tv Key Capitol Hill Hearings CSPAN September 1, 2016 10:00am-12:01pm EDT
now, a discussion on whether there is a dark side to digital technology. experts discuss how increased use of digital technology and multitasking affects health factors such as obesity, sleep , social bonding and education. and whether it is addictive. this is one hour. [applause] >> thank you for having me here. thank you all for coming up tonight. i am looking forward to an interesting discussion and hopefully learning alongside of you from a great panel of experts. i will introduce them now. to my left we have patricia greenfield, a professor of psychology at ucla and the director of the children's digital media center in los angeles. she is also the author of "mind and media."
her book was translated into nine languages and was republished last year for its 30th anniversary edition. her research on media and technology in the effects of young people covers a full range of print, radio, tv, video games, teenage chat rooms, facebook, youtube and instagram. thank you for being here. [applause] >> thank you. >> we also have gene block. he is chancellor of ucla and a biobehavioral scientist. thank you for giving me a hard word to pronounce. his current research focuses on the effect of aging and the nervous system and how it impacts biological timing in humans. he took the reins of ucla in 2007. prior to being a brilliant, he , he was a bruin cavalier. he served as provost of the university of virginia. he is also the inventor of several devices including a noncontact respiratory monitor for the prevention of sudden
infant death syndrome, and an avid collector of vacuum tube radios. perhaps they will hear a little of that tonight. [laughter] and he just joined us from the ucla basketball game. he gets the most frequent flyer miles. [laughter] [applause] >> we also have have dr. anusuya chatterjee, a health economist and fellow at the milken institute where she has led research programs on obesity, medical technology and chronic disease prevention. she was also created the influential milken institute best cities for successful aging index. and co-authored a chapter of the recently published book "the upside of aging. please give her and all these experts around of applause. [applause] a few introductory remarks of
self-disclosure. my work e-mail incessantly, according to my 13-year-old daughter. and everything i know about snapchat also comes from my 13-year-old daughter. [laughter] if you do feel the need to be addicted to something online, feel free to be addicted to any any of my stories. the experts will endorse that. everything else can be a problem for you. the digital age has brought up a lot of wonders and i think we all know that from our smart phones, computers and laptops. we can connect with somebody across the globe, a grandparent on skype, can order every single thing imaginable with one click. we have apps that manage diabetes. we have seen all of these wonders but we have also seen a dark side, harmful effects on our health, social interactions, things like that. the constant screen time, our
sleep, eyesight, other ills we may be doing to ourselves. is this technology or humanity? we will explore all of those things. the digital technology exposure explosion that we have seen in our hands, is it doing more harm than good? i think i'm just going to throw it to our experts here for a general opening statement. many of your experts in the done research, you have data. just a little on your general thoughts of the topic and what you're working on now. dr. chatterjee: i think people have not considered the social costs and our current research identifies some of these. we have found for example, in a study where sixth-graders went to a nature camp where they had very intense social interactions with other campers, with the counselors and all in person , face-to-face, they improved their ability to read emotions from nonverbal cues.
compared with a matched group of sixth-graders. this was just in a week. five days. they improved more relative to another group of sixth-graders, a matched group who had the usual media diet. which was over four hours a day. i think that is an example of the cost. another study looked at the sense of bonding and friends. those were sixth-graders. these were ucla students. undergraduates. each participant came in with a self chosen friend. a pre-existing friend. we had them have two minute or so or five-minute conversations, each one communicated with a friend face-to-face, video chat, by audio, which is a simulation of telephones and by text.
then we asked them after each chat, each conversation, how bonded did you feel? and we also videotaped them to look at their bonding cues. bonded, youe most can guess, face-to-face. they felt the least bonded with text. look at this, the objective behavioral cues were the same. same order. the most bonding cues were face-to-face and the least was texting. what our kids using to communicate the most? it is text. dr. block: we think about the fact that international jet
travel which now is easy and affordable and people traveling all around the world, it is wonderful. the fact that we have communications networks that are so efficient. you can get advice on how to fix your computer from someone who is in india who seems like they are next-door. different time zone. we stay up late at night looking at ipads and iphones and computers. bright screen tvs. all these are positive but they're having an impact physiologically on people. probably the most dramatic impact is the reduction in the amount of sleep that people are experiencing. 50 years ago the average was about eight and a half hours a night. that has been reduced to seven, or less than seven hours. the lack of sleep is becoming extremely problematic. we will get into this a little bit later, you have this finely tuned timing system called your circadian timing system. every organ tissue in your body
has cells that go into a 24 hour system. now we are forcing it to make rapid changes. from rotating shift work with travel across time zones or even by just having excessive amount of light at night. positive aspects of technology are clear but we are beginning to appreciate some of the negative aspects as well. some are avoidable where the smart use of technology. an area i have been interested in is the way we are impacted on the effect on people's sleep cycle. >> i could use more sleep myself. >> we all could. >> thank you for having me. as the chancellor was mentioning, there are so many positive things about having technology.
maybe look into some of the data evidence which finds more towards the negative side of using digital technology on the issue. or using too much of digital technology and that includes using computers and ipads and iphones. other smartphones. when we say that technology is affecting our health, as an economist i feel that we should say that humans are using technology in such a way that it is actually affecting their health. it is a choice. human beings are making the choice to be so accessed with technology. there was a recent study that found upon waking up among all users,merican smartphone at least two out of five users
check their smartphones within five minutes of waking up. 50% of these consumers actually have been checking at least 25 times daily. some of them are so obsessed they check their smartphones 200 times per day. we are becoming obsessed with using digital technology. what is happening is that is leading to us to a more sedentary lifestyle. we have a workplace which is growing in a way where we sit in front of computers for hours. then we come home and use all these gadgets we have at home. we spend time doing that. while we are spending time, we are doing another thing which is
snacking. an increased amount of snacking while watching tv or using the computer. the energy we are gathering but we are not spending it. what happens to that? i don't have a medical background but i can understand that this increases our waistline. a few years back, i co-authored a paper where we looked at 27 countries like the united states and some of these countries have higher obesity rates. we look for data for 20 years and tried to see how moving towards a knowledge-based economy is affecting obesity. how we measure that is through
information communications technology in these countries. as a percent of gross capital formation. when we took other factors into account, we found that for these countries, for every 10% increase in the share of investment, obesity rates go up by 1.4%. 1% is certainly related to just sitting there with that sedentary lifestyle. another portion comes from the eating more unhealthy foods. if we are thinking about a country where there are 300 million people, one of three are obese, you're talking about 1.4%, that is millions.
that is huge. we could find that data relationship, we understand, we are doing the things that we might be getting more obese and this is a risk factor for so many chronic diseases and disability. we can prove that with data around the world. i will stop. we can continue this later. >> you picked up on one thing, as a father of two teenage girls, i think i want to think that my teenagers are more obsessed with their devices and technology and staring at their screens all the time. looking at the research i think that is not necessarily the case. as adults maybe we are worse than the kids. a quick take on the panelists on that. >> my collaborator has pointed out something important, which is the parents use of technology as a model for the children.
parents are always on their cell phones and other devices than -- devices then what are the children going to do? if they are doing that, they are not paying attention to the children. >> we are supposed to pay attention to them? [laughter] >> that's another conversation. [laughter] >> they are also a role model for them. and a very important one. >> the rule is no phones at the dinner table and when dad checks his e-mail at the dinner table, i hear about it. >> one important thing that has been known in psychology for decades is that it is not what you say, but what you do. it is very interesting because a lot of parents who want to do something about technology, they try to reduce the child's technology but if you're telling them not to use as much and then you're using it all the time, that is not going to be effective.
>> interesting comment. the discussion of weight gain. there is good evidence, light at night, especially right light, it reduces melatonin levels. it also has impact on reducing the level of leptin which is a hormone that makes you feel full. it increases the hormone that makes you feel hungry. several things happen which relates to having this light at night. you begin to crave carbohydrates and gain weight. is some concern that the weight gain in children is not so related to being couch potatoes but is related to the excessive amount of light at night associated with less sleep. it is complicated because they are confounding things going on. light at night has direct effects and it leads largely to less sleep and less sleep is probably the more critical thing
we have to worry about. children are not sleeping enough. those that are sleeping with iphones are getting up in the middle the night and getting pulsed with light. especially if it is light blue light. it is effective at suppressing your melatonin levels. i think there's something about weight gain that may be beyond just the initial snacking. it may be metabolic changes. >> what about adults and kids? have you seen any difference in your research? >> we haven't directly done any studies differentiating adults and kids. one thing is clear, as i mentioned, if you are using too much digital technology, it is going to affect obesity, but there are other things. it can affect your eyes or actually have an effect on your musculoskeletal diseases. we have seen, overall, a burden of these muscle disease.
you go through other things like how is affecting the economics. it can be to the tune of $45 billion. as we see our children are just looking at the screen all the time, i have heard that one of the professors once mentioned that the muscles keep on eating muscles. and what happens is that our spine starts growing like this. and that is not very good. this is not good. if we are not careful about all of these minor things now, the effect in the future when this generation grows up will be immense. much bigger than what is happening now to the health care cost. >> talked about the bonding, in terms of people. it aims me when i walk by a restaurant and two people on a date. i find it sad.
i'm not the best listener, my wife would attest to that. i do try to look her in the face at a meal and have a genuine conversation and not look at my phone. it is things like that that pains me that this is the society we have become. not try to judge anybody. you talking about the bonding and it is picking up on verbal cues. important life skills. >> it is being able to understand the feelings of other people is very important to society as a whole. i think we can all see a reduction in that. there have been surveys that have been compared from the 1960's or 1970's to the present, that have shown a reduction in empathy in the united states. large-scale national surveys. >> the mere communication of something in an e-mail rather
than telling somebody. we have all that experience. it does not go over too well in an e-mail. bad or a joke that doesn't go over well. >> you can't see the person's immediate emotional reaction. you might go on and on and the reaction is getting worse and worse. but you are not seen it. whereas, if you are in a conversation you might see the reaction is not so great. you do something about that. >> one thing i'm intrigued with is the time sharing going on with digital devices and communication, verbal communication. people spend enormous amounts of time doing two things at one time. i'm not an expert and i'm wondering if you really can do that. i know this an intentional bottleneck in the sensory system where you can do one thing at a time. it is hard to process two things
at a time. i'm wondering if people are not getting valuable, meaningful conversations because they are trying to answer e-mails while into conversations. we see that in meetings a lot. everything is working on a digital device. can you really pay attention? that is the concern. >> we did an experiment about it. it was about comprehension of written material and the ability to understand. of all the conditions, we found -- it was about paper versus screens. we found it did not matter if you read something on paper or on the screen. but what did matter, what did reduce the comprehension was if they had the opportunity to multitask by having the computer they were working on hooked up to the internet. >> i just finished this book when i was flying back from a loss at women's basketball.
i read this quick book. seven lessons in physics. they were discussing einstein's general relativity. these kinds of amazing social and intellectual accomplishments require full attention. i'm wondering whether we could be losing the ability to have that kind of focused concentration by multitasking. >> that is one of my fears. i know in my old life, to be able to quiet the mind and focus on something that is what it take to get something done of more value. we have the multitasking, things coming in from 86 directions and the places where i could go for refuge, a plane, a car, vacation have all been taken over by technology. to find that place where i can not get a wi-fi connection and no e-mail and it is a crutch. i use that to not check my ima
-- check my e-mail so much. just to get away from those places is where i hopefully will have my best thoughts and get some of my best work done. >> definitely multitasking. it creates lots of problems psychologically. one of the things i see, i need to go and check my e-mail but that feeling, i'm talking to my son and his reply in in the same language. he is looking at his ipad. that is our future. [laughter] and that is scary. if we are thinking about the next generation, they will lose that power to talk in the social anxiety might rise even more. those are some of the concerns.
definitely, right now we have to as a parent,g individual or society. do -- that technology will be there and technology is growing and that is a good thing. our children are taking on the tests through technology and that is good. it comes with baggage and how we can really start thinking today so we can minimize the negative affects of this baggage. that is something we need to start the conversation and forward. >> let's launch into that. what are some things we can do in our own lives and other things technology companies or governments or other policymakers should be doing? i think we all have seen the problem, we live it every day. >> going back to what we were
talking about before, our educational system is adapting in a not very positive way. we put multiple-choice tests. they claim to privilege these individual facts rather than putting things together. i had this experience with my daughter where she would try to do her homework while watching tv. i didn't want her to. she said she could do it perfectly well. i went on sabbatical to paris and she was in a french school and here she had multiple-choice tests and workbooks with short answers. she could do it. we went to paris and they made her right essays. she had to turn the tv off. i think that illustrates that for extended work, you need to not have the stimulation of the media. >> just turn it off and unplug.
>> it is interesting, i mentioned that we did this camp study. we were looking for a control group. a camp that lets kids bring media. apart from computer camps, they don't exist. they all want the kids to not be on the phone. kids are seeing the value of unplugging. >> this is all related. i think we have to refocus on sleep hygiene. sleep is the one thing. you always read stories about people bragging about how little sleep they can get by on. sleep is elastic. three hours one night and then catch up on the weekend. which is not true, you can't really catch up. the damage is done. part of this is making bedroom safe spaces where there are not electronic devices. we move away from having computers and things and bright
tvs. and enforcing the idea that you do need 7-9 hours of sleep. almost no one can get by with less than seven hours on a long-term basis without having real physiological changes. part of it is refocusing on the importance of sleep and children. starting early so adults realize it is not something to be embarrassed about. that you need to sleep. stop the steady decrease in sleep time. it is quite dramatic how much has changed. >> how are you doing on your sleep? know, i am pretty sensitive to it. i am wired up and i have a job awbone. you have to set a goal for sleep as well. you have to say somehow good to get seven hours of sleep. figure out strategies to do that. you have to start with children thinking this is something that
is important. >> give me a number. >> it varies. the younger you are -- up to 9-10 hours. when you are older eight or nine >> give me a number. hours. as adults, it is usually 7-8 hours of sleep. >> your sleep? [laughter] >> seven hours. i work hard on getting seven hours. it means going to sleep early because i have to wake up early, it is worth it. >> definitely setting a goal as an individual is important. it is necessary. right now we live in new york and during winter if i tell my son stop using the computer and go and play, he says where will i go? it is cold outside. [laughter] i understand there are certain times he has to use that.
the other thing is, when we are talking about what will he do, this is where cities should start thinking about providing infrastructure where the kids can go and play so they have an alternative. when we are talking about making the cities and communities, all these issues, our safety. it also comes up. there can be different parts. safe, i will not send my children over there. there is a big issue there. about how city leaders and communities and organizations can work together to provide these things. outdoor and indoor parks. you have to think about that. all these areas where the kids can go and play. so that the parents don't feel
that they don't have to do this so there is an alternative. the other thing which is important as many consumers actually don't know the effects. that is where we feel that we need to bring in more of this awareness. providing this type of data -- if you are using smartphones for 10 hours a day, it will affect you this way. those types of numbers can have an effect. whether it is an adult or in school. they must know what will happen to me if i'm using too much of my iphone or other gadgets. consumer awareness is absolutely important. we don't know everything. we need to be more educated about that.
these organizations need to come up with how to make their workplaces more healthy. we talk about sitting in front of computers and there are many companies that started encouraging their employees to have a standing desk and that is good. but you should not be standing for eight hours. you need to know how much you should sit and stand. i was reading, when you're sitting for long hours, and you feel you are ok and nothing will happen to me because after eight hours, i'm going to go to the gym and workout for 30 minutes. no. the problem is when you're sitting for such a long time, your body starts to behave and think that you should be in that position. goingddenly if you start
on the treadmill, your body does not take it well. the solution might be that in your eight hours, every hour you get up, walk around and look at others and what they're doing and it reminds me of the movie, "office space." do something. people can think you're weird but that is helping you. that is important. >> one issue is the workplace and the demand for instant communication is so great. it used to be if you answered a letter in two weeks you are doing fine. now if you don't answer within a couple of hours people think you are not responsive. >> especially when he sent to an e-mail. [laughter]
>> to the point where you can't concentrate because the expectation is so great. i think we could do something in the workplace by realizing the cost of that. i don't answer my e-mail for a day and i'm writing an article. i were doing what my colleagues want, i would be answering all the time. i think that being more aware of those expectations and moderating them would be a big help in terms of being able to concentrate and not be interrupted all of the time. was so refreshing going to my child's open house in middle school and her english teacher was doing the general -- this is my name, the syllabus, e-mail -- but be advised, i do not answer any of my e-mails once the bell rings at 3:00 until the next morning. and we all went, what? you shut off and to look at the
work e-mail. it strange response. but setting boundaries and expectations. she said, i'm off the clock. it can wait. that is something we need to do in our own lives? >> you think about your office now. a big monitor sits in front of your desk. and you spend your day largely interacting with the computer. that only 25 years ago whatever device you had, usually a typewriter, was to the left and your desk was cleared to you cut it and i think you are exactly right. people expect you to respond quickly and you are rude if you don't respond quickly. it does prevent deep thinking. i think we have to become or -- become more disciplined and how do we expect our children to be more disciplined if we are living that same life. i don't know how this is going to change because there is an expectancy of rapid response in e-mails.
that is something we have to fight. >> institutional response at the top. [laughter] >> you don't want a policy. [laughter] you don't know if any of have done research but i often think that means checking my work e-mail is the appearance of being productive. simulating work. i feel responsible and it makes me feel better. even if i am not responding or doing anything, in my own brain, i am saying hey, i'm working hard. is that kind of what we are doing? feeling productive? cracks and think what happens is that when you had snail mail and
where you hadice assistance reading the mail, they could prioritize and it wasn't quite so dramatic. they could determine what you need to see today and whether you could wait a few days. the problem now is there is no prioritization of e-mails. it all comes in. every message requires you to look at it and determine what it is. it is a very complex and frustrating methodology for communicating because there's no ahead of you sorting through all of this. you could do that. you could but that is not the culture now the culture of the e-mail reaches you the record. that can create problems. >> we have dumped a lot on technology. are there some positive things? health apps, tracking our steps, maybe someone with diabetes been able to track that? tele visits with the doctor.
there are some positive things, right? >> we have so many immigrants and back in the day, if you immigrated here, you are lose contact with the family left behind and your country. with skype and so forth, people can keep those contacts and i think that is very positive. >> the thing you mentioned about the potential for personal monitoring, we take our response will be for the health as we have more information. it could be important in helping to control health care costs. people become much more directly involved in their own health care. there is something externally -- there is something extremely positive. >> you can help your doctor keep up to date to go on the internet about your condition and you can discuss it with your doctor. i have found doctors have become more receptive to working with you. they can't keep up with everything just like we can't
keep up with everything in our field. >> in the ucla medical crew, you get all the test results electronically. and that is helpfully. previously, he or she said something and i understood it but by the time i came back home i did not understand. as a result, the evidence is -- whatd now i can see was my glucose level? i can go back and check. there are companies that are coming up that you can order online your drugs and everything. you can choose. of course, there are technologies that are helping to monitor your heart beat and all of these things. so there are good things. we did a study two years back of an organization for medical
devices, they sponsored it, we saw that certain medical devices, some of them could reduce the cost of the economic burden to society. one of the examples, using insulin pumps and if you are advancing the technology using insulin pumps, if you are mostly type one diabetes and he can regularly monitor what is going on, and that really helps a lot . you can reduce the time when you up in an emergency room. so those are some of the things that are definitely advances. >> i want to talk about the social cost of medicine. i was recently in the hospital. dr. spend all their time in front of the computer and they barely talk to you because they can get all the test results on the computer. you or come into
your room to find out. everybody knows that the human touch is very important to recovery. i would say that is almost gone from hospitals. i will not name names, but these used to be home in -- these used to be humane. even the nurses are spending a lot of time at the computer instead of with you face-to-face . i think we also have to consider the social costs and try to address those at the same time as we are making use of these wonderful advances. >> i have seen patients and that is a frequent complaint. they are just clicking away, looking here at the screen the whole time. not to blame health care worker or doctor, that is what they have been tasked with doing . but you are right. >> the interaction is gone.
we also have to say -- i'm not against doctors -- there's a lot of pressure on them from the insurance companies with what they need to file. they are writing it down or typing it. if they can type faster, they could save some time to do some interaction face-to-face. there are pressures on them. you might have to think about those issues. >> we will open it up to questions here for a minute. quickly if you have some final thoughts. need a all determined we surgeon general warning on every smartphone? [laughter] >> what i wanted to talk about as some closing ideas -- some of our research on the changing values of the connected media. we did one study, we looked at five decades of the most popular preteen television and assessed
the values that were being expressed. back in the 1960's and up through the 1990's, the most important value is being expressed was community feeling. in the 2000's, the most important value being expressed was fame. we can see this in our current election, the importance of fame. subsequent television fame and subsequent research connected to children in a big server. itin a big survey -- connected the aspiration to be famous to watching a lot of television and being very active on social network sites. at the same time, going back to the study of the values being portrayed on popular shows, materialism was also going up in
a significant way. i think what we are ending up with is a society that fires -- that values materialism and wealth. we can see that in the current election. values fame and there has been a precipitous decline in the value of community feeling. we found that the big change was in the decade where technology became so important and widespread. >> the brady bunch, that did it for me. my 13-year-old is getting her values from the buzzfeed videos she watches. >> my perspective on this as i mentioned is largely through the impact of technology on sleep. i think that is an ongoing concern and something to be concerned about. i was visiting hong kong and the ministry of health had concerns about the bright lights of hong kong and even people's
apartments, there are bright light shining through all the time from nearby apartments. we have to be mindful of sleep hygiene and regulate the environment. in a way that is healthier so we can maintain what is a primitive process, but is absolutely necessary, which is that moment when we are immobile and somewhat unconscious. >> as i mentioned earlier, there should be a conscious effort at every level. ,hether it is business communities, consumers -- everybody should come together seriously whatng can be done. the different ways that that can be done which we have discussed a little earlier. this is an important factor and i think the conversation should as to how we can actually tackle the issue.
because if we are giving technology in the hands of our kids, saying you have to take a test using an ipad, then we also need to know how we can counterbalance that. those sort of things, we cannot get the answer right away. but we do need to start thinking seriously about that. >> we will open it up to questions now. >> there are two of us going around with microphones. please raise your hand. if you have a question, we will pick you out. this would be recorded and it will be up on our website first thing tomorrow morning. you can share with friends and family. this will also be on c-span. c-span is here recording. it will be broadcast nationally at a later date. please say your first and last name. >> thank you so much for your talk. i'm a scientist and mother three -- and a mother of three children. i'm externally concerned about
the technology. i have a 13-year-old daughter as well. so far she does not have a cell phone and is probably the only one in her entire school. my concern is about the radio frequency emitted from wireless technology. do you guys have anything to say about this because there is so much research out there showing health effects. anywhere from cancer to a neurological effect. universities like ucla pouring money into this technology, but at the same time, so much research showing the harm. so much contradiction. what do have to say? >> not an expert at my understanding is that it is pretty equivocal. a number of studies have looked at radiation from the levels of a cell phone and there are recommendations to lower the
energy levels which i think they have done over time. i think the data is equivocal. unless there are studies that suggest otherwise, there has not been a convincing group of studies to show health risks. on awant to reply to that whole different level. i hear that you are proud that 13-year-old doesn't have a phone. but one thing you have to realize, and it does come out in our research again and again, at this point teenager social life is on the phone. if a teenager doesn't have a phone, they're going to be excluded from social life. you have to really consider the social cost of approaching it in a very black-and-white way. you have to consider it.
>> we have another question over here. >> i was wondering if we can look at this, i see parallels with the cigarette industry who knew that cigarettes were addictive and dangerous and they did not tell anybody. it was part of their marketing. it seems to me that cell phone issue is like a sanctioned addiction that our society has a denial about. there are lots of studies that show that it is addictive. the baylor study that showed school andwomen in worked on their phones, they
were undergraduates. i want to know what you think about the addictive quality and the responsibility of the cell phone companies, who are obviously giving smartphones to entire families for great prices to get the children addicted. they don't need to necessarily have a smart phone with all of that social media access all the time. >> anybody want to take up addiction? [laughter] my one thought would be that addiction is a strong word, medically. and it makes me think, people can be addicted to any number of things. technology can be makes it easier with pornography, online me, addiction can mean many things. >> when i wrote my book in 1984,
i thought the idea of addiction was crazy. wouldd say that nobody say there is an addiction to video games. nobody says if a child wants to finish a book, my child is addicted to reading. if the kid wanted to finish a videogame, i thought it was reasonable. why should you say they are addicted? however. in the years since, the data has changed. using the american psychiatric association diagnostic manual, using the criteria for addiction, there is the same criteria used for alcohol and drugs if you apply this to be against, there is such a thing as addiction. i think we could find that there is such a thing with cell phones in the future. who would have thought? videogame addiction can be extremely serious.
now research has started to be done where they do use the same criteria and it is a real thing. >> i just want to add something. in asian countries, this is much bigger than here. in south korea, there has been addiction treatment options for children. it has started. maybe not in the united states but other countries. that is what i was mentioning. if you start with consumer awareness, it will take a few years for people to start thinking about that. so whether they have addiction treatment or call up addiction or whatever name you give them , what you are thinking about getting treatment -- it will be coming. >> the current new diagnostic manual of the american
psychiatric association has videogame addiction as a candidate for the next addiction . what is really interesting is what has come out of it. what has been removed. narcissistic personality disorder has been removed from it. [laughter] trump is now the new normal. [laughter] >> i was going to ask about addiction but that question was already asked. i'm wondering, how do we navigate this? always impacted humanity but it seems like it is turned up a notch. how do you recommend we navigate all of this? it is coming at us so fast. >> i think we are just becoming aware. at the beginning, everybody was so enamored with all the pluses. we're just beginning to be aware of all the minuses.
our socialization processes, we don't know anything about how do you bring up children with technology because it is all so new. we don't know how to behave as adults and parents with technology because it is new. i think we have to develop ideas about this in the same way we had ideas about etiquette but it wasn't technology etiquette. we need to develop some concepts of etiquette with technology for example. my grandson rarely responds to my texts. he is getting better. it is a learning process. and a teaching process. and we didn't realize that we would have to teach about this. >> next question on the right.
>> the oculus rift just got released a week or two ago and four is coming out with its new virtual reality. what you think about that on terms of our health? >> we are just turning the notch? fully immersed in something with your goggles? no takers? [laughter] >> i think that was yes. >> you talked a little bit about empathy and sleep hygiene and melatonin response. and potentially brain level changes. i was struck two weeks ago in
the new york times with an article that talked about how -- it wasn't really about gps -- but it was about the relationship of the loss of brain level, neurodevelopment. of wayfinding. they did related to the constant use of gps. suddenly somebody is seeing a brain level difference. i wonder what research is going on at that level of brain development or and development? >> everything we do affects the brain. different parts of the brain. reading affects the brain. it just so happens that we got the technology at the same time we got mri and all of that. so we can see that.
every single activity affects the brain. certain connections are enhanced and other connections become weaker. so i would say, yes. this is not a value judgment. with your example, i believe that the neural connections that we use are getting weaker. but other parts of the brain having to do with technology that are getting stronger. >> i would agree with that. it is interesting. some of this is really practice and concentration. if you have a shorthand way doing this with gps, you don't practice the skills. you just end up losing those skills and that circuitry. that is not surprising. >> protecting the children from things that can be lifetime of disability.
>> one thing that is going by the wayside are manual skills. tying your shoelaces or things like that. look at l.a. unified. they want to give every child and ipad. what will that do? it will just move things further. nothing about the possible social cost or manipulative cost and loss of manual skills. it was all considered positive. i think we need to consider what we want children to learn and if we want them to have manual skills, we need to give them the opportunities. if you want them to get exercise, we need to give them those opportunities. gym is gone for most schools. >> i was wondering if you could speak on what the effects are on your eyes.
you mentioned it. if there are any studies that have come out that possibly could give us some feedback on that. >> eyesight? a real going blind? >> i'm fine. [laughter] >> it takes a few years with the main thing is we try to determine a new relationship and show evidence, data is a big issue. if you really want the numbers, you really need evidence that there should be places that start gathering the data. i'm not aware if there any studies showing the relationship. >> one problem with the studies
is the government does not want to fund them. the last 5-10 years, all of our research which has focused on social cost has been unfunded. certain kinds of costs such as eyesight to take money but the federal government is so enamored with technology that they really want to fund a study to show enhanced learning, this kind of thing, nothing about the cost of technology. that needs to stop. we need a more balanced view of technology in high places i -- that control money. >> it may run your eyes, but we can come out with a new product to fix your eyes. [laughter] we've got you both ways. >> allow me to come back to the electromagnetic radiation and frequency. the world health organization to
the carcinogen in 2011. the city of berkeley has passed an ordinance saying that at the point-of-sale for cell phones, it has to disclose that there are potential health risks. from a data point of view, we are living today and on -- with unprecedented exposure from all of our devices from cell phones and fitbit and everything. what can be done from a regulatory view with the research to do something about it? >> the data, again, i am not an expert, but the question is, what is the risk?
what is the risk-benefit trade-off? you mentioned the world health organization. i don't know what the data looks like. his is this a highly significant risk or a small risk. we have to balance that. we hope that people look at that considering whether this is something that requires a special legislation. at one time it was recommended, in the old days of blackberries, that you carry it in a carrier in order to keep it at a distance from your body. not as people tend to carry cell phones much closer to the body. >> i miss my blackberry keyboard. [laughter] >> that will conclude our program. we want to start off by thanking ucla for co-presenting this program with us tonight. [applause]
i would like to thank all of our speakers tonight for giving us their time and for c-span for being here to record this program. thank you so much. we will see you upstairs for the next session. [applause] [captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit ncicap.org] [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2016]
presidential election, but last spring, a significant number of democrats crossed over to vote in the republican primary, raising concerns that they could back republican donald trump this fall. we will have the vice president's remarks in moran, ohio, live here on c-span. there are some introductory remarks going on right now. until then, we will look at immigration and deportation policy in light of donald trump's speech last night in phoenix. washington journal continues. host: here at the table is randy capps, director of the migration policy institute. let's just begin, our viewers have heard a lot. dhaka.tart with who is eligible and what does it
mean? >> it is for people that came to the u.s. before they were 16 .ears old they have to either graduate from high school or role -- enroll in the school. also in the country since 2007 at what they get is not a legal status. there has been a lot of confusion. we get a two-year reprieve from deportation and they get work authorization. that is the program that is in place right now. how many have applied to the status and what is the current -- of the program? guest: it hundred thousand people have applied in a little
.ver 700,000 it is an active program and a lot of people have renewed already more than 90% of the people who are eligible to renew for their two-year term. host: do they have a card? guest: they get a work authorization card and that allows them legally work and pay and have a security social security number, allows them to get a drivers license in all the states, and they also get the peace of mind that they will not be deported. doppler --about
administration announced this new program, they announced new enforcement priorities, so the same thing that would be eligible are not on the enforcement priorities list. so they could be deported, in .heory, but it is not likely host: what are these folks not eligible to get? eligible forre not the affordable care act. they are not eligible for obamacare. there is very -- that is very important. there is a lot of confusion about that. they are eligible for basic programs like medicaid, food , welfare. they are eligible for medicare and social security eventually if they pay in 10 years worth. workse they have the authorization card, they have a social security number. they can pay and and they can get the benefits, the ones
related to the payroll tax. host: let's talk about deportation. what does that look like under president obama? guest: he has deported more people under his administration than any other president. host: who has he deported? guest: at the beginning, it was people picked up by state and local police, fingerprinted, deported. in recent years, the numbers have been falling. in recent years, it is people at the border directly. host: it is that a 10 year low.
thate showing our viewers he has deported more people than any previous president. 91% were previously convicted of a crime. donald trump blast i saying the first people he would deport are suspected criminals -- last night saying the first people he are suspectede criminals. how is that different from what president obama is doing? guest: he said he would deport convicted of any crime. that is going back to the way things worked under the record level of deportations happening for five years ago. the report is where you draw -- the distinction is where you draw the line. are you going to deport somebody because they have a traffic violation?
all of these people were being t.ported in the past because now it is breaking down among people who have committed violent crimes. host: in 2010, convicted criminals made up more of the deportees. let's get to joe. good morning. the first thing i want to say is that people continue to say that donald trump is not a politician.
he is running for office. that makes him a politician. on immigration, all they have to is set up bills that have already been presented and pass those bills. the republicans passed them the way they want to, one at a time. it's already sitting there. do your job, pass the bills. host: those were his thoughts. let me get in john. john, what do you think? caller: there are a lot of questions and comments. i think these programs are totally illegal. let's go back to the rules on the books, wipe off all the programs. if i as an american citizen breaks a law, i expect to be punished. break the law by
crossing the border, and they rewarded. i would like a comment from your guest about the classification. we are not going to deport you .nd your first dui we are going to wait for your second or third. we need to go back to the rule of law. their prison serve sentences first, so they have already been punished. additionally, if it is serious thegh, and that includes in current rules i believe any dui, just one is enough, they are deported. in a sense, they are actually deported twice for that. as far as people coming across the border illegally, i would agree that is something many in's to be tightened up.
i believe the obama administration has been doing that. at border apprehensions are a 50 year low. if you look at the population coming in illegally, it is there he, very effective. as benefits are concerned, unauthorized immigrants are not eligible for in thelic and if it's country. host: why do people have the perception that they are getting and medicaid? >> i think it is true that they work, and that is a huge in a fit to their families and to our economy. they are doing certain jobs that support other people.
is obviously a benefit to them and their families, and that is the main thing they are coming here for. health care, food stamps, those kind of benefits. is, unauthorized families live with legal immigrants. other people in the family are eligible for these benefits. i guess you could argue that immigrants are indirectly benefiting from this, but the reality is that they are not eligible for and not getting these benefits. host: you say they pay taxes on their earnings. call -- guest: at the state and local level, everybody pays taxes.
either they pay on their if they don't own a home, they are taxed through their landlord. that betweenests half and three quarters of unauthorized immigrants pay taxes. flowing a large amount into social security, estimates of more than $10 billion paid by unauthorized immigrants. they don't have a valid social security number. but they are paying in. caller: i just want to say that when it illegal immigrants come to this country, they break up the family they are coming from. they come here to get jobs, but
they cannot find jobs. the american people cannot find jobs. we have take two or three part-time jobs just to make ends meet. if we don't get industry back in this country, we don't get any money. if you don't make a product and sell it, you do not benefit from that company. we borrow money every year to give to all of these foreign countries that hate us and that , and i think it's wrong continue to-- if we pay mexico millions of dollars and the people coming across the border to buy drugs. also, taxes became higher in the u.s. to help these other countries. i watched as country after -- as wentny after company
abroad for cheaper later -- cheaper labor. labor's the first way to reduce the overall cost of your company. bonnie is right. there is a jobs crisis. unemployment is low, but there is record lower labor force per dissipation and wages have not kept up across most parts of the country. is tot think immigration blame for that. the movement of jobs overseas, not very good support from the the averageor worker has a lot to do with that. but if you look at where immigrants move and particularly where unauthorized immigrants move, they tend to go where the jobs are. two years ago when oil went down, that was texas. lots of immigrants moving there.
before the recession, six or seven years ago, it was the southeast. the southeast is not doing as well now. that you don't see immigrants moving to poor states. you don't see immigrants going where there are not jobs. they are subject to the same realities the american worker is subject to, what is the availability of jobs? host: and our mexican illegal immigrants coming across the border for those jobs in the volume that they have in the past? they are not, and that is another very important point, and thank you for raising it. up until the recession, up until 2007, we had very large numbers of people coming across the border. at one point, there were over 1.5 million apprehensions in one year. now we are down to a total of just over 300,000, and half of
them are not from mexico anymore. so the number of people being apprehended trying to cross the border from mexico is declining by 5-10 times. and the economy has a lot to do that. for the last five years, there has been no net increase in mexicans coming in, legal or illegal. host: we were in texas earlier this year and we talked to the homeland security border whereals and they said they are seeing increases are from people who are trying to escape violence, seeking refugee status, turning themselves in hoping to get asylum. guest: that is the other half, ray?
if you look at over 300,000 -- right? if you look at those 300,000 halfhensions, about of them are from guatemala, ecuador, honduras. a third of those our families or e families orr children traveling alone, and they are fleeing horrific conditions, the highest murder rate in the world outside a war zone. gang violence, drought, security problems, conditions that are much worse than the conditions in mexico. some of it is economic. a lot of it is humanitarian. and these are women and children. to climbnot trying over or around a wall. and you can see this if you go to texas. they are getting in an inner across,a boat, floating
and surrendering themselves in large numbers. it is a different kind of crisis.n jobs are rooted in the the economy like it was. it is rooted in a humanitarian crisis in the region. fortunately for us and the region there are not nearly as many people living in central mexico, so it -- in central america there are in mexico. is in that room right there. let him hear it. thank you. once again, we are very honored to have vice president biden in our community. he was here a few years back -- i think it was four years and one day from today he was here
visiting our community. i just want to talk for a couple of minutes before we bring up the vice president, and someone else we have to get elected, which is critically important for us. governor ted strickland has got to become the next senator. we have a lot at stake in this election. you get on your phone and you go through the [inaudible] [no audio]
that we have to figure out, is how do we bring back good paying manufacturing jobs to the united states of america? make two quick points. one is about how trump comes in here and talks about china, and i have mexico, been saying this to national reporters now for a wild. our area is unique. we see a lot of politicians come through this area. i see a lot of young people here. i am a little older, but i am hanging on. through thisome valley for decades trying to peddle something right before an election that is going to save us. right? remember -- i remember growing up -- remember the guy who was
going to bring the blimp manufacturing facility here? things got so bad they decided blimps in the mahoney valley. and we believed him. we were desperate. we had been so heard by the collapse of jobs. donald trump is trying to do that to us, while on the side, he has his companies making ties in china and shipping them back, suits in mexico, products in turkey. you,ve to call bs on donald trump, right? we have to call bs on you. the last thing i am going to say. i feel i can our community we kind of race act that i feel -- iin our community we feel i can our community we kind of respect each other. right?
we have our disagreements. i am half irish, half italian, i understand a dust up now and again. but we have got to go out and talk to people in our community about how donald trump treats people. i know we have a whole campaign and how campaigns can manipulate the image of someone and all the rest. this guy has built a career and made hundreds of millions of dollars screwing other people, ok? i hope i didn't offend any of you, because i know none of you sayg people would ever something like that. [laughter] didou look at how he business in new york and new jersey, he would go in to do business in a contractor. that contractor would hire our union friends, engineers, plumbers, pipefitters, laborers,
painters. they would get the job done. he would sign a contract and say i am going to pay you ask amount of dollars. when the work was done, he would say i will give you $.50 on the dollar, take it or leave it. i will give you $.30 on the dollar, take it or leave it. if you try to fight me, i am donald trump. i have a lot of money. i will tie you up in court for years, and years, and years, and then you will never get paid. who does that? has 3500 lawsuits against him in his country -- and his company. 3500. that's the way he does business. that's the way he makes money. and then he saves the money he promised to give you, or he files bankruptcy, takes all the money, screws everybody in the process, and flies around on a plane, has a boat, and a house here and there.
i am not impressed, donald trump. i am not impressed by some one who made a bunch of money off the backs of working class people. and i will say this. i take pride, like joe sharon he does, and our other elected officials -- like joe does, and officials.lected we come from you. you elect us. take a lot of pride in going to columbus or washington, d.c., to represent you, to make sure you don't get screwed. sometimes we win. sometimes we lose. but we will fight for you every single step of the way. and i am telling you how much more difficult our job will be thee put donald trump in
white house. we will lose battles we should be winning. you think he cares about plumbers, pipefitters, autoworkers? he was against the auto rescue. he screwed those people. he is not going to wake up every morning and think about you in youngstown, ohio. he has no idea the struggles you go through or the struggles our people go through. but thank god we live in america. we have a choice. we have a choice. and we live in a democracy. and as warren buffett said, the most important day of my life was the day i was born in the united states of america. the morse -- the most important day of his life. we have a say in this election. of us who try to do economic development -- and there is a lot going on in the energy industry.
we had the auto industry a couple of years ago. we have the incubator. we have things going on here. it takes time. it takes effort. it takes smarts. it takes an understanding of , and hillary clinton has the capability to do that. she has the skills to do that. let me put it this way. we played a lot of sports growing up, right? we all have. i hear this a lot. we are angry. people are angry. i remember people playing sports in our community, and you would get really angry, really mad. allegedly a coach or two got
angry as well. and allegedly one or two of them may have thrown a garbage can at half-time in the locker room. because we were angry. right? but what do you do after the game? , and we haveou do all had great coaches, you watch the film. what did we do right? what did we do wrong? how do we put together a game plan because we have a game .oming up in a week so we can be angry, but we had better have a plan because there are 1.3 billion people in china who want to compete with the people down here. in point 3 billion people india want to compete directly with these students and workers. we had better have a plan. and hillary clinton has a plan to bring manufacturing back, to reduce the squeeze for the middle class, to make sure makege is affordable, to
president back to biden country. the mahoney valley. it is wonderful to have the vice president with us, a man i believe understands the heart and soul of the mahoney valley, better, and of america than anyone else i know. .his man knows us he knows ohio, and he knows .merica we are so pleased and proud to have him here. he is here to support hillary clinton for president and me for the united states senate. [applause] mr. strickland: you know, i am running from the senate seat -- for this senate seat because i am from working people. that's who i came from. that's who i care about. that's who i will fight for in
the senate. i am running against a guy name rob portman. boo.: strickland: he criticizes me for using the rainy day fund. brothers and sisters, we remember, it was not only raining, it was pouring. and we were dealing with an economy that was not of our own making, but was the result of wall street and decisions made by the bush height and horton administration. bush- course i used -- horton administration. and of course i used the rainy day fund because it was raining, and i protected local farmers and police officers. i want to ask you a question. logic would twisted cause rob portman to be so ashamed of donald trump that he
won't even stand on a platform with him, but yet he believes that he should be the president of the united states of america? says to me?t that that rob portman is putting his party above his country. this man, donald trump, is unfit to be the president. rob portmane understands that. that there are a lot of differences between mr. portman and myself. let's just take the auto rescue. we are at the home of the cruise, are we not? and when the auto industry was , the vice president and our president took strong action, and they saved this vital industry. what was rob portman saying at the time? he said it was a lousy deal for ohio.
can you imagine a senator from saving of thehe auto industry a lousy deal? let me tell you what happened after this industry was waived. industryths after that -- let me tell you what happened after this industry was waived. -- saved. a few months after the industry , i had the privilege of writing in the first chevy cruz off the assembly line. riding in the of first chevy cruz off the assembly line. went out and bought one just like that. portman has opposed allowing students to refinance their debt at a lower interest rate.
what about equal pay for equal work? how many women do we have in this crowd. [applause] voted five times against a equity for women. he is opposed to roe v wade. he believes an employer should whether or not her insurance should provide her with contraception coverage. his record with women. what about retirement security? we love social security and medicare, don't we? we really do. rob portman tried to privatize social security, and he voted to turn medicare into a voucher program. .nd there is the supreme court the president's constitutional responsibility when there is a vacancy on the supreme court is to put forth a qualified nominee, and the president has done that.
the constitutional responsibility of senators is to grant that nominee hearings and a vote. rob portman has taken his leadership from mitch mcconnell, and they have refused to grant a hearing.nd even do your job, rob. the senate has a responsibility. i believe rob portman is neglecting his constitutional responsibility. he ought to be ashamed of himself, and nearly every major newspaper in ohio has said the same thing. i am finished talking about myself. mr. biden: don't talk about me. talktrickland: i want to about this wonderful man sitting behind me. crowd member: joe!
mr. strickland: joe biden represents the heart and soul of america. love you, joe!e mr. strickland: we love you, joe, we really do. we especially love you here in valley.ney we love you because of your values, because of what you have done with your life, because you understand what america is feeling. and too many americans are feeling left out and left behind. and joe biden has the message that america needs to hear. to it is my privilege introduce to you my friend, our friend, the vice president of the united states, joe biden. [applause] mr. biden: thank you all very much.
it's good to be back in the valley. no, i'm serious. i come from one of. in northeast pennsylvania. from lackawanna valley in northeast pennsylvania. we are made of the same stuff. i mean it. i have campaigned over the years for an awful lot of people. more is nobody i admire than ted strickland. i really mean this. we have gone up and down and across the state into campaigns. i was in here last campaign 23 .ays people were probably like, get the hell out, joe. but you know, it matters. mostse the people i trust in life and politics are the people who, the idea that they
cutsabout forms and their first, and then it goes to their heart, and then it is -- in their guts first, and then a ghost of their heart, and then it is articulated in their head -- and then it goes to their hearts, and then it is articulated in their head. tough,ings get really there are people who sometimes crack a little bit. but the guys and women who feel it in their gut, understand it, taste it, those are the people that i trust. you are the same, buddy. irish andut italian's. i married an italian. bless me, father. god almighty. i don't screw around. i tell you that. i listen to her. , tim touchedside
on something i am going to speak to briefly about today. my biggest problem with donald trump not his cockamamie policies, it's the way he treats people. no, i mean this sincerely now. the way he talks. inc. about growing up in your about growing up in your house, at your kitchen table. you ever talked about people the way he does -- i am not joking. i genuinely mean this. about howr talked cool it was that john down the street got fired. you're fired. a phrase he has made famous. you ought to come from a household were some people were fired.
where a plant closed down. where all of a sudden they are staring at the ceiling wondering how in god's name am to make it. -- am i going to make it? a guy who says -- and i mean it -- american workers make too much money. just think about it. all kidding aside. i am being deadly earnest here. this is not the campaign speech, man. this is about the character of the person we are talking about electing as president of the united states. , doug is here. doug franklin, the mayor. thank you for the passport, mayor, we did the town. you guys get it. you guys get it. you know, i know robert and
here, but i't be like the fact that sherry and johnson star here. i like vice president's better than presidents anyway. 2012, iing aside, in came here to ask for your vote. i guess i was presumptuous enough to ask for your trust. i said trust us. you gave us both. you gave us your vote and more you invested your trust in us. and i came back to say, first and foremost, thank you. no, no, all kitten aside -- , i mean this sincerely from the bottom of my heart, i know that i would not be standing here as vice president -- this is not hyperbole -- i would never be
standing here today without the american labor movement. i would never have been elected to the congress in delaware -- i never would have stood a chance had not the uaw stood up. the single largest workforce in my state back then was the uaw. it was 10% of the workforce in my state. in delawareuaw anymore. it represented 10%. in delaware anymore. it represented 10%. you stood up and took a chance on a kid, took a chance on somebody who said i promise you, i get it. joey, you used to say are labor from your belt buckle to your shoe soul. and it's for a simple reason. i am a student of history. i was raised in a family. i was straightforward and honest. ,nd the fact of the matter is
american labor, literally, not figuratively -- and kids are not days --ught this these literally built the middle class of america. there were not be a middle-class without american labor. a rock and i would not have been elected president and -- barack and i would not have been elected president and vice president without you. inn barack and i were sworn in 2009, the auto industry was not on its heels. it was on its back. and there were serious discussions about letting it collapse. remember what they were saying about you? american saying workers were not productive. that you are lazy, remember? i mean, try to remember what this really was, man. withyou couldn't compete
the japanese. you couldn't compete with the germans. we weren't as smart. we weren't as dedicated. we had become lazy. and it wasn't worth it. the president asked -- i know i get blamed, but i am happy now , that i waslamed b who consistently said we should bail out the auto industry. i was absolutely convinced because of how i grew up. we knew the auto industry was not just the important economic americanf the economy, it was a symbol to the world. we built it for the world, not
just for the united states. and we understood how central to the well-being of our economy the auto industry was. what ourback then friends were saying on the other team? and i really mean it, because nothing has changed. that is why i am reminding you. god, joe, we are tired of hearing about how you bailed out the auto industry. it's working. i want you to remember why. we got kicked by the wall street journal, by the republicans, by your opponent, by the last administration. it was about you weren't capable. you weren't capable of building the best product in the world. you weren't productive.
you were overpaid, remember that argument? how many times did we hear for eight years about how you are overpaid? how many times did we hear the last time around,you weren't cao bankrupt? let detroit go bankrupt? ohio, this is a lousy deal for ohio. to selling about 6 million vehicles he year. remember, go back and look. my wife is a college professor. she would say google it. what were they saying? build morever than 6 million cars in america because you were not competent. you had lost the desire to work
hard. you had gotten fat and happy. was the whole story. that is still trumps story. guess what? invest?er to you know who invested most in the recovery? the uaw. you contributed the most. you gave the most at the office, as they say, to resurrect this industry. you took a hit to get it back on screwed when management up the whole process. you are not designing the cars. management is designing them. my dad is in the automobile industry. he said give me product. i can sell it if you give me product. what, guys? the bottom line is these same , they haven't changed.
not about the auto industry. it's about the american worker still. they don't know you. they didn't know you then, they don't know you now. , we all come from the same neighborhood. guy -- he is not a bad guy. he doesn't understand this thanre what you -- anymore you understand what it is like to live in a 30,000 square-foot penthouse 80 floors up in new york. you don't understand that. i don't. he doesn't have any idea what it's like. to sit at my dad's kitchen table and hear my mom say honey, we , andnew tires on the car
him say honey, you have to get 10,000 more miles. we just don't have it right now. he doesn't understand the conversation that still goes on in the valley. mary, who is going to tell she can't go back to college .his year i don't know what to tell her. to her? we going to say folks, what you get, what i get, what the vast majority of americans get is that you just need an even chance. say, i don'td to expect the government to solve my problem. i just want them to understand my problem. just give me a chance.
the neighborhood we came from is where your character is etched, where your values are set, where your view of the world and your place in the world is formed. like you guys. a neighborhood where didn't go to college. to go toall aspired college. our parents all aspired for us to go to college. we learned our values from watching our mothers and fathers, i watched my grandpa. listening to conversations at that kitchen table. my dad had to leave scranton after world war ii in the mid-50's to find work. he was a proud man. but yeah, he had to walk up the and say we can't keep
house. ok. move down with uncle frank into wilmington, there are jobs there. i will be back in a year, i will be back every weekend, but i will be back in a year and we will bring everybody down. looking back on a young adult that must've been hard for him to tell me and my brothers. it must have been even harder to walk into my grandpa's pantry and say ambrose, the father the four men, swallow your pride and say, can you take care of jean and the kids for three years and i promise i will pay you back. from that moment on, even though i was in fourth grade when we moved, i spent a lot of time going back home to scranton.