- i saw in the back. the other person.
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>> hi. paul from the potomac institute. i want to respond to claim there have been no muslim community rallies that are anti-terrorism rallies. the was one held in lon den yesterday and today and there are a few articles on that and i pulled up a "washington post" article from -- titled "anti-terrorism rally in washington." >> yes, please. right here. >> the deputy chief of -- if i'm allowed to make a brief answer. >> why don't you come up to the podium for a second.
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it's okay. >> that's a unique honor. thank you. i have a bit of difference with the terminology, particularly when we say foreign fighters. the word "fighter" i'm not at all comfortable with. fighter is a very positive word. bangladesh, earned its independence through the war of liberation, and we call them freedom fighters. don't -- i do not call a terrorist a fighter. these are isis terrorists. al qaeda terrorists, or any organization, whether it's muslim brotherhood, these are terrorists. the reference to what happened in bangladesh, certainly unprecedented, particularly the attack in the catholic restaurant on 1st of july.
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and the way immediately the photographs went to the social media. but social media practiced particularly by these elements is certainly not a democracy. it's demo-crazy. we need to really look at that very seriously globally how to -- i wouldn't use the word control but -- if i may cite an example what wellis was saying. what do we do to prevent, if i understand you correctly, sir, post event analysis of course it can go at any length, any depth. before hand, what could be done? certain things we perhaps need to look at. among the muslims globally.
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it's debatable but roughly 50%. not a very impressive figure. in some statistics it's even up to 60% of the illiterate. the literacy is 40%. 72% of the global population, being muslim, produce basically five percent of the gdp. so, there are figures that we perhaps need to look at carefully. and analyze before hand. i'm not a religious person. that's all on the eve day, after the fasting month, i just went to see, not really say my prayers, just to see what is happening in one of the congregations. what i saw was very important. the prayer was held in a -- and next to that was a synagogue and
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the voluntary officers, their parking lot, for their muslim friends and brothers and sisters who came there to pray. we need to conceptualize that. their interfaith unity, bonded, how to strengthen that. religion in many people's and scholar's opinion has been very divisive since the very beginning of -- since the very inception. that's the reality. we need to reckon with it and
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address it. to address that we need to do a lot of research, but a very valid point by professor wallace, certainly agree, we need to do the research, how to prevent this before it happens. let us try and invest our resources more into that. muslim brotherhood and islami reference made by lisa, i beg to differ with the notion that they are actually political parties. they are not political parties. they're terrorist organizations that must not be confused as political parties. if we continue to allow the public political face to be used and utilized by these platforms, we know what is going to happen. islami is in bangladesh, about four percent of public support. i'd be the last person to see that entity going to what other organizations, like muslim brotherhood did.
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that's not our goal. terrorist organizations must be branded as a terrorist organization. there is a fear, a narrative, that if those organizations are banned legally, they would go underground and perhaps create more offshoots and create havoc in this society, and we really don't have the time to -- i'd be very happy to be -- by any of the members in the audience and the distinguish el panelists. i can discuss that privately informally, but i do not think that to buy that narrative. i have one question for the panel. anybody can enlighten me.
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what we have seen, particularly in bangladesh that most of the terrorist were from the weldy families, out it's not only in the ma -- the poor segment of the society. they were in private schools, they went to private universities. one even studied abroad. and this is something new. it's not only in bangladesh but also happen in other parts of the world. why this radicalization is attracting those young, bright, brilliant, wish educated -- well-educated, muslim youth?
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any thought on that? thank you. >> this certainly -- your question deserves a special seminar, and we're not going to go into it except to say, as i mentioned before, before me, nothing is new. i think the concept that if we only eradicate poverty, then we eliminate terrorism, and the weird examples going all the way to carlos in terms of the background, the affluence of those who became involved in and
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became leaders, and there are many, political and sociological and psychological reasons for that. but i really think the key is that we have to expect the unexpected. from both the lower echelon of the community, to the upper echelon of the community, and therefore we shouldn't be surprised again by the surprises, and when professor wallace indicated that clearly we have to try to prevent, we learned a lesson of the law. and the intelligence community; we just had an event here last month. sharing intelligence.

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