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tv   Washington Journal  CSPAN  August 15, 2016 7:00am-10:01am EDT

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d wilson. james green discusses the cost of the jupiter space probe. "washington journal," is next. ♪ two foreign-policy speech is expected by donald trump and hillary clinton today. joined byon will be vice president biden and will speak at 12:45 this afternoon. see it on c-span and listen for it on c-span radio. donald trump give a speech at 2:00 this afternoon. you can see that on c-span two. you can find out more information about both of these .vents by visiting c-span.org a recent bloomberg news poll shows hillary clinton has the advantage within college-educated white voters and donald trump succeeds most among those without a college degree.
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in the next 45 minutes, we will act you -- ask you who you are going to vote for. we divide the lines by your level of education. for those of you who don't have a college degree, call (202) 748-8000. some college, call (202) 748-8001. if you have a degree, call (202) 748-8002. if you have postgraduate or higher, (202) 748-8003. tell us who you're going to vote for end of your level of education affects that. use our facebook or twitter. we take this idea from a couple of polls looking not recently. one from bloomberg news. the headline says education level emerges as a sharp dividing line in the clinton/ trump race. when it comes to results, hillary clinton wins the
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college-educated segments by 25 percentage points as much. to 34%. and donald trump's edge among those without a college education is 10 points, 52% to 42%. toald trump's lead is four one with white men without college degree. hillary clinton advantage with college-educated women, if you compare the 2, 60 4% to 31%. that is from bloomberg. and in monmouth university last week put out a poll as well, taking a look amongst other things, about education levels and who people might vote for come this november. here's what they found. the donald trump as sizable leads among white men without a college degree, 31 points. 56% to 25%. wightman with a college degree, 11 points, and white women without a college degree, 17 points. also adding these pointspreads are similar to how mitt romney did with these groups in 2012.
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they added among white women with a college degree, donald trump exactly trailing hillary clinton by 30 points and mitt romney narrowly won this by six points, going back to 2012. we will ask you voted in november, and we will get your input on where you are, educationally. those of you without a college degree, call (202) 748-8000. if you have some college, call (202) 748-8001. if you have a college degree, call (202) 748-8002. if you have a graduate degree or higher, (202) 748-8003. us from florida, he has some college. caller: good morning. i'm going to vote for donald trump. host: what lead you to that decision? caller: he's going to bring jobs he'sand get rid of isis,
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going to do all the things that he said he's going to do when people watch c-span. that the media, because the media out and out lies about anything. hillary clinton lies about anything. we have to have an honorable person with dignity and respect, and i know he is an outspoken person, he tells of the way it is. i wish america wake up. and kindly listen to donald trump when he says and not with what the lying scumbag media says, but what mr. donald trump says. it's really sad. the media should be held accountable for the way they lie. i'm surprised they don't get a defamation of character lawsuit. the people in charge of the media should be gone after, big time. and hillary clinton should, on the all those people convention thing, 99.9% of them lie through their teeth about him. it's a sad, sorry thing. host: charles, can i ask you a question?
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you have some college background. tell us a little bit about that. .s. degreehave a online. and i have common sense. if people think in a common sense way and use their said -- use their head for something inside the hat rack, he would be in the best interest for them and their kids. host: charles, we got your thoughts. let's go to chris, nottingham, maryland, postgraduate degree in higher. hello, how are you? caller: i'm doing well, thank you for c-span. i'm planning to vote for jill stein and the green party. i'm a previous bernie sanders support. i have been a lifelong democrat, but this past year has been terribly disenfranchising. a lifelongas democrat, i would never vote for donald trump. from his reasons. reasons.vious
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he is incredibly far right on the spectrum. host: what is it about jill stein and bernie sanders and you find common ground with? angelle share a pretty consistent platform. their stance against corporate financing in politics is equally strong, i believe. i think that hillary represents just lip service to that sort of issue. tohink the jill stein's call forgive student debt is particularly valuable to me. i'm a millennial postgraduate student. i owe money. is significant in the way it affects my daily life. i think that for other millennials, this is probably a massive issue, because there are very few other millennials --
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there are very few issues that affect my life quite so directly as the extraordinary amount of money i have to pay. family andlow income i got grants for most my bachelors education. host: what do you study? caller: i finished studying, have a masters degree in environment all science from the university of maryland. host: you are breaking up a little bit, thank you for calling. move on to david in maryland, he says he has some college. caller: good morning. thank you so much for c-span. caller,with the last but i'm voting for hillary clinton. i consider myself an votedndence, and i democrat. i voted republican. that whenize thecrats are in office,
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economy goes up. and when public and's or office, the economy goes down. and the body count of our servicemembers goes up. i think in the big scheme of things, even though i don't -- i would vote for hillary if bernie , i thinkas in the race that voting for jill stein -- i agree with her stimulus package of relieving student debt, i agree with that wholeheartedly. but i can't risk wasting my vote. i think donald trump is a danger. i think he is a loose cannon. i think he is just trying to get back at president obama. i think if you look at the big --eme of things, the economy it's bad because of the
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republicans in congress, not so much as the president. there's no president that going to be perfect, but i think hillary will do a good job. host: tell us about your college background. caller: i was 25 years in the military, i got a lot of my college -- almost a bachelors degree from going to school whenever i could. whenever i have the opportunity. i have an associates, and going back to school this fall. to finish my bachelors. host: what are you studying? caller: i'm going to get it in business, but my background is in electrical and mechanical technology. host: if you're just joining us, we're dividing the lines differently, corning to education level. asking you who are your voting for, based on polls that are taking on these kinds of topic, asking about college-level education. we want to get not only your
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decision on who you are to vote for, but tell us about your college background, if you have one, or if you don't have to one , shape what you do as far as how you make these decisions on who you are going to vote for. without a college degree, call (202) 748-8000. some college, call (202) 748-8001. if you have a college degree, call (202) 748-8002. if you have postgraduate or higher, call (202) 748-8003. "washington times," takes a look at the question of donald trump's foreign-policy team, this comes as a speech expected today in youngstown, ohio. the "washington times," singh donald trump doesn't need any of the foreign-policy bigwigs who signed a scathing open letter last week about his candidate -- about his candidacy. who does advise him about foreign-policy? it's a question made you -- many are anticipating. the biggest player was senator , who had ans
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repetition for bucking the party on foreign-policy points, such as nato's relevance and the need for free-trade deals long before mr. trump began underpinning his campaign with them. which of the extent in which mr. sessions is guiding mr. trump on those issues and others, including his statements against his praisegrants or for russian president letter prudent remains unclear. that speech of youngstown, ohio. that's a 2:00 this afternoon, you can see on c-span2 and listened for it on c-span radio. if you want to get more permission about the speech, go to c-span.org. we go next to eric in white plains, maryland, postgraduate student. what are you studying? caller: actually, i have a masters degree in sociology and my minor was in psychology. that's what i studied. host: who do you plan to vote
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for in november? caller: i'm voting for donald trump. i am black and i'm voting for donald trump. i lost a lot of friends. lot of friends, a lot of people just because i'm black and i'm voting for trump. i'm just so shocked, because a lot of people assume that if you are black, you have to vote democrat. i don't just understand my people. i want to tell them that you can be independent. you can make a choice. you don't belong to the democrats. and right now, i'm not happy about the press coverage. america, we used to look at the press, but the media is the fourth power. but i've never seen such a disgrace, because the media has just been so unfair. clinton has a closet full of skeletons. everybody talks about.
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everybody is trump, trump, trump. let's be fair. i'm just asking the media to be fair. he's not a politician. he's a businessman. give him a chance, like the chance was given to reagan. what would constitute fair coverage of donald trump, in your opinion? caller: fair coverage would constitute not just focusing on his mistakes, because he's not a with the polish on what is to tell the public, but also focused on his successes. ofnow the man has a couple bankruptcies, but he has a ton of successes. with everyclinton week we are learning stuff about her e-mails, and nobody talks about it. she is lying to us.
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that was eric, this is wrong. in andrews, north carolina. no college. welcome to the program. caller: no college, just a working man's ph.d.. host: who are you going to vote for? caller: i'm voting for donald trump. host: what is it about donald trump that interests you the most? caller: i have been keeping up with politics, i'm a vietnam combat veteran. i can think of a time that i kept up with politics pretty close. it makes a difference. so i keep up with it pretty good. when you get somebody like hillary who says she had that speech in michigan the other day back,she said i have your and i would ask her like you did in benghazi? , and they have her
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on video saying one thing, but she will get up there and say i didn't say that. i didn't hear it like that. she told the truth a couple weeks ago, but she's done it by accident what you said she was going to tax the middle class. i think the media is so unfair. i get so tired of hearing about him attacking the gold star family. that guy tax donald trump to begin with. and why don't they come out and tell about his background? he is a member of the muslim brotherhood, he's been trying to get sharia law passed in the united states. he is operative for the democrats. it -- whysome of
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don't somebody tell that side of it? host: william, with some college. caller: thank you for taking my call. i think people are concentrating on the wrong stuff. not all people. haveoth candidates stretched the truth quite a bit. realistically, the goals that they wish to get done, won't get done unless congress backs them. so it's not about the president's agenda, it's about what the agenda can do with congress backing them, and if it's legal through the supreme court. so the rhetoric has always been extreme, the rhetoric has always been large in part to what they
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say. --the end of the day, [indiscernible] host: who are you going to vote for? caller: i'm going to vote for mrs. clinton. host: considering what you just said, why her? day,r: at the end of the she has worked with congress. she knows of the day, policy. she, good of the day, or bad, has been in the thick of it. she's been in the sick of it. thick of it. why when i vote for someone who is not been party to expanding not just laws, but getting things done on the political
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level? host: what is your college background? caller: i've taken some college courses while it was in the navy and had taken some college courses since i have been employed. week,work 40 plus hours a and security. where you find yourself politically, was that shaped by college at all? caller: yes. somewhat shaped by college. i had a father who preached you have to watch as many difference -- of thehe media's media as possible. you had to read a newspaper. and when people gave speeches, no matter how boring, you had to sit and listen. believe you me, when c-span came on cable, my father had me down watching. host: that is william in maryland. another mayor landrieu, joe in silver springs. postgraduate. thank you for taking my
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call, thank you for c-span. host: what is your thinking as far as november is concerned? caller: i will be perfectly honest, to me, the whole election is a complete disaster. i don't think really there is much of a choice in this election. i'm actually going to vote for neither. --ink trump doesn't know and on the keynote anything about what he's talking about. everything he says changes from day to day. with hillary, it almost changes the same thing. it's almost the same thing, just a bit more subtle. even point to the vast amount of line. maybe even chalk up to her being a politician. her -- imy disdain for know she's got the experience and i know she's been at the top. i know she's worked with congress, it comes back to the
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iraq war, which is very unpopular. the middle of the war, when all ,eems lost, the surge was lost she voted against it and rally behind it and laid it -- later admitted it was a political stunt to gain for legal points, meanwhile, losing a war. to me, it suggested that as someone who doesn't really belong in the highest state of the land. the going is going to get tough. host: tells a little bit about your degree. degree i have a masters from gw, i did history. i was going to ask people of college shapes their political opinion or how they should -- how they think politically. is that the case for you? caller: yes and no. in many respects, deftly opened me up to a lot of different perspectives. --the same time, it's also college is one of those -- it's a wonderful place.
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dream, where one gets to but when you get out there and you work, there are very different perspectives, we spend most of your life working and then also what happens when you were in college. host: that is joe in silver spring. the wall street journal highlights the visit in scranton, pennsylvania that will be made by hillary clinton as she gives a speech on foreign policy and the vice president, joe biden, saying that scranton has long been a solidly democratic territory. mr. trump hope to change that, capitalizing on the economic stagnation and anger over illegal immigration. for mrs. clinton, a key challenge will be to prevent further erosion of her support among working-class rights -- working-class whites. a likely reason mr. biden has been tapped to aid her. c-span, andit on get more information about this speech and other events we are taking in during campaign 2016 at c-span.org. here is mac in germantown,
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maryland. he has some college. caller: good morning. glad to be on c-span this morning. the comment i wanted to make is about these two candidates. i'm kind of leaning towards the democrats, by the way. but unwillingly. is,thing about mr. trump he's talking about alienating the united states, and creating all these trade barriers. when you look back, people like donald trump made a lot of their wealth trading, doing business and china and bangladesh, creating his product overseas. and bring it back here to sell it. now, he is trying to create a trade barrier and shut other
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people out from using the very same opportunity to make wealth themselves. i mean, when i look around today, i see more of my friends, more people working for themselves today because they are able to buy the tools and the necessary things that they need to go into business for themselves. whether it's cleaning gutters or redoing homes, renovations. the tools today are now cheaper than they've ever been before. china, of the trade with and these other countries. host: you say you have some college behind you. tell us about your college career. caller: the thing is, i went to college, university of maryland eastern shore. but i never really got a degree.
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i did a lot of college courses. because of unfortunate situations in my life. ashley started out, i was making too much money to begin with is a college student. in the tech sector, i got sidetracked. but when i decided to go back to i had tragedyime, in my life, and i couldn't go. it's not quite all tragedy, but tragedies and good things also happened that prevented me from going to college. host: thank you, mac. fred from twitter as this, saying he is a college grad for of theadding democrats federal level are criminal, i'm not voting or supporting criminal. we divided the lines differently, by educational levels. if you want to choose one that best represents you and give us a call, tell us if you plan to vote for in november. we will do that for the next 20 minutes or so. ,rom california, this is pam
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postgraduate person. what is your educational background? caller: i have an undergraduate degree from cal state l.a., and a law degree from loyola law school. host: tell us a little bit about your plans for november. what is your thinking as far as who you will vote for? caller: i'm going to hold my nose and vote for trump. host: what led you to that decision? the irs, lois lerner, the secret service stuff that just came out about the alcohol and the coercion, the e-mails, the state department covering up for hillary. , theustice department's misuse of funds, the misuse of power. bowe bergdahl's parents at the rose garden, the v.a. situation, that was really painful. you said hold your nose
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and vote for trump, who was the candidate of choice for you? caller: at first, i thought let's go with a non-politician, i never considered hillary, to be honest with you. because of way back, i was one of the few, very few people in the united states supporting monica lewinsky, because i felt old, thewas 22 years president was 50 something, he had all the power. i felt that the country was against monaco. and she was a girl. she was being taken into the president's bathroom and performing sexual acts on the president. as expedition. anyways, hillary without, because she stuck with her husband, and i was in a long-term marriage, i understand maybe you have to. but just the whole thing.
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host: let's hear from steve. lewis center, ohio. college graduate. hello, steve. caller: thank you for c-span. host: where did you go to college? caller: ohio state university. my major was accounting, i'm a certified public accountant, a certified information auditor and a certified internal auditor. host: what is your thinking about a number? -- about november? about: for me, it's issues. businessman,is the donald trump talks and every time he gives an answer, he's already bargaining. he's already setting the floor. most people don't understand his rhetoric. issue,understands the and something about when you put microphone in his hand, i go more by his kids. i think his kids say more about him and his character.
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i think core values are very important. i don't have to agree with him on everything, but for me, it is issues. and from that standpoint, he has all the issues. 106 million people were qualified to vote in the 2012 presidential election and did not. i think we're going to see those people come out. 72% of those people are white, by the way. i think you are going to see the greatest turnout in the history of this country. and they are going to prove that abraham lincoln was right. you can fool all of the people some of the time and some of the people all the time, but you can't fool all of the people all of the time. the american people are very trusting, and i think they will figure out, they will pick the best person on the issues. not the emotion, the issues. host: what is the top issue for you and where it is donald trump fall in line with that? caller: i hate to quote carville, but it's jobs, jobs, jobs. that is will get this economy going.
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you start with that, it talked about energy, security, borders. he has all the main issues. he set the agenda. whether people like it or not, he really does get it. you may not like his rhetoric, he may go off, i think he gets a little ticked off about the whole thing the way he is treated. he's not used to being treated this way. he is definitely not the establishment. and those people in the establishment are scared to death. what people should consider is not only that he's getting support, because as president, he also is going to need the help of congress. host: got you, steve. robert in poor richie, florida. did you go to university of florida? caller: i did not, my son did. i went to duquesne university in pittsburgh, pennsylvania. i got a degree in pharmacy. i'm retired now. host: who you like in november? caller: i like gary johnson.
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for several reasons. first, he has executive experience as being governor in new mexico. and he was reelected. they must've seen something in him they are also. ditto with his vice president candidate weld. ands fiscally conservative socially more liberal. i'm a moderate. you have to look at both sides of the coin. the other candidates have made , which so many promises every candidate does, that i think there is so much animosity built up toward them that i do not think they can work with the congress, where gary johnson has proven he could. host: your son is going to college.
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who's he going to vote for? caller: his wife? i don't know. i'm tried to persuade him to go with gary. host: let us hear from charles in savannah, georgia. thanks for calling in. caller: good morning. calling about how corrupt the government is at this moment. government, you have a president who doesn't know he is getting long information about his army. when he does find out, nobody's fire. general whoattorney and who iseople being investigated. she has secret meetings with
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them. you have the fbi, who all of a intent a person without all of a sudden is not held responsible. i can hold of the bank and not intend to rob a bank, so i should not go to jail. goes, he donald trump should take all these surveys that they have taken with him audiencesont of his and terror them up -- ted them up and let him know that he has thousands of people showing up to his events. when it comes to hillary clinton's events, she has maybe 200 or 300. you have the people that supporting trump and show up at
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his events. they have friends that do support him and those that are not being surveyed also are supporting him. host: charles, you are going to support donald trump? caller: i cannot support a crooked government. how can anyone support a government where it's completely crooked from top to bottom? got a dance, you've that don't prosecute nobody. you have an administration that anytime you have a problem with the administration, nobody is held accountable. host: got you, charles. postgraduate here voting for hillary clinton, same watching an immensely unhinged person getting to the white house is too frightening.
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those comments off of twitter this morning. if you want to post on our twitter page, it is at http://twitter.com/cspanwj. the washington post has a look at nuclear weapons policy to looking at behind-the-scenes actions going on in college. republican lawmakers are seeking to change or be up nuclear defenses, saying it comes down to one word. that word is limited. that defines the type a strike that the united states guards against by tightly controlling the number of ballistic missiles in the country's arsenal. now congress is planning to remove that word and potentially replace it with a more robust substitute, letting the next president significantly ramp up production, modernization, and development of defensive weapons and bigger nuclear powers. proponents of the unprecedented change, led by representative senator texasnd
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of texas, believe it is necessary to help the united states respond to increased threats from nations such as russia and china. congress adopted the limited standard as part of the national missile defense act of 1999 at a time when u.s. ballistic missile defense was already constrained by the now defunct anti-ballistic missile treaty. since then, relations with russia and china have worsened. a postgraduate student, hello. caller: how are you? host: tell us a little bit about your educational background. caller: liberal arts, nothing special. [laughter] i did want to call because i have major complaint with "washington journal." we need to be talking about other things other than these two candidates. it's a long way to november. there's a riot happening across the country, ok? we have lots of problems and i think c-span is turning a blind eye to a lot of our problems by talking about these two people.
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lunatic and itive do not know how anyone can vote for him and hillary clinton is a thief and a liar. i i'm afraid if i turn around that she would talk my silverware in her purse. one thing before you cut me off and interrupt me, i want to see my black representation on c-span. on "washington journal." i do not mean bought and paid for commerce people. i want to see more black writers and activists and things of that nature on c-span and "washington journal." host: you major point. those.address we talked about the right issues yesterday on the program and we have people from a wide spectrum of backgrounds. caller: no, you don't.. c-span every morning and i see that same people at the same faces talk about the same thing day in and day out. host: go to our website and type in these concerns and things that you bring up and see what comes up.
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i will show you that there is a wide spectrum of diverse opinions represented on this program. to the question at point, who do you plan to vote for in november? hear fromwant to americans about things that matter to us, not about these two clowns running for president. host: let's go to dolores in tennessee, no college background. good morning. caller: good morning. i worked in a factory that made furniture that people use. to children going to college and thank god in heaven for that. this is what i'm going to second they are sittin say. they are sitting up there talking about crooked hillary. what about crooked donald trump? they lost 3000 jobs in and not talking about that. they're going to be family members losing homes and everything is going to be in jeopardy. they are sitting up there
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talking about crooked hillary. what about cricket donald trump? stealing from the people and lying and saying he was giving money to veterans. when he got caught, he went to try to put the money in those places. i sit up and watch you all for many years and i'm proud of the people you all have on here . host: thanks for calling first of all. are you going to vote for hillary clinton this november? caller: that's what i'm getting ready to tell you. yes, i am. she has made mistakes. they found her innocent of the crimes they said she did. of them and tired talking about e-mails. bringingails are not anything to the table. it's not helping my children go to college. wake up, america. donald trump is a con man coul he i. he is a liar. what child won't speak highly of
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their parents? they can go out there and tell , but heh on the daddy will cut their money off. host: looking at the flooding taken place in louisiana and pictures from youngstown, louisiana courtesy of a photographer there. the president has officially declared a disaster request for several of the parishes yesterday. they include east baton rouge, livingston, st. helena, and that is according to the station out there. the story in "usa today" this morning. chris from pineville, new jersey. some college background -- what were you studying? computer technology. i'm an industrial maintenance mechanic in a manufacturing job. an getting a little over $25
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hour. i will vote for donald trump a matter what, unless i die. other than that, i will vote for him. i've contributed to his campaign multiple times and i have yard signs in my yard. i've t-shirts that are anti-hillary. i will not tell you what they say. host: what is it about donald trump that one you over? caller: everything, except for one issue. he gets a pass. he could shoot someone on 5th avenue and i would still have a love for him no matter what. host: what is the issue that he gets a pass on? lgbt.: i do not like the i'm a white male, blue collar, working-class, christian conservative. i'm authentic in every way except that i do not believe he is really a true christian. int: let us hear from mark
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lake jackson, tennessee. welcome to the program. caller: yes, that is taxes. host: did you go to the university of texas? caller: i went to purdy university could host. host: what did you study? caller: engineering. host: in november, with who are you going with? caller: i'm going to vote for gary johnson. host: what led you to that decision? caller: he is logical and honest and he has experience as an executive. have as far as people you voted for before, would you mind sharing who you voted for in past elections? caller: mostly republicans. host: was that shaped in college? how does that work? -- it was shipped
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from life experiences after college. host: you voted for republicans and now turning around to gary johnson. ,s far as your support of him when you talk to people about giving your support to him, what is the reaction that you get? caller: i do not really talk about him very much. [laughter] i don't. i normally do not try to persuade people how to vote. host: got you. you should know that last week gary johnson was the guest on our "newsmakers" program. if you have not watched it, i invite you to go to c-span.org to watch that program and listen to your candidate of choice and see what he has to say. caller: right. can i comment more on issues? host: if you want to pick one, go ahead. caller: ok, i think the biggest issue in the united states is national debt.
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if we do not get control of that , than all the other issues will become irrelevant. johnson ise that mr. the only candidate out there who has any kind of plan that makes sense relative to the financial debt. host: let us hear from tonya from washington state. good morning. how are you? caller: good. how are you doing? host: fine, thank you. have a i college degree and landscaping in the 1990's and i also have a psychology degree. i am voting for clinton. have beenhe people listening to and i work with a lot of elderly men. a lot of their responses is voting for trump. part of that seems to be because
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of the old-school thinking of women belong in the home and this type of thing. as everyoneing off saying crooked hillary. no one is looking into trump's background and what about all the students and every thing else? he is actually not releasing his taxes and there's a reason for that. president, wethe are going to be in a lot of trouble. even some of the women that i am hearing, and i know we go with the educated thing, but i'm sorry. even if you're are educated in nutrition, you're going to eat better. showing education regardless will always give you a better edge. what is happening is that a lot of these men are really against
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women. and it shows. of them andso many they are polite to me and nice to me and they like me, and i do not try to sway their minds or anything, but at the same time, they just can't get that old-school mentality out of their head. especially against women and thinking that women are lesser than. upt lady that brought hillary's husband years ago -- you know what? leave it in the past. that was her husband and not hillary who did that. you know what? a 22-year-old girl could have said no. i understand the power, but do not be bring up that kind of silly stuff. host: you will be the last call on the topic. a couple of headlines to show you. the lead story in "the wall street journal" looks at
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democrats worrying about leaks 2.0 on wordpress. phone numbers being released and concerns about more information being leaked, especially towards democrats. that is "wall street journal" headline. donald at paul manafort, trump's campaign chairman, and ties to ukraine. it's a story that appears in the lead section of "the new york times." our discussion in the next segment turns to the zika virus. the outbreak that you have been hearing about in florida and parts of the caribbean. joining us for a discussion on what the u.s. is doing and the federal response is donald mcneil and he is author of the book, "zika: emerging epidemic." we will look at campaign 2016 and how donald trump and hillary
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clinton are fighting for battleground states. read wilson from the hill will isa long for that discussion "washington journal" continues. ♪ >> throughout this month, we are showing book tv programs during the week and primetime. takes on ourspan2 public affairs programming and focuses on the latest nonfiction book releases the author interviews and book discussions. our signature programs are in depth. it is the first sunday of every month at noon eastern. afterwards as a one-on-one conversation between an author of a new leak not released fiction book and a legislator familiar with the topic, and often with an opposing view . afterwards airs saturdays.
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he will take you across the country, visiting book festivals and book parties where authors talk about their latest work. book two views the only national network devoted exclusively to nonfiction books. television for serious readers. >> the c-span radio app makes it easy to continue to follow the 2016 election wherever you are. it is free to download from apple app store or google play. get audio coverage and up-to-the-minute schedule information for c-span radio and c-span television, plus podcast times for popular public affairs , book, and history programs. stay up-to-date on all the election coverage. c-span's radio app means you always have c-span on the go. announcer: "washington journal" continues. host: joining us from new york is donald mcneil. hughes a science and health reporter from "the new york times." he's also the author of the
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" zika: the emerging epidemic." where are we as far as the epidemic as well? where's a concentrated and where is it spreading? guest: it is still emerging. this is the epidemic hitting the hemisphere. it is in brazil at the end of last year and has been spreading northward and a little bit southward. it reached for the last month. -- florida last month. there's more than quite a few travel related cases because people went to countries that have it, but now we have local transmission by florida. host: what are the common forms of transmission? guest: the most common form is mosquito borne transmission. concentrated down in florida and the gulf coast.
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the cdc is assuming is going to be limited mostly to the most tropical parts of the south, florida all the way over to houston. there could be an outbreak and hawaii because there has been a related disease, but nobody knows yet. host: as far as the -- guest: the second form of transmission is sexual transmission, mostly male to female or male to other male. there is one known case of female to male transmission. this is an incredibly sneaky virus. nobody has ever seen a mosquito-borne virus that is also sexually transmitted. nobody has ever seen a mosquito borne virus that attacks babies in the womb and causes devastating birth affects, either killing them or destroying lives. host: could you give a further excavation as to what zika is and how it works? viruslike yellow fever, but for most people who
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get it, even children, anybody who gets it it's a mild disease. pregnant, anytime and her pregnancy, it is able to reach the fetus an attack the fetus's brain. babies have been born blind, deaf, and unable to grip their limbs. clearly they are never going to be able to walk or talk. in the most severe cases, they have microcephaly, which is a tiny shrunken head with an undeveloped brain. some of them survive, but they have very little life. they can basically breathe and i just but not do a whole lot -- and i just but not do a whole lot else. host: if an adult contracts it, what are the symptoms? what is the damage, so to speak? guest: there really is not much
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damage if adult contracts it. it's a bothersome disease, but it's a rash, redeye, low-grade fever. it usually goes away in a week to 10 days. there is about a one in 5000 chance of a syndrome that could be quite serious. it is a form of creeping paralysis, a little like polio. it usually goes away. it's a one in 4000 to one and 5000 risk. we live with that level of risk everyday by taking automobiles. it is not the most devastating consequence. the most devastated consequence is to babies. host: donald mcneil is our guest and is trying us to talk about zika virus and what we have seen in the u.s. and other responses. if you want to ask a question, you can do so on the phone lines. republicans -- (202) 748-8001. democrats (202) 748-8000.
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(202) 748-8002. your book, mr. mcneil, what caused you to get interest in this virus in the first place? guest: it was a slow week after christmas last year and i was looking for an item to write. i saw a headline out of brazil that said officials in the health administration had asked mothers in brazil to stop having children if they could. i was just shocked by the. at. you never hear governments asking women to stop having children. i thought what the world is this? i saw that they had this outbreak of microcephaly in northeast brazil. they were not positive, but the clearest expiration seem to be that nine months earlier there had been this outbreak of a mysterious mosquito-borne virus, that was actually a relatively mild disease, but nobody
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expected anything terrible from it. suddenly one after another, babies were being born with these horrible birth defects. i started writing about it immediately and are bureau chief in brazil started writing about it too. i've been writing about it full-time since then. host: the responses that you have seen on the ground, particular from miami, florida, you have seen pictures of suited up men and workers trying to combat that. tell us what is going on on the ground there and we see these pictures. what are we seeing? that ait is clear mosquito in one part of miami is transmitting the virus. the cdc and the state of florida are hoping they can limit that someone square miles of territory and they are essentially killing mosquitoes. whether or not they can do that remains to be seen. puerto rico is absolutely
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overrun by the virus. puerto rico is farther to the south and has a lot more mosquitoes and does not have as good mosquito control. florida has the best mosquito control in the world, but that does not mean they can beat it. they had an outbreak of men gue and they started fighting it when they had three cases. we will see what happens. i'm waiting to see if the one square mile was justified. they are doing traditional mosquito killing techniques. you have aerial spraying in spring of trees and bushes. you also have love aside into ponds and swimming pools to kill the juvenile mosquitoes. it is tough to do because miami is a big urban area. fighting it in key west is a small island, fairly wealthy. this is miami, florida with a much more diverse population and
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they do not want federal agents on the property killing mosquitoes. they're willing to say this is my property, stay off it, i have a gun. it can be tough to kill mosquitoes in an environment like that. host: again, a health reporter for "the new york times," donald mak mcneil. we will start in alabama on the independents line. caller: good morning. my question was in september of 2014, the genetically modified brazil to released in fight the dengue fever, could there be a correlation between the two that caused the epidemic of the zika virus? guest: no. are first ofoes all all-male. they do not bite humans and
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cannot transmit the disease. they have been released and a lot of laces -- grand cayman islands, panama, other places. where they released in brazil is 1700 miles away from where the epidemic was in brazil. mosquitoes only fly less than a mile in their lives. it's like the distance from here to bismarck, north dakota. it would be hard to believe that a lease of mosquitoes from bismarck, north dakota would cause an epidemic in new york. just because something is genetically modified does not the silly mean that you're going to glow like a jellyfish or have the terminator gene. there is really no connection between a mosquito borne disease and a change in one small gene of mosquitoes that causes it to die early. it's modifications that they made in the mosquito gene. host: matt, you are next. go ahead. caller: thanks for taking my
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call and thanks for c-span. i had a question for mr. mcneil if he had written or covered the partisan aspect of this, the bickering between congress and the obama administration and not being able to pass some sort of budget for this. i see in "the washington times" that they are taking money out of cancer research, aids programs, just to be able to combat this. is that a temporary fix or are they going to figure something out on a budgetary front? guest: the first thing i should say is that i am a science reporter. my nightmares covering washington. i let my colleagues cover that so i watch as an interested observer rather than political correspondent. money is needed to fight epidemics whether it is swine flu, whether it is stars,
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whether it is ebola. congress has to pass money in order to fight these things. you cannot pull money out of one pocket very easily. the only agency and the federal government that has a lot of discretionary funds is the military. i would not be surprised that the military is ultimately called in to fight zika. it has been in other countries in the hemisphere. the republican attitude in congress is take the money we gave you for ebola and use it to light the -- fight zika. they are thinking the ebola epidemic and his quicker than expected, so there must be money left over. public health funding and funding for epidemics is woefully underfunded in this country. a lot of the ebola money went to
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creating things in africa that are needed to fight diseases that might come here. we do not want lots of fever coming here. we do not want congo crimean fever coming here. to setf that money went up surveillance networks to do things that are extremely useful for protecting united states . some of that money was spent and some of it was committed. yeah, the cdc and the hhs put some money from that budget. now they're taking it from other budgets. disease keep the spreading, they're going to have to come up with the money to fight it. right now, the disease is still spreading. i did not expect it to be limited to one square mile in miami. before the summer is over, we are want to see a lot more of zika in the country. i think it was probably going to take more money. like a said, i'm a science reporter and not a political reporter. host: $81 million transferred
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over to biomedical research -- the story in "the new york times." lawmakers talking about how the money should be marked and spent. democrats block consideration of your republican measure that would allocate $1.1 billion to fight zika but what of band money to planned parenthood. nancy pelosi at a press conference last week talked about money for zika research, adding her concerns as far as the budget. here's part of what she had said. [video clip] >> what is it with them that they do not understand? just because it is a disease you use contraception? onrant them their position many issues and they have a different philosophy, but come on. come back. do the job. any time i see one of our republican colleagues, i asked what was it that you accomplished during your break that was more important than the health and well-being in the
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safety and security of the american people? host: let's go to new jersey to pat on her republican line. go ahead. caller: i would like to know given human to human transmission, i realize that it is still early in the presence of zika in the u.s., but do you know how long someone can transmit the disease once they are infected? given that, how safe is our blood supply going to be in the future? not everybody who gets zika is capable of sexually transmitting it. it has been a surprise to learn that some viruses can get into the testicles basically and set up an infection there. that is not universally the case . only some men who get zika get infections deeply enough into their immunologically privileged areas to pass on the disease.
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originally it is found only two months in the semen and now they have found it for about six months. what they have found is viral rna and not clearly a live virus. it is still kind of an open question to scientists. the cdc's attitude so far is look at what we found for what we think is a live virus for two months. let's say that people should not have unprotected sex if the woman is thinking of getting pregnant and six months. they take the known danger period and triple it. anyone who is pregnant should avoid unprotected sex with a man who has had as zika infections of the length of the pregnancy. a man can have a zika infection without any symptoms. people can get zika and are not able to transmit sexually, but it's very hard to test somebody. you cannot run tests on
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everybody who is having sex with women bring it to the country. on the blood supply, there is testing of the blood supply. they are not perfect. they're pretty good. inre is a window period which any blood test will miss an infection because it has not multiplied in the number of blood and needs to. i think the period is eight days. one thing that the blood bank industry does this that when you know an area has he get infection, they stop accepting new blood from the area. there's also pathogen activation technology that can kill the virus. we do not use that in cold blood, but we use that in hemophiliacs and things like that. it's an unusual technology, but it is used for things like that. host: next up is christine from alabama. you're on with our guest.
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caller: mr. mcneil, i was listening and heard you are a science reporter. wondering if you have a specific science background. obviously mosquitoes are the transmission source of the zika, but what is the mutation source of the virus and how did that originate? is there a vaccine currently in development with the cdc's? ? thank you. guest: ok, i haven' have an undergraduate degree in rhetoric from uc berkeley. the science is basically self-taught from being a reporter in science. i was a reporter in africa and segued into covering eight. when i came back to new york, i started covering diseases in general and i cover the infectious diseases that her people out in the poor countries of the world and also might reach countries like this one.
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zika is a good example of that. the second question is what is the mutation? we do not really know that there is any important mutation in zika that has made it more dangerous or more transmissible. the disease has been known about since 1947. it was in monkeys in africa in 1947. it was found to be in humans by the 1950's. disease,f this mild nobody started testing for it really until about 2007 when it turned up on islands and the cdc went to investigate the outbreak of the mystery disease. that is when they really begin to start characterizing the virus. there is no obvious mutation in the virus that makes it more dangerous to babies or more transmissible among humans. thatyou have a population has never had a disease before any start transition, you can get a love transmission of that disease.
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a classic example is when white people came to this country and brought all their diseases onto the american indian population. american indians have never had measles, smallpox, tuberculosis, lots of diseases. 90% of them were wiped out within a couple of generations by the diseases that were introduced. we are seeing something like that was zika and that we have a totally naive population and all the americas from here down the argentin -- to argentina. it is a relatively mild disease except for babies. the question on the next scene no, there is no vaccine now. there probably will be a vaccine. it is not like malaria or aids. it appears to be something that we can make a vaccine against pretty easily because it is related to yellow fever and and japanese encephalitis. there are vaccines for those and it worked pretty well.
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even though the vaccines are being made and just being tested now, it still takes two years protesting -- for testing. to acancer drugs given sick person, you can get quite extreme mental with them. with a vaccine, you can give it to a healthy person and your target is a woman who has a baby or is about to have a baby. that is the most honorable population. -- vulnerable population. you want to be dead sure that the vaccine is as safe as it can be before handing it out. that testing is expected to take two years. another thing that will complicated that is that it epidemic peaksm&a' very fast. declared it effectively over. if there is not an epidemic around to test the vaccine, we may never get the final test of those vaccines.
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the beck's say two years minimum for the vaccine. -- best experts say two years minimum for the vexing. vaccine. host: on twitter, do you anticipate athletes coming back from rio to return with the virus? guest: no, we're not hearing reports of athletes suffering from symptoms. i was expecting that. i did not hear it. i should say i was not expecting it very much because this is rio's winter. it does not mean it is cold, but there's no snow around. it is in the 70's rather than being in the 90's. transmissionio peaks with all those diseases and there's relatively low transmission. this been an epidemic of zika in rio. a lot of the population has heard immunity.
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the mosquitoes cannot pick it up from them and go to the athletes. i was unsure what would happen the games before started, but now that the games of started, there does not look like a hole in the transmission. i do not expect any big transfer of it back to this country or any other country. host: donald mcneil is the author of "zika: the emerging epidemic." let us hear from martha from connecticut. go ahead. caller: my question was asked and answered if you were a scientist. he said that you had no background, but for reporting you have an excellent background. my question is this. ,ow would we in connecticut being the distance that you stated for takes for it to fly or travel, how would it get to the states with this disease
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basically being a south american disease? how did it come here in the first place? was there stagnant water? guest: no, no, no. caller.t you, guest: it is people, not mosquitoes. a lot of diseases go around the world even in the noses of people or in the blood of people. in chinaet on a plane and be in the united states in less than a day. particular bad flu, you can transmit it to the next person you see. you can transmit it on the .irplane this is a mosquito borne disease, but it's also a blood-borne disease. you get infected in brazil or puerto rico or the dominican republic are virtually anywhere and then you fly to this country. if you are in the right place, you can section transmitted to your partner. at the right mosquitoes are in
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place, they can transfer to other people. that could it takes it takes about a week for it to get from the gut to the salivary glands. yet to remember that there are 3000 different types of mosquitoes in the world. only one species is, and united states that transmits the virus could -- is common in the united states and transmit the virus. almost never in connecticut. a super hot, super wet summer, there's a possibility of mosquitoes turning up late in august or september, but it's not a big risk. the real risk is in florida, alabama, mississippi, houston,
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and it's mostly in the cities. you have mosquitoes bite a lot of people and then more mosquitoes get infected and then you have an oral virus going on. when you have people outside the cities, you do not normally get outbreaks of these mosquito borne diseases. that is why yellow fever is mostly a forest disease. they are having some giant outbreaks and cities in africa right now. ohio, on the independent line, good morning. caller: thanks for taking my call. i'm an indian-pakistani general practitioner and i live in ohio. i go from india to pakistan years ago and i came to the u.s. in 2005 because of extremist people. he was an isis recruiter
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actually. i came here and faced the zika virus and its dangers. it's a mosquito borne infection that was first identified in africa in 1947. it has spread across the world since the first reported case in brazil in 2015. it is a very male infection. is behindbelieve it the number of children being born with unusually small heads. host: we have already got that from our guest this morning. what would you like to ask him specifically? caller: what is the best way to if they get this disease and catch it? i think education is the most important thing these days for people to actually know about a viruslike zika. host: thank you.
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guest: i did not quite understand the question. what is the best way to treat people? host: he was talking about educating people. what is the best way to educate people? posters, tv ads, radio ads. you have to reach people to every medium there is. in new york city, they had posters up in the subways in april. that education has to be pointed towards the risk. in new york city, they had these posters up in the subways in april and may talking about mosquitoes. armor looking at the posters and thinking of giant mosquitoes and thinking it is really cold and windy out there. dangerousno mosquitoes around right now, but at the same time, there are people coming back from puerto rico and other countries in south america with this disease. there ought to be pictures of good-looking guys on these posters rather than mosquitoes because they are the only transmission risk.
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you have to think about the risk that you are facing and then you have to give people fairly detailed information in a way that they can understand and is not too scary for them. people need to understand that this is not the doomsday virus. this is not a giant threat. threat tovery serious unborn children, but everybody else, it's not a very serious threat. this should not be any panic about this, but there should be extreme care that women who are pregnant or thinking of getting pregnant stay away from these areas or think about not being pregnant during that time if they have to be in the area because it's a real risk. the chances of getting it are small, but the downside is absolutely terrible. that is something that city health authorities and public health authorities and anybody else communicating with the public should do. from robert ine indiana, republican line. good morning. caller: how are you? host: well, thanks.
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we talk about funding for the zika virus. why don't we take it from planned parenthood or whatever they call it? we are killing our children for no good reason. host: tony will be up next. tony is in california on the republican on line. caller: how are you doing this morning? i would like to know how i disease from 1947 becomes an epidemic in 2015. where is the transmission factor at where this is all of a sudden a big issue? when i was a kid, i got bit by plenty of mosquitoes never had to worry about zika. now in 2016, all of a sudden you have got to watch mosquitoes. can you explain it at least? guest: can i ask where you are bitten by mosquitoes as a kid? host: he is already left us. sorry about that. guest: there was a time when
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getting bitten by mosquitoes in this country could lead you to have malaria and other dangerous diseases. change over time -- the transmission changes. the disease was discovered in 1947 in africa and never came to this country unlike yellow fever that did not come to the country with the slave trade, but some diseases did. it went at some point from africa to asia. it circulated there. because it's a mild disease, no one really paid attention to it. it's tough to test diseases when you do not know what it is. when someone has just a mild fever and a rash, unless you have a specific test for that thing, you don't know what it is. it took five years for research to realize the virus was in the monkey in africa in 1947 that
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was not yellow fever or dengue or forced fever. there were lots of diseases out there that most people were happy they do not know the names of. this happens to be one that traveled the world. because it was mild, nobody noticed it. epidemics of malaria and other serious diseases, but nobody really notices this one. it really circulated under the radar. it was in micronesia and the yap islands. an epidemic, but it was mild and thought to be unimportant. a test was created because the cdc went to investigate that epidemic because we had a relationship ever since world war ii with those islands. it infected 66% of the islands within seven months.
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that is where they discover there was a connection to the paralysis. they had a bunch of people hospitalized with paralysis there. they did not make the connection of microcephaly and damage to the babies because it does not damage every baby. brazil,when it came to you had a situation where you had millions of cases because you had people crowd together in slums. yet that all these factors. to have jet travel in order for people to put the virus in the blood quickly enough to transmit it quickly . you have to have populations crowded and urban slums, which you had in brazil. tapped people who tend to give birth and hospitals, because that is when you notice something like microcephaly. it might have only been five cases of microcephaly in a hospital, but they knew that was unusual because normally doctors
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and those hospitals were only seen one case of microcephaly every two or three years. suddenly they have five and one hospital and they realize something serious is going on here. there are diseases under the radar that we do not know about right now that we will hear about in the next few years. it is the kind of thing that keeps me employed that new diseases are always popping up . host: charlie from kentucky on independent line. caller: thanks to c-span for contributing to the public to discourse. what do the bill i'm on the gates foundation know about mosquitoes? can they help with this problem? guest: bill and melinda gates foundation has a lot of people who are experts in mosquitoes. withare playing some role zika. it takes him a while to ramp up.
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i know they give money to puerto rico to help get the message out that people need to take the disease seriously, because puerto rico is so broke that they had no money for public service ads or tv spots. i've not look specifically into this, selection not try to answer the question without digging into it. they have mosquito experts who ,re normally experts in malaria dengue, and other diseases. they are giving money. right now, most of the budget for other countries is coming from the country's own mosquito fighting efforts. you do not have to give a lot of money to brazil or other countries. they have mosquito disease all the time and they need to fight them. in the united states, a lot of that money is coming to the state of florida. they're fighting the skaters and you -- all the time
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the taxpayers to pay for their own protection. i would not count on this is something that the gates foundation has to do. fighting ebola in africa when it was coming to this country was something that every american should take interest in. he cannot run to foundations every time you want money. look, this is in your own self-interest. pony up taxes now and make sure that your own family is protected. host: the book is "zika: the emerging epidemic," written by our guest. donald mcneil is joining us. amy in richmond, virginia. your next. caller: i'm really glad that you're having this program on this morning. i do feel that people really have a lack of education about this disease and about mosquitoes.
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i came in late on the show and i do not know if you were talking about the best way to illuminate mosquitoes. mosquitoes. it seems like people panic and spray all these pesticides and everything. i think some of those people do not realize that you can have overkill on pesticides. when they're having all this outbreak in brazil and i saw those men on tv just fumigated all over the place, i can understand the fear of pregnant women getting the disease, but i kept thinking the stuff that they are spraying all over everywhere could be just as bad for babies. i wish you could speak a little bit about this on how to kill mosquitoes around your yard. once they are born, they do not fly 50 miles.
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in a smallo stay short of area. i wonder if you could speak about that. host: thanks, caller. guest: ok, i really don't agree that there is any equality between the risk from pesticide and the risk from this virus. we know this virus destroys babies. that people have an irrational fear of pesticides. pesticides are not the whole answer. we are talking about one mosquito here. it's a mosquito that loves to bite humans. it does not run off and bite birds or deer or horses. it likes to lay its eggs in relatively clean water, like in a birdbath or swearin swimming pools.
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those are the kinds of places. they will get inside your house and lay eggs in your shower drains. mosquito that likes to live in very close proximity to humans. it tends to breed in human gardens. it will hide in your bed or in your closet until it is quiet enough and safe enough to come out and bite. the cdc refers to it as the cockroach of mosquitoes because it likes to hang around humans and hide in dark places. difficult for mosquitoes to transmit was mild virus and some of the others. pesticides are dangerous if you inhale large amounts. if you are an agricultural worker and are getting them on your hands or breathing large clouds of them, but the occasional truck passing through or fog in your garden is not a
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big risk. unborn child. it's like an irrational fear of deet and other chemicals in this country. it is bad science. it is fear of something that is not really tha that dangerous. many more babies will be kept safe if this mosquito is beaten then if we ignore the mosquito because of an irrational fear of pesticides. host: coastal pennsylvania on the democrats line, go ahead. caller: i have to say that i've heard several different discussions about where babies are being affected. i understand that it's a very limited space that is not the brazil and french polynesia. am i wrong in that? our babies in puerto rico being born with microcephaly? it might be accommodation where
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there might be a outbreak and there is concern that there is a combination of other viruses like people already have the dengue virus or some type of agricultural chemicals in common nation. hast true that microcephaly been local to only two locations babies born with microcephaly in other areas? thank you. guest: the epidemic in french inynesia began and ended 2013 and 2014. there since. -- there is not been a case there since. than 1700 had more cases of microcephaly. inre has been microcephaly colombia, the kit for the islands, panel -- the cape verdean islands, mexico.
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there's been microcephaly in puerto rico. there been a number of babies born with microcephaly in the although its is mother she picked it up in other countries and have the babysiies here. there was some suspicion that it was necessary to be -- that there might be what is called anti-body dependent enhancement, which creates that having had dengue fever before makes it more likely that you have a serious case of zika or microcephaly and a baby. that has not been proven. it seems possible a woman can just get zika virus and have severe damage to her baby. the jury is still out. but it looks as if zika alone
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can cause the condition. sorry, i have forgotten one part of the question. host: it is ok. guest: about the agricultural chemicals. the chemicals have nothing to do with it. most of this disease struck people who live in urban areas, often the large slums. they live where there are no agricultural chemicals at all. that was an absolute red herring. host: let's take one more call from him in florida, republican line. caller: hello? host: go ahead. caller: i just wanted to tell you that i am 77 years old. i am not having any more babies. i'm not having any more sex. i have lived in florida for 14 years. i have never seen a mosquito. i have never gotten bit by a mosquito in florida, so what are my chances of getting the zika virus? guest: where do you live in
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florida that you have never seen a mosquito? it would depend on where you live in florida and whether there is local transmission. congratulations, i guess, being safe from sexual transmission. mosquito transmission in southern florida right now is a risk. right now, it is confined to one neighborhood in miami. but that does not mean it will spread later in the year. we are waiting to see what happens. if you can avoid all this kilobytes in florida, you are doing a great job of personal public health. a lot of other people are at risk. it remains dangerous for pregnant women in florida, gently dangerous for pregnant women in florida for the rest of the season. zika: thebook is " zik emerging epidemic" written by donald mcneil. thank you for your time this
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morning. campaign 2016 will be the topic with our guest, steve wilson. later, we are going to look at jupiteruno probe to that will hopefully send back detailed images of the planet. a billion-dollar price tag for the project. join us to talk about that project. later in the program. "washington journal" after this -- continues after this. [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2016] [captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit ncicap.org] you can watchrg,
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up-to-the-minute schedule information for c-span radio and television, plus podcast times for our public -- popular public affairs programs. stay up-to-date on all the election coverage. means youadio app always have c-span on the go. >> "washington journal" continues. host: joining us now, reid wilson with "the hill." good morning. are there new battleground states emerging this cycle? guest: the clinton campaign is not calling them battleground states. they are calling them expansion states. even if they don't win, they will force your republicans to play defense. a senior in chicago, clinton official was talking to democratic state legislators. they let me in the room for some reason. she mentioned a couple of states in particular. arizona and georgia are where the clinton campaign is starting to invest staff. no democrat has seriously
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competed there since bill clinton who won georgia in 1992 in arizona in 1996. that was because ross perot was on the ballot. now you have a very different type of candidate on the ballot, so the clinton campaign thinks they can expand in those states. they have hired senior staff in both places. they are starting to open offices. one of the things they are paying attention to is the fact that both states have competitive u.s. senate races. not as competitive in georgia, but in arizona senator john mccain faces a tough reelection fight. he himself believes it is going to be tough reelection fight if donald trump ends up is an hour across -- out across -- albatross against republicans' necks. host: as far as the emerging states or even in battleground
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states, what is the machinery like on the ground for candidate clinton and donald trump? guest: the clinton machine is only beginning to be formed. these are states where democrats have not competed well at the statewide level. democrat who won in arizona was probably janet napolitano in 2006. in georgia, it has been a very long time. the democratic party structure has atrophied in a lot of these states. what the clinton campaign hopes to do is build a real organization that can win now or force republicans to spend in some of the states. every dollar you spend in arizona is a dollar you are not spending in ohio. i possibly set of democrats for success in the long run. the trump campaign structure is nonexistent and a lot of the states, a lot of battleground states as well. the trump campaign is not built a traditional campaign.
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whether that is good or bad, we will find out in november. the fact is there's not much of a trump campaign in any of these states. the republican national committee has opened offices around the country. they are more organized and involved. they have staffers in a lot of key states. for the most part, summary like john mccain running for reelection is going to have to rely on his own campaign and state party which has its own kirkpatrick, the nominee, will get a lot of help from the clintons and the democratic national committee. reid wilson is joining us from "the hill." him,u have questions for call the numbers on your screen. a lot of talk about the current status of relationship between the r.n.c. and key republicans
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and donald trump. do you see a parking of the way at all -- parting of the ways at all? guest: struggling to think of the moment in history like this. it is tough to figure it out. whether or not become campaign and the r.n.c. are seeing things i try, the republican national committee -- seeing eye to the republican national committee is a huge role in electing other republicans. they will play a large role in the paragraph state -- battleground states. all of the key senate battlegrounds in house battlegrounds are also white house states. you have the seven states president obama won twice where republican senators are up for reelection or seeking reelection. i mentioned ohio. rob portman is running for reelection in.
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even if the r.n.c. is not pulling out staff or fully committed to donald trump, they are going to have staffers on the ground in places where republicans need staffers in november. host: today, hillary clinton will be in pennsylvania. donald trump will be in ohio. two battleground states, the topic foreign policy. guest: this is the battleground appeals to. he has said he will make a big play for pennsylvania, ohio, michigan. if donald trump has reignited a discussion on trade and nafta, these are the states where things like that are going to take place, where that discussion and debate are going to take place. those are states hit hardest by trade deals. while they may have been good for america as a whole, they
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still hurt some people. those people live in pennsylvania, ohio, michigan, indiana. places that are going to be on the battleground map this year. host: if you want to see the events for those teeter candidates, go to -- two candidates, go to c-span.org for more information on the. -- on that. c-span.org is where you can see that and learn more information as well. even in the papers today, "the washington times" says connecticut is an interest for trump. it is an unusual move. guest: it is. donald is fascinating -- donald trump is fascinating. clintonto the senior campaign person last week, i asked her about utah. there has been a lot of talk utah might be on the table because donald trump is not
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playing their terribly well. i asked if utah was real. she said it is really hard. that is sort of the political way of saying we will not win utah. the clinton campaign does not need to win utah. on the other hand, you ask donald trump whether he will do well in a state and there is not that same sort of politic answer. he is asked about connecticut. sure, we will win. his home state of new york has hired a separate pollster to look at new york. the republican party is not going to win new york state on the presidential level. if they do, it will be a 500 electoral votes swing the other way. the us about oregon and washington state -- he has talked about oregon and washington state, liberal states.
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there is a reason republican candidates go to connecticut. it is not to hold rallies. it is to raise money. i don't know if donald trump is doing that. robert ins hear from kentucky on the independents line. good morning. caller: my family has long been democrats. i was born in los angeles. i live in kentucky. i don't like mr. trump. i think he is to suspect and unfair. do you think donald trump has interest in receiving black votes because he does not want to seem to address any black s?sues he seems to think he can win without black votes. what do you think? thank you very much. guest: that is a good question because it raises the nontraditional aspects of donald
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trump's campaign. trump has not done a lot of the same speeches any other candidate in modern history has done. showing up at the naacp and all meeting, the urban league couple of weeks ago. he did not address them. i think this demonstrates he is an atypical candidate does not always listen to the same political advice or advisors everybody else does. which is part of his appeal to his base, that he is not politics as usual. in the other sense, there is a reason people try to appeal to more voters. if you appeal to more voters, u.n. more -- you win more votes. he has yet to do that in this aspect bring that is another example of him being a different kind of candidate.
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trump ister donald being dragged across the field. trump is notdonald last more than a few days. there was a great story over the in the "near times" on sunday talking about donald trump. there was an anecdote at the end he said last week, he sat down to his advisors and promised the ende it was really and he was going to shape up and act like a real candidate estate on script. later, he made the second amendment comment about hillary clinton. that tells you how long these resets last. compare one of donald trump's promises to stay on teleprompter to the clinton's campaign to reintroduce hillary clinton, a person who has been in the spotlight for 30 years. connecticut, independent
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line. caller: good morning. thank you for c-span and discussion points. i am speaking as a black, independent voter from connecticut. i have been here for about 20 years. there is a lot of discussion insofar as why donald trump is trying to make this aggressive play in connecticut. here is something i think a lot of people have not considered. throughout his campaign coming he has been making a lot of strident comments that have appealed to white supremacist voters throughout the country. foundti-defamation league that per capita, connecticut has the highest percentage of white supremacist and hate group activity of any state in the united states. trump is making a very calculated and intriguing idea out of essentially utilizing and usurping white supremacist
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voters who are very active, although they are sublimated on the public purview but still extraordinarily active and vocal in their opinions to essentially tried to elicit or support at the voting booths -- their support at the voting booth in november. that can give him in as a voter security in november. issue the voter security keeps me up at night, this notion that donald trump has starting talking about -- started talking about a rigged election. that really worries me. we have a me because president right now who 15% or 20% of americans believe is an illegitimate president of the united states based on fictional information they read on the internet. what if that number is 40%? that worries me?
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americans think an election was stolen? al gore and john kerry ran teeter close races with a president that beat them. in both cases, they conceded graciously and went about the business. i have a hard time thinking donald trump will concede, even if he loses by 20 points, in that sort of way. polling lately shows he is way down in a lot of states. there is a reason the clinton campaign is trying to move into arizona and georgia. it is not just to get senate candidates to win. it is try to build her electoral vote capacity. i did not know connecticut had so many groups like that. it is surprising. i am from the west coast. i was talking to a western governor a couple of months ago. he said something like i am from the black helicopter capital of america. these groups exist all over the
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country. host: kirkland, washington, republican line. hello. caller: hello. in aently through 20-year-old videotape to see what was on it. "60 minutes" from a 1996 election with andy rooney interviewing bob dole. bob dole never showed up for the interview. andy rooney was just interviewing an empty chair. i thought it was quite interesting. dole,estion he asked bob the question was, "the public does not seem to be much influenced by bad things politicians do. there been so many politicians who got caught stealing or did something else wrong and were reelected. but it seems sometimes as if the
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people just don't care about the , whitewater, gennifer flowers, or anything like that. if any of these charges are true about the clintons, with that really matter to voters -- with that really matter to voters? do we just get tired in these elections were all the questions are back and forth question mark doesn't really seem to matter? guest: that is a really good point. we've talked about how the 2016 election is the post-trip post-truth election. history repeats. apparently 20 years ago, it was exactly the same way. and rooney interviewing an empty chair is not the most andy rooney thing ever. he was my college graduation speaker. host: on twitter, they asked the
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same kind of question. are either of those stories long-lasting in this campaign? guest: they should be. there are serious stories both sides -- on both sides. the fascinating things about this election is we are also obsessed with the daily story that we miss these larger looks at what is going on. media has done a great job writing longform, deep investigative stories about donald trump and hillary clinton. and they are on the front page of any newspaper. here is a good idea, let's all subscribe to newspapers again. the front page of sunday newspapers. they are good, interesting stories. somebody says something crazy at 8:55 on a monday morning, and it will dominate the news cycle for a day and then we miss that
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great story that took six months to write. the foundation is a huge story we should be concerned about. hillary clinton in releasing her taxes over the weekend showed she made at numbers of dollars -- x number of dollars from paid speeches. who was she giving the speech is to? that is mostly public record. but we should be looking at that. of those people trying to gain influence in the future? people that donate to the clinton foundation, do they want influence in the clinton administration? the paul manafort thing in ukraine is shocking. host: in the "new york times" today. guest: these are big, important stories. if the media could get away from the five-second-story.
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media, cable news. the front page's deep, impactful journalism. there are some important stories. there are a lot of journalists doing a lot of work and getting stuff out there. host: reid wilson joining us for this discussion on campaign 2016. dimitri from oakland, california, democrats line. go ahead. caller: good morning. are you fooling with abraham areoln's party system -- you familiar with abraham lincoln's party system called the national union party? it was implemented after the ending of the civil war. he has abolished the party system. are you familiar with this party? where everybody
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, so you don'tot have all of these problems. it gets rid of campaign finance. was the party system abolished. he was no longer a republican. he was known as national union party. sincen't you think republicans are behind abraham lincoln, why don't you think they are not union party? guest: i am not sure that is exactly how it happened in 1864 when lincoln was running for reelection. but the notion of everybody being on the same ballot exists in states like california. california, washington state both have top two primary elections. you put 18 candidates on the ballot. the top two vote getters regardless of party advanced we
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general election. one democrat means and republican. in california the top two vote getters to replace barbara boxer, two then democrats advanced. , even though state it is one of the most liberal states in the country, it has not elected a republican governor since 1980. ballot finalists on the in november for state treasurer will both be republicans. washington state gets a republican treasurer because they finished in the top two in the voting. host: mark on the republican line. comment i would like to make quickly. being from upstate new york, we saw what hillary's policies do
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for upstate new york and the people up here. we are the forgotten people. vote for hillary, go right ahead. she represents cheating, lies, and theft. if you want to go back to work again, roll up your sleeves and vote for donald trump. thank you so much for having me on c-span. guest: mark rings up another good example of important journalism and the way the media is covering this campaign. week, there was a good story in the "new york times" about hillary clinton's record in upstate new york as a senator. jobs,omised x number of 200,000 jobs to upstate new york and those jobs never showed up. that is a good story. is part of her record.
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upstate new york has been impacted. we think of new york as a liberal state. the upstate, especially in western new york when the are no in union jobs longer there thanks to trade deals that have shipped a lot of that oversees. republican outpost in a larger democratic state. but clinton promised to deliver jobs and the jobs never showed up. another example of good journalism and people paying attention to more than just the media. trump,f you are donald what crosses your mind? guest: that he is entirely running a campaign about himself. age, it is sod much easier to run a campaign by attacking the other candidate.
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by making the other candidate appear unpalatable. donald trump is not doing that. if you have watched any of the election coverage, clinton is running two as. she's running a positive economic ad and the other is donald trump on letterman as he sits there and says, where is his maid? there is a negative. -- ad. trump has a lot of opportunity to talk about hillary clinton and things she has done wrong, whether the e-mail server, the foundation, her relationship with james comey at the f.b.i. she said he essentially unsolved her, and he did not at all. there is a lot to talk about hillary clinton, even the upstate new york jobs.
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donald trump does not do that because he feels he's being treated unfairly. cornerstoneing the word of his campaign. one wonders for someone that wealthy how much it matters if something is fair. host: next is julian on the independent line. caller: the reason i am calling is i have noticed all morning, you fellows have talked about only two good candidates. as if they were the only two people who are going to appear on the ballot in november. candidates who have serious political experience and serious policy positions established and the media just as not talk about. an example of how that affects the binary way of people think,
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the gentleman who called in from he york a minute ago said did not like mrs. clinton, so therefore he was going to vote for trump, as if trump was the only other alternative. the question i have is -- and i could probably answer the question myself -- why is he not thinking about the possibility of johnson and weld? the answer is you folks in the media don't focus any attention .n those candidates serious politicians with solid political experience that you folks ignore in your binary way of thinking. is either this one or that one. the world is broader than that. host: thanks. guest: credit where credit is due. the libertarian ticket has
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combined four decades of gubernatorial experience. he was the ambassador to mexico under george bush. it is interesting. the reason the media does not cover candidates like gary in the 17ill stein, other people who will appear on a lot of state ballots is because a significant portion of americans are not interested in them. as it stands today, election day probably 98% of americans would vote for hillary clinton or donald trump. it is this vicious cycle. if gary johnson was suddenly at 20% in the polls, we would be talking about him a lot more. however, he cannot get 20% in the polls until he gets more
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media attention because the average american does not think the libertarian party is a viable option or is already wedded to one of the major parties. credit where credit is due, they have two, two-term governors on the ballot. gary johnson said he has not smoked marijuana in at least three months. partiesprofile on third in recent weeks on this program, half-hour interview with three johnson last week, i half-hour interview with jill stein the week before. jill: both gary johnson -- stein has a town hall on cnn coming up soon. the libertarian party is getting more serious attention this year than it has in the last several elections. which sort of puts the onus on them to score higher than the 1.7% or whatever you got four years ago.
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line, alicia,an go ahead. caller: i am a 76-year-old woman. i would like to know how the polls are taken. olled. never been pulled why not? is somebody in the media going to do something about bernie sanders buying a house that cost $600,000 when he was supposed to be so poor his candidates had to send $17 to him? guest: how did you find out about that story? host: -- caller: it was on tv the other day. guest: the media did something about it. caller: this was announced last week. the media only said something about it one time. guest: i don't think that is true. let me start with your earlier, first question about polling
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because it is a good question and something we should understand how this works. there are going to be a lot of questions about polling. there has been for the last several election cycles. there have been problems with polling not just here but also in the u.k., israel, basically anywhere or functioning democracies happening, the polls are getting it wrong. why? here is how a poll is taken. i used to be a polling editor which was a lot of fun. there are 330 million americans. there are 160 something million registered voters. a typical national poll surveys 1000 people. , theu take 1000 people odds of you being picked for one poll are very small. talk to anybody in a state like i and new hampshire in the days leading up to the presidential
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primaries or caucuses, they have been pulled six or seven times probably that day. inave some friends that live they would stop answering their phone because it andpollster after pollster campaigns trying to get their information. they take these 1000 people and ask their various opinions. there are standard questions they ask. they might ask what ever. they take those final 1000 hem.le and weight t hypothetically, 95% are white. 55% are men. the electorate is probably going to be 48% men. 55% a little less
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weight. you give a 45% who are women more weight. the pollster is trying to figure out what the electorate is going to look like. polling is not a science. it is part art. the art comes in figuring out what the electorate is going to actually look like. white,nte experts college educated. poll andke any given assume the electorate is going to be 90% white, you are going to get a very different number for donald trump versus hillary clinton than if you assume the electorate is going to be 69% white, which is what most think it will be this year, the percent of whites who make up the electorate.
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it has been falling two to four points every two years since about 1992. host: from clinton, maryland, independent line. robert, go ahead. caller: i listen to talk about the media and how you say mr. trump is unfair. everything the media says is a blatant lie. anybody who believes something that comes out of the media are stupid. we all know you just have to convince 50% of the people in certain states like florida and virginia and ohio. you say you don't think this system is rigged. i present to you, sir, the electoral college. mrs. clinton is sitting with 220 electoral votes. andvalue of these states these electoral votes are in new york, california. all locked in -- guest: robert. host: let him finish. caller: you know as long as
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electoral college exists, there is no way any republican will ever get in office. it is a crooked, rigged system and you know it! host: in major point. we will let -- you made your point. we will let him respond. guest: in 2000 the rigged electoral college, george w. bush won fewer votes than al gore. but in the electoral college, he won more votes. the other half of america complained about that. we are talking about the electoral college, something literally written into the is being a rigged system. i find that questionable. this is the funny thing about this year. ,e have had two campaigns
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bernie sanders and donald trump, whose fans have largely complained -- in part complained about the system being rigged, the rules being stacked against , when it was very clear they did not bother to understand the rules. nobody thought we would get to a fall general election campaign and all of a sudden, we were going to run under a system that was different than the electoral college. it is written in the constitution. that is how i make my money, paying attention to the electoral college. sanders in the primary, his people were complaining about superdelegates, caucuses versus primaries. they were sort of surprised. democratsates, require you to vote to cast a ballot. those are the rules. nobody was changing the rules as we went along. those were the rules.
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it illustrated we live in the only functioning democracy in the world in which election rules are not centralized. they are not federalized. there are different rules in texas and california and new york and everywhere else. a typical presidential campaign pays attention to those rules and takes advantage of them where they can. remember to thousand eight during the democratic primary, barack obama's campaign really understood they could run up a bunch of delegate totals in caucuses. hillary clinton went around winning big states like california and she would get four or five delegates. geta would win idaho and eight or something like that because they understood the rules better. host: our guest is the national correspondent for "the hill," wilson.
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guest: i am from the west coast. came out inasures georgia in 1780 so we have been practicing direct tomography for a long time. away western states fought back against robber barons and railroad companies that controlled their state legislatures. they would put a ballot initiative on the ballot and pass it and do something different for the state. it was a way for the citizens to reclaim their government. this year and in the last decade or so, we have seen the two parties or interest groups within the parties trying to put ballot measures on the ballot that will advance their agenda or turn out voters on their own behalf. 2004, there were something
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like 11 states that had ballot measures that would have banned same-sex marriage. a lot more swing states. the bush campaign was big fans of those because they thought they would bring out more evangelical voters to vote for george bush. he ended up winning in ohio by a smaller margin than the ballot measure passed by. academics fight over whether that worked in turning people out. the bottom line is they thought it might help get a few more people to the polls. after 2010 when republicans andt the power in the house state legislatures across the country, and in 2014, they won control of the u.s. senate and theretate legislatures, are not many places were democrats have full control. i think it is seven states. what progressives and liberals are doing around the country is putting ballot measures on the ballot that effectively advance their own agenda.
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and they don't have to go through the state legislature. host: such as? guest: there are expansions in washington state and colorado. there are death penalty appeals in a couple of different states, nebraska being one of them. there are a lot of conservatives who feel the same way. there are big battles over solar and expanding alternative energy programs in states like florida. and then there is marijuana. marijuana is regional -- legal for recreational use in quarter states. it is on the ballot in five states this election cycle. if it passes in all five of those states and it could, 100 members of congress out of the 435 members of the house will represent a state where marijuana is legal for recreational use. that is a heck of a seachange and probably going to spur federal legislation. host: that story is available on
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"the hill" website. wilson wrote that among others related to campaign 2016. caller: i admire your guest. he is an analytical person like me. i'm supporting hillary rodham clinton were think is the -- who i think is the best person. i am reading at least five books right now. one of your colleagues wrote this book. i think she is one of the most qualified persons. i would like to have his opinion on this. i am concerned about this misinformation. i am concerned about the right wing media. they are rehearsed. they broadcast little soundbites, the same rhetoric, the same rehearsed information.
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our people are challenged with information. what do you think about the fact that people are challenged by so much information and are confused? one of the persons i don't think is qualified at all and even his own party is questioning about him. i wonder if your guest would comment about the right-wing misinforming people. are in the same building as fox news, so i won't talk too loud or they might come up and beat me up. i am kidding. ed said something interesting that gets to the anger at the media. that issay "the media," like lumping a plumber and painter in as the same industry when they are totally different jobs.
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anyway, i will get to that later. what ed said that is interesting is there is so much information, and there really is. right now if you kind of believe something, there is a news outlet that will gladly reinforce your ideas. whether that is left, right, center, or totally kooky. most of it seems totally kooky right now. there is so much media that we all have to figure out which we are going to consume with our limited time. there are right wing news outlets. there are left-wing news outlets. and there is c-span in the middle. c-span is nonpartisan. that is why we love c-span. the point is there is so much .edia to consume you have to pick the one you trust, essentially. then you should spend a lot of time reading the ones you don't
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trust or the one that challenges your view of what is normal. there is my mini soapbox on media. more call, margaret, delray beach, florida, independent line. caller: good morning. i am so glad i got in. i ame point you just made, no donald trump's supporter or hillary clinton. i am no fox news fan. the left controls media, to think the "new york times" is where i would go to get bipartisan, unfiltered information is a joke. the majority of teachers are left. the colleges, the majority of teachers are left. i have two children who have gone through college.
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what is fascinating is how little information is being and parentsldren who are out working. when barack obama was elected, i did not vote for him. i think it is interesting you brought up the percentage of people who think he is not from this country. i did my own call and i work in social services. him,eople who voted for the first thing i would ask is why they voted for him and what they thought he was going to do on his platform. never did i hear from so many people who were so sure voting for a president who had no information about him. to help go back congress works, how a law is passed. this is the most uninformed electorate. chthink it is funny to wat explodetists' heads with fox news. guest: she brings up some
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interesting points. i think those in other parts of media like that fox news does well because it means they might do well. fox's success on the right will lead to msnbc trying to be the same thing on the left. i won't get into that. margaret raises an interesting point about the lack of civics and lack of civility in the election. one of the things that struck me from the beginning, and we are getting to donald -- getting donald trump's speech on radical terrorism today. one thing that struck me during the republican primary is the lack of in-depth policy speeches or policy proposals any of the candidates got this time around. that any of the candidates gave this time around.
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usually, you see a lot of people rolling out their tax proposals and economic proposals and foreign policy outlines. that did not happen a lot on the republican side because it became the donald trump show. therump had not been in race, we would have seen more policy coverage and proposals. one can only hope in the next 86 days both clinton and trump given number of in-depth speeches that tell us what they would do if they were elected president. host: reid wilson is the national correspondent for "the hill." thanks for you. nasa is currently conducting a survey of the planet jupiter. we will talk with james green of nasa. that segment coming up when "washington journal" continues.
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>> tonight, "the communicators" visits middle eastern broadcasting networks along with u.s. sponsors. we speak with the president of the middle east broadcasting network, a producer, and a digital managing editor about how they share democratic values with an audience that would not otherwise be exposed to a broader spectrum of opinions. >> we have been on the air for
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12 years. over that time, i think the audience has come to learn it is not propaganda. we strive to be balanced. an coverso provide topics and provide information not readily available. peoplee are not enough telling the stories of how difficult it is to be a woman and a girl child. how many stories have we done on child marriages? i cannot even count. you cannot do enough because in the middle east, they are not telling that story enough. it is too sensitive, too close to home. >> we launched in september of 2015 to encourage people in the middle east to engage and be part of the discussion of important issues in the region, including extremism, unemployment, human rights, women's rights. all of these issues that are
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important. >> watch tonight at 8:00 eastern on c-span2. >> "washington journal" continues. att: every monday, we look programs sponsored by the federal government for costs and what they accomplish. at theek, we will look juno probe. joining us is james green with nasa. he is their planetary science director. good morning. why jupiter? wast: jupiter we believe the first planet created, but we are not sure of that. we don't know if it secreted out of the normal gas or actually started with a seed like a t-rex drill -- like a terrestrial planet does. that will tell us where jupiter was formed and when. host: how do you apply that to
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everyday science and the mission currently undergoing? in a seriese that of ways to understand how the rest of the solar system came together and what jupiter's role in forming the planets in their current locations. we believe jupiter pushed and timed around all kinds of planetary motions over its early history. host: you have a specific probe for this mission. put the model on the desk. tell people about the probe, when it launched, the purpose, and what does it do? guest: it is solar powered. the panels are about 20 feet or so, such that the whole spacecraft is about 60 feet in diameter. -- these panels constantly point toward the sun.
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juno was launched august 5 2011. we just put it into orbit around jupiter on july 4. it was a great celebration all the way around. the: what is instrumentation going to measure? what information are you going to get? flyt: this is designed to over the cloud tops and p are inside the planet itself. thes going to measure amount of water the planet has accumulated. this will tell us where the planet was put together in our solar system. in addition to that, it will tell us about the core, whether solid or more like the sun where it has a more gaseous core. host: as we continue our conversation with james green, if you want to ask questions, here is how you can do so.
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we divide the lines regionally this time. you can also tweet statements or comments to our guest. dr. green, how much does this mission cost? guest: this was about $1.13 billion. it is a planetary mission that takes more than a decade to be put together, launched, and get to the planet, and observe for a couple of years. host: how do you justify the cost of putting this mission out there for what you get from it? guest: we want to know about our solar neighborhood. we want to know how safe the earth is. is it in an environment that is benign? how does the environment change over time? and understanding our origins, these are top level questions
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the planetary science program constantly probes. juno is tackling one of the big questions. that is how jupiter was put together and what our early solar system looked like. host: will it only be a $1 billion cost? will it be added on as time goes on for the mission? guest: we have not spent all the money because we just got into orbit. couple of years for us to operate it and continue to fund the science teams and operation. host: in orbit now, what information are you getting back? is it teaching us anything we did not know before? guest: the first thing we did was put it in orbit around jupiter. none of the instruments were on. jupiter is barely hanging on to it. in a large orbit, a 53-day orbit. in november, we are going to bring it into a smaller orbit. then we will be turning all of
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the instruments on and starting the data analysis. will ask you to set the probe a side as we take calls from you. for our first call, nathan, you are on with our guest, james green of nasa. you are from tampa, florida. good morning. go ahead. caller: thank you for taking my call. i'm calling to talk a little bit about nasa's efforts to increase or stimulate curiosity in the citizenry. sometimes we hear people, politicians ridiculing this, that, or the other. they are only studying some little speck of something or other. it seems we lack the curiosity we used to have. when you look at the work nasa does, for instance discovering the hole in the ozone level and the millions of lives that have been changed significantly by
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making that discovery and putting in policies to get rid --four carbons chlorofluorocarbons. just one example of the way nasa does extremely important work. i sometimes worry we have this huge disconnect between what at nasa are doing, and the citizens spend the same amount of money on lipstick in a certain year as we do on the nasa budget. and what nasa is doing to help us as taxpayers really see and catch the vision that the work you do is essentially investing in the future of humanity. host: thanks a lot. ourt: nathan, many of missions are well connected with citizen scientists. juno has a website for which one of its instruments called juno
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cam. it is an optical image or that will be managed by the public. aurora,scan, look at the clouds and how they form. we are encouraging the public to log on and vote for their best picture. but also tell us what else we should take a look at in the next orbit. in addition to that, we have an amateur website connected to juno cam. this will allow our amateur astronomers to post their pictures. what has been credible is the amateur astronomers have been looking at jupiter almost on a nightly basis in finding the great red spot is starting to
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shrink. it is changing in size. we don't understand it. perhapsin addition to that, we e bright lights that have been right in the cloud structures and juno will be flying by also looking at jupiter during those times that we believe where jupiter is actually bringing in and capturing impacts from near jupiter objects that come in. really a fabulous plaintiff for us and the citizens of the u.s. take a good look at and at the same time. host: brad is next from ohio. hello. caller: mr. green come was wondering if it is possible that nasa wants to send approach to every planet in the solicitous again put hopefully things through the atmospheres
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and to the terrestrial planets. host: sorry about that. did not know you had a second part. guest: we have dropped probes into the atmosphere of jupiter before. galileo did that, and they went down maybe 50 or 60 kilometers. not very far. what they were trying to look for is the water layer read could not find it. juno will be able to do that using a different technique. probes on these big planets are really hard to do, but we are also thinking ahead and perhaps having some saturn probes in our future over the next 10 years or so. 202748-8001 for the mountain and pacific times. how long will juno scan jupiter? what happens when the mission is done? guest: juno will last about 20 months and will make 35 or 36
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orbits. by that time, it will have run ourof fuel, and perhaps current plan is we will ditch it into the planet. parthe ruins going to be of this exploration, and what is the importance of the moon in relation to the planet? guest: jupiter has some fabulous moves. they are the size of our own moon. they are huge and beautiful objects, but you know is not thi designed to study those. host: from indiana, here is ryan. go ahead. caller: hello, sir. how are you? how are you doing? your guest is extremely knowledgeable. i would like to look at the bigger picture, ok?
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in our solar system, we know how involved.system was we all came from stardust. , the moon, the sun, formed and then the earth was in the zone, and then we were here. my main question for this gentleman, and he is very knowledgeable, i would like to that aret the moons surrounding this plan in question. life onvious there is all the moons and throughout the galaxy. we are lucky to be on the outskirts of the galaxy. that is how we survived, but ifoughout the whole galaxy,
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you could get away from the , we aren and so forth one of the lucky ones because we are sort of out in the desert so to speak. host: thanks. guest: when we talk about finding life beyond earth, we are really all about looking for sources of water. we believe one of the most important ingredients to maintain life is water, so we have been following the water. there are signs that mars has a significant amount of water, but so far, we have not found life there. we also know that the galilean moons thatfour big orbit jupiter, three of those have a significant amount of water underneath their icy crust.
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perhaps life exists there. we are not sure yet. we have not found might be on earth. right now, we are the singular planet with life, but i think we are making major progress in understanding where life could upst, and we will follow those discoveries with new missions. perhaps a mission going to europa in taking a look at that in the next decade. host: carol in rochester, new york. good morning. caller: mr. green, i think it is money well spent. i guess it makes me feel good that everything in the united states seems screwed up today and nothing gets done, but nasa can still do things, and it is so exciting to hear that some project that was started 10 years ago actually was put together and actually works.
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w thet makes me feel that united states can do things instead of quarrel and things like that. i want to find out if there is life on those moves. thank you. -- those moons. thank you. guest: i do also. i resonate with what you said. it challenges our engineers and scientists to uncover and answers some of the most exciting questions about our origin. how did we end up in what was called the goldilocks zone, where life could exist and survive here on earth? where else can might exist? -- where else can life exist? host: our guest is gene green of nasa.
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he is the planetary science director serving his 10th year, and he has his phdphysics from the university of iowa. can juno detect elements or molecules we were not aware of? guest: we believe we understand pretty much what elements are in jupiter. is the quantity and when they are distributed in the planet. juno will be able to tease it out. when juno flies from pole to pole, it is flying very close to the surface. if i may bring up the planet in, it, when juno flies will skim over the cloud tops. it will be less than my finger width above the cloud tops for each orbit, and that it will go large radial distances and come
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back in. italy 35 or 36 of those orbits. it is really a spectacular mission. host: how fast is traveling? guest: 53 kilometers per second. the in the united states, washington, d.c., area with about way, it can go almost across the beltway and about a second and a half. it is really moving. host: alfred from north las vegas, you are on. caller: good morning. my question is about the solar panels. is further away from the sun and the earth. the further you get away from the sun come i wonder how efficient the solar panels will function. guest: that is a great question. one of the things we did when we put juno together was really take a good look at the most efficient solar cell technology.
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though solar panels are just the state-of-the-art. juno has a huge collecting area. the width of those panels are about eight feet so we have an enormous amount of surface area. even as far away as it is, it receives 1/25 the amount of energy we receive from sunlight here on earth as it is out on jupiter that generates about 400 watts, which is enough to run the entire spacecraft. it is like four 100 watt lightbulbs in your house. host: this is john. caller: i see a commercial on tv about a space elevator. that is impossible to happen, the gravityause of and a certain speed to get out of the gravitational pull of the earth into space? how could you have an elevator going from earth to outer space?
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is a: right now, there variety of different engineers looking at a variety of ways that we can get the atmosphere. .hat is one of the concepts i would say it is at a very early concepts the. thanks fornd, holding on from southfield, michigan. you are on. watching a, i was and theyn the moon, made an argument that the moon is hollow. the reason we have not gone back the ufo.y said is i don't believe that, but curious. by the way, the need a
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remark, thank god for the government. guest: we know a lot about the moon, and i can guarantee is not hollow. it is a solid body which has evolved over time. it is made up of materials much like the earth. in fact, we believe it was created soon after the earth was from an impact of another body. that.rth he created from it is a solid body. host: with all the sensitive instruments, what happens if you develop a problem with the instrumentation. are there self-correcting measures, or how does that work? guest: on every one of our spacecraft, we work very hard to get our probes healthy. our teams get together and build
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the command sequences. this allows them to obtain engineering data. they determine how it is degrading. from that knowledge, they are able to operate it on a temporary basis or fully operational. we are looking to keep the estimates operating through the normal lifetime. many of them extend well beyond that by many years. host: as far as pictures of jupiter, will we see any close-ups from this mission? guest: actually, the first time we get really close with the instruments turned on is at the end of this month. on august 27, we will be flying right over the cloud tops. juno cam will be on and taking fabulous images. it has already taken a couple images of jupiter and the moves from a distant location,
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and those have been posted to gov.website, nasa. host: will us pictures on the 27th be uploaded? guest: you bet. we will have an opportunity to see them at once. host: maggie, go ahead. you are on from florida. maggie, good morning. go ahead. ok, we will go to gary. gary is in wisconsin. hello. caller: good morning, gentlemen. how are you today? guest: morning. host: you are on. caller: i would like to ask a question that for every action, there is an opposite an actual reaction. the theory of einstein's energy was a matter squared. we are searching for water for the foundations of life, but i think that we have magnetism and sunspots that affect our earth in such a fashion that creates a volcanic reaction inclusive
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thereof of earthquakes in such. if we look at how these planetary systems are divided and the energy that is coming from their suns or their energy production ranges inclusive of the black holes, we kind of have to look at, well, that energy creates a form of life. our brains are energy-based. we have a slight energy pulse that can be measured, and it is measurable, so i believe that we need to start looking at how these planets that are on the fringes do not get the energies from their suns, and that can affect the life. maybe we should do this in tandem to try to find out our earthquake and volcanic reactions on earth and how it is affected by those energies. host: thanks. guest: you bring up an
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interesting point. in addition to water, we have to have the energy sources, but we also have to have the right set of chemicals, the organic material, the stuff that not only is life made of, but things we can metabolize. theed, it is energy, water, right organic material, and it is the time that it is able to create life and more and more complex life. that is the basic ideas behind astrobiology. when we apply that to our solicitor and look out particularly in the jupiter system where the sunlight is so low, where is the energy coming from that used a water liquid and provides an environment like under the ice shell of the europa? -- of it turns out it is tidal
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energy. to jupiter ande an far away in orbit, and each one of those locations, jupiter squeezes it when it is closed and then relaxes that when it is further away. literally, you wrote what is being squished every 3.2 days in its orbit, and that is what energy comes from. it keeps the ice melted and creates the ice crust ocean. we believe it has the right organic materials. the energy is tidal energy. it has a great possibility for us to find life in that room. host: probes are well and good, but at what point will be sending manned missions? guest: right now, the president has laid out a very aggressive program to leave lower earth orbit and go out to the solar system. mars is the next big object that
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is in the president's plan. , will be in the vicinity of mars. that means flying around it or orbiting and returning. 2040's and beyond, we want to get down to the ground with humans. it is within our lifetime. an exciting time to be in planetary science. host: from rochester, new york, robert. caller: first, thank you very much for c-span and nasa. both are very fantastic organizations in my view. let me ask about and 99% of the time the spacecraft is in the toits outside not close jupiter. as a gammaray burst detector? don grand is really fantastic. it could be a very good member
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of the unit planetar interplane. there is this bridge between planetary scientists and cosmologists, and they don't want to consider making donald graham a useful member of the by maybe changing the cadence right of the state of health data files. maybe a slight change to the rate to collect the data, but why can't juno and don grand almost like the gps in reverse and basically locate things? thank you. guest: juno has a set of instruments, but on a them are capable of making those kinds of measurements at the really high energy that you suggest. it was not designed to be able to do that.
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, hi. davis in utah caller: yes. i would like to know how to live able to go out and harvest the asteroid belt? i will hang up. thank you. guest: that is a really exciting question because right now, we are getting ready to launch a spacecraft called osiris rexx on september 8. this mission is going to an asteroid. it will get there by 2018. and studyorbit it it and understand his composition. it will go down in a touch and go maneuver to suck up material and bring that material back for us to analyze. asterisk,lot about but one thing -- asteroids, but
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they are different types, they have different material, and the origin is in question the when we look at these and a variety. by going to it and bringing back a simple, we are for the first time in the united states able to get a good look at the material and understand how that might be used in the future of space travel as a resource as you suggest, but we believe it ca ains organic material, moleculesrbon mil that bombarded the earth and meat are provided the real that seeded life on earth. that is another spectacular mission we are getting ready to launch. host: our guest is james green from nasa. he has been with the assistance
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1980. is that right? serving currently as the planetary science director. out of west virginia, tom. caller: i like to ask mr. green if he thinks there are other forms of life in our galaxy. guest: great question. as a scientist, i have to say we have not found the right evidence. we found regions particularly in our solar system where life could live. in other words, habitable regions. that bodes well. on a personal basis, i believe there is no reason to think life did not exist not only in our solar system but in others thos solar systems. you have to be at the right place at the right time and make the right measurements to confirm that. host: is there anything we will learn from the consumption of this program that can be applied to other probes?
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guest: this probably spectacular for us to be but to look at giant planets and the role they play within our solar system, but other solar systems, which have giant planets. --ut 20% of the xl planets exo planets found have solar systems. there may be an element of providing a lis solar system at the rent protection because they up material that falls into it, protecting the inner part of the solar system as jupiter does. that may be an essential element for solar systems to have life. we don't know. host: here is fred from pennsylvania. or morris bell, pennsylvania. caller: mr. green. guest: yes or. -- yes sir.
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caller: i have a degree in astrophysics, and i have been universea lot of the over the last 15 years. it seems to amaze me the lack of understanding of some of the questions that are coming in to you from the general public. there is so much information on various television shows through space programsd on the science channel and periodicals i read all the time, scientific magazines. if people are going to ask questions and be interested in this subject, i don't understand why they don't delve into it first, get a handful of information, put it together, and stop asking questions like is the moon hollow, work in this
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program to jupiter be used for 17 other things because it is out there anyway? it is an irritation to hear the lack of understanding of what people say when they call in and talk to you. nasa is really quite interested in improving our scientific literacy. it is one of those things that is a long-term learning objective for many people. this field is moving so rapidly over time that it is hard for me to keep up with some of the latest discoveries -- the new and latest discoveries. i would encourage everyone that has an interest in nasa and science to look at the programs coming out that are exceptional, things that nova does, many things that come out on the discovery channel. there are a number of really quality programs that interviews some of our top scientists.
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that way, perhaps spark your interest to be able to pick up a popular book on the subject. nasa puts on a variety of materials, but there are many astrophysicists and planetary scientists that have written popular roots that are very reachable, very easy to read, and really sparks your interest. i would indeed encourage everyone to continue on learning about the science in the environment we are in. host: we appreciate guests coming on our program and to talkto the people about the interest in the juno program. from pennsylvania, good morning. caller: good morning. fromnd that last question your astrophysicists to be very condescending, but i have three questions. how long does it take a radio
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signal transmitted to jupiter to get there? can we ever obtain the speed of light? what progress are we making towards that? thank you. guest: light travels 186,000 miles per second. jupiter is so far away, it takes about 45 minutes for signals from our spacecraft to get back to earth. that is quite a bit of time, but indeed, that is a fact of life. when we flew by pluto last year, the cygnus took 4.5 hours -- hours. took 4.5 just an enormous distance. you mentioned traveling at the speed of light. traveling at the speed of light is incredibly difficult to do. right now when we navigate in
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the solar system, it is largely done where we launched a spacecraft with a certain amount of energy, put in orbit around the setting sun, and as we get close to the object like jupiter, the gravity pulls us in, and with the right thrusting and right direction, we get into orbit. we are still using a lot of the fundamental equations from new ton and kepler. travel proposed by einstein is much more difficult and a long ways away. host: that is bobby from verse mercedes from tennessee. caller: my question is, are leasing theories on the computer
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googling the media, and i was fantasy when are you sending this microscopic humongous to comeo get to earth in contact with the earth? guest: one of the things nasa is to right now in my organization is constantly looking for objects. this is material that has come out of the asteroid belt, solidified in the early stages of our solar system that eventually crosses our orbit and impact our planet. every day, we believe there are 10 tons worth of extraterrestrial material that falls into earth. it is really big ones we want to look out for, and we have a program in place over the last 15 to 20 years. we have been methodically looking for those large objects,
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plotting their course. i believe for the next couple hundred years, we will be in pretty safe conditions. only in the last 10 or 15 years that we realized our orbit within our solar system is not the safest place around because of these objects. that is why we have to be constantly vigilant to withinand our's motion -- our earth's motion. host: if you want to learn more about the mission, the juno mission we have been talking about, though to nasa.gov. as information is getting back. we appreciate your time. guest: my pleasure. host: that is it for our program today. another edition of this program comes your way at 7:00 tomorrow. we will see you then.
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[captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit ncicap.org] [captions copyright national cable tellitcorp. 2016] >> the road to the white house continues to wind its way across the country in advance of november's election. join us later today when hillary clinton and vice president biden will hold a joint appearance in mr. biden's hometown of spring, pennsylvania. scranton, pennsylvania. later this afternoon, it is her republican opponent donald trump. he is in youngstown, ohio, and is expected to talk about foreign policy. watch that live on c-span2.

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