tv Key Capitol Hill Hearings CSPAN September 3, 2016 9:00pm-12:01am EDT
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yohave csetoomhe nit to talk ouhi eally wantoake it a nvsaon and heafromou, so you can tethrought e discussion anfothose of us in the rm, plse j your questns dow onhendex cds. we wilcoecth inbo 7:20 d t em to theues. with that in mind, pleasjo men ry warmly wcoming petesaeln d sedad o'ien. ppus ledad:hankou. weom erybody thks f tinuphi converti, ici inis iornt and so raread certaiy a joualt is
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d ato you mean by it? per: tnk it is a nfen ounfortunate thgs. prior civ, the rights suggles, not th a have been ey, but think of i suratte, people of color, brn rsus boardf ecaon, thvongightsctcesar chezndheorking farrs gay and lesbia folks, the ericans with dabits act, wa alt so aleast eyan make some noe. th cldar. but these are chire -ewill ner read a o buy a foster kid. they are n gngo rch. ey do not have lobbyis. ando,hyou it change? because america, yoha t make noi. u veo be loud. thk atas been misng soudnes a what i hope we
cados as we grua kids m,g education to pot the eyecome self advocates a ambassadors for tir vti cls,hey ma aifrence, we make noi, me change. therare some specific in that we need t cnge, and we shldhangehem. sodad:e llalabout ecicinust aomt. do you thi mt ericans unrsnd how bad it i peter: no, io not. i think ihun nature, first of a, when somethi is justntnsicallyad wte to turaw. its o horrible. really a child burnedith carettes? th week young wanasee rad aelativ this boyaseen beaten wi a tree branch?how we de wh that how weross the grt ing abt first ar, yes thais whe o
kids are from. t at we are all about his edatn, so thathe bome a trsformed, hh pential ma being he silvere hpyit ning in the cud a tt makes ituceasiero lk abou it does not ta athg ay from the tragees but i think itheregest lesson that is nhi t matter with tm. hoib tngs ha been done them,uthey ha tumphed erhe. they are now goi tbe hpy preson, scefu middlela amerinsnde part of ougrte society and it is not just. them, ianve wini wedge oreonsible inluabledus,ecause we e uciono pivot them. soledad: what did yolen om that firear of that first
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are inside an envelope of what you are people below. you have a pencil into her poking in the dark to see where the edges are of the possible. if you do that once in a while, you will go through. what's, that's where the edge was. come back, find a different piece of edge. but if you said in the middle and never poke the edges of the possible, how can you be anything? you will sit in the middle and amount to nothing. you have to be willing to fail in order to succeed. getink there are lessons, mentors. do a business lan. , do that.line soledad: if you had one lesson what would you tell someone who said i want to be a social entrepreneur? peter: and imagine it.
because that is how you will value it. make sure it is important enough to you. go explain it to other people. you're constantly raising money and hiring people and persuading people to be in your film. not exist judge? you are actually sitting and trying to put into the head of the person opposite you how wonderful it will be and what it will feel like when it exists. is exactly the skill set a social entrepreneur needs inspiring people to help you do something that does not exist. is hugelyopt people well in saying no. practiced a thousand times. you are the first person they are ready to say no to. how do we subvert people saying
no? endlesst do it with spreadsheets or pie graphs. you must move their heart. you must hold in the story -- lost some of the special olympics in ucla. there stood our 14-year-old, the soccer team came in and burst into tears and said, this is discussing how can they expect them to play and rag's? i'm going to spend my 200 dollars to buy them outfits and .hoes
what we did not realize, we were standing to the bleachers and 15 minutes later, a hat comes down to the front with $2500 in it in small bills. mia went with the haitian team measurements and brought them there kits. the phone rang on that sunday county'ss an l.a. supervisor and she said, can you get the student down because we want to give her the young entrepreneur metal on monday morning. so we did that. then the phone rang and it was abc news and it was es en. they said this young woman coming your social entrepreneur, can we interview her? knew, theyhing we
said, this is how you do this. social entrepreneurs need a big idea. toestly, no disrespect moneymaking ideas, it is easier to do it because empathy is so pro-social with a idea. if you can work out how to move someone's heart and picture it again in and again, you work it out why pitching it. let me do more of this bit. you made them cry. i had someone who wanted to go to disneyland, ridiculous because he was in london at the time. we flew him and his mom to l.a. ended the disney thing.
theepiphany for me was not trip. the up if any was that i had a business lunch with a man from hbo, charges on something and he didn't biden i said -- and he said, what else is new and exciting? i told him the story of the little boy and the man from hbo cried. that was the up a funny. it isght, look at this, so powerful, i could help other kids. who knows? that was the beginning of the starlight children's foundation. over the empathy, the emotion. spreadsheets will follow later. a question fors twitter. what about kids with serious emotional disorders who need therapeutic placement? how do you manage their needs? heater: we can manage some moderately serious psychological challenges. we can deal with ocd, we can
deal with things of that sort. what we have now learned we can't deal with is schizophrenia. what we are trying to do in our recruitment is called pedagogically, it is fundamentally we are trying to ask ourselves, if, from everything we know, we admit gos use, will they probably to college? and if we do not admit them, will they almost certainly not go to college? our first-year director is here, he dreamed up a fantastic essay question for these missions. please imagine that it is your 100th birthday party and your best friend, who is known you your whole life, makes a toast. what would you like them to say? we look for any spark. we do not look good grades because if they have been in a group home they may have well
have never done homework. they may have no grades. we took some kids with a .7 gpa who now are amongst those who went to college for years later. we looked for a spark. my future have to be determined by my past? i am interested in science, why does the english teacher read the newspaper? i want to be someone. why does it have to be me who got abused? out of that becomes a neville and stubbornness. we do not take random admissions there trying not to take end. the top only 5% and the bottom 25%. we are trying not to take its we cannot help. they need a different kind of program with a much more intense, almost 24-seven psychological counseling. we are not that.
with one or two exceptions, we are not trying to take the rare foster kid who has lived in the same placement for 10 years and professional people in and everybody in the house goes to college. they do not need us, we should not use the bed for that student. we need the middle 50 percent. soledad: how do you coordinate with foster parents and everybody else in that child's lives? peter: hillary clinton did not for thehe saying she is title of her book, but she did propagated and make it popular. .t is an african proverb throughout africa, in all these different tribes, it takes a village to raise a child. we believe if only it does take a village. what is a university? in some very real ways, it is a village. some of them very big.
towns, cities, and why you i think thinks it is the best of the city. everything else is secondary. i think thinks it is the best in the city. everything else is secondary. we have services, we nurture the foster parents and it is often not straightforward. we try to help them feel supported and networked and to give them skills to do the best possible job for their worlds. the kids they are looking after. it is not straightforward. what if they have their own and non of similar age one in the household has anyone been to college. now arrives the first foster kid who talks about little else other than going to college? what does that do at the dinner
table? some of this is not straightforward. we do a lot of nurturing families and we work with high schools to have them do a better job. first staffer who teaches teachers in high school came back and said, the college counselor that was in the group that i was teaching burst into tears. why did she burst into tears? i said in the uc system, if your next foster youth and maintain a three point zero gpa you'll never page wishon is an undergraduate and the counselor burst into tears and said, i have been a 20 year counselor here and all these kids i did not send to college because i thought they could not afford it. the tide. to raise we need awareness.
we need c-span. tweets and facebook and every kid needs a lawyer and we need to reverse the presumption of secrecy and we need to use the elephant in the room's, these universities that have very nearly everything you need to do right by a kid who has been abused or neglected and get a prosperous,to successful, happy, nurtured, life. why wouldn't we do that? do that more? someone said, how many academies to think there will be? making a speech. the young lady with the heads and said, you must stay to your ambition in numbers. i said, as many academies as we can do prudently as quickly as possible. no no no, you have to give it metrics. i am up there talking and i
could see her coming toward me like a train at the end of the tunnel at the end of the speech, did not know what to say. i said, our ambition is within 10 years, 100 academies. i went and said down and all the people with me through their bread at me. they said, how could you say that? i said, i don't know, maybe it is only 50, maybe it is 300. we are ambitious. we are a big component. if we just replicate this, it will put a very large dent in the number of kids in foster care, going into foster care, the on that, every child in foster care deserves their own lawyer,onfidential properly trained, the same lawyer from case to case, none of this hello, i have going to be your lawyer today, i'm so i, we have to go" now, don't worry. not good enough. it is a caseload?
did they have to take continuing education? what is it have to be so balkanized across the country were some are good and some are terrible? how do we raise our ships with the rising tide and how do we get every big university to do soledad: more detail on the universities, how do you identify the students and what factors do you consider? how do they come to you? how do you sort through who you are going to take? are the students given mostly full scholarships? for those who do not go, why are they not going? ther: i talked about admissions process. we normally sourced through the childrenation's services, sometimes called child protective services, dif this, runsly the organization
its seminars to teach them how to have kids apply but we also work through the middle schools because remember when we first contacted them, they are eighth graders. we have to identify the middle school that feed to the high schools and we work through the administrators there and the teachers. admissions form. normally for a cohort of 30, rising ninth graders, we usually have something around 100 applicants and we interview them and they write their essays. essay, what is the toast at your 100th birthday party. it is an art as much as a science. and terms of kids to fail, i do not think we fail any of them in the sense it is true 10 or 12% do not go to college. some joined the military. some go into a sheltered job. college is not for everyone but it is for most of them. we tried to do right.
one size does not all. we try to shrewdly, as though we were the parents come of the village, which we are, work out what is best for this kid and how to we help them get it. have about 15 minutes left. one thing you said you really are kept up at night by is money. how do we help? what our partnership opportunities with first star? peter: the undergraduates with the hats come down now, pass the hats -- [laughter] no, we gays should buy two things. universities, right now we have bitten off as many as we can digest. i found is, there's no
point in meeting in the middle of the hierarchy. universities, with all due and programs on a university, there is usually only five to 10 entrepreneurs working in the university, provost,he president, vice chancellor, maybe the dean of something. i have to go in top down. top down almost always works. that is one way. your high net worth families. it is 2016, when i talk to high net worth families i say, who were the men who invented the renaissance. they sent the ships to the new world. no one them they must
they are the ones who, medici looked up and said, the earth is not flat. it must be a sphere. all the chandeliers point at the ground. berefore, the earth must round in and furthermore and must be the earth that goes around the sun. he was galileo and the church him.d to kill he was protected by the big family. medici. my message to the high net worth families is, could you please point some of your entrepreneurial zeal, which is exceptional, which does not have committee.o some big
it is you guys. we would be honored to partner with you. furthermore, you tend to have, because the university is already gotten at you, you have one or more university relationships and that is a wma. a high net worth person who has an arm of matter where they would like to see one of the academies, i have so many in my pocket. you get one and we will talk next week. everybody else, we're up for anything. you want to do a bake sale that contributes to the cuny first star academy? we would love it. fundraising is tricky. raising capital is immeasurably easier once we have kids in the end the academy because of we can say, come meet them. the fact we can introduce the kids is a rare privilege. it takes court orders in very great care but the kids are the
best ambassadors. soledad: this question is from founder of will go first, a nonprofit for recovery care for kids online. hi, jessica. she is a multi-part question. if we don't get to all, i know you will get an opportunity to run up in and ask her. she says, i am one of those kids. thereurious about where is resistance to interagency collaboration. why do you think that is? peter: because grown-ups think in silos. one of the fundamental problems is that one foster care was invented all those years ago, 100 years ago, it was seen as abused or is being neglected. we have investigated, validated the allegation, we must remove the child and put them somewhere safe.
that is the work of social workers and there is nothing the matter with that at what there is little training or a education,aid to is which is the long-term fix and what we must do better at is blowing up the silos. there is nothing unique to foster care. it is the big problem i believe in our society. that a human knowledge has grown exponentially. to though in ordering deep, we have to go narrow. but how do you answer a multi-faceted challenge in our society. the answers you need generalists in the middle. i had a meeting with general shorts cop. weise -- general schwarzkopf. on do we keep them focused the mission? general schwarzkopf said, what
do you know about the united states army? i said, nothing at all. he said, well when you go into the army you don't just get rank, you get a specialty. rifleman, infantryman, driver, cook. pain on your shoulder, your specialty. it doesn't matter how much they promote you, you have your specialty until one day if you are a dam fine leader, you give you stars to be a general. in that ceremony, they take away your specialty and because you are no longer a specialist, you are a general. and i thought, that is why they are called generals! i am a generalist. first star people in who know more they are in me about the nuts and bolts of the educational side and social work sign in sociological and social
pedagogy. but leadership is best done by leaders. when they put specialists in charge, everybody died. , we should have a general in charge and that way we will live. whatad: second question, is scaling/on boarding of stakeholders over the long-term look like? beer: we try not to precious. we partner very easily. frankly, anyone who raises their hand and has money are good ideas, we say, come on down. we will find a good way to work together. like a relentless bulldozer, we move forward but we try to do it and as collaborative a way as we can do and if there is expertise out there, we're constantly
meeting with people who know more about something than we do and we tried to bolt that on. so there is a basic program but if there is a good idea somebody knows more about something or other, ring it on. soledad: i think this will be our final question, a really interesting way to end because it is about accountability for the overall system. what about holding the child welfare system accountable? for starters doing amazing work is doing an star amazing job but is it making a parallel process without holding accountable?t peter: it is not broken everywhere, the system. one of the things we do
throughout washington is report cards, a through f by different measures of the children's welfare system and they do not all get an f. it is not broken everywhere. the better question is, why do the bad ones not emulate the good ones? i do not know the answer. pure accuracy as does. it is not either-or. we are doing education, education, education. ones, holding the bureaucrats responsible and so on are also of enormous value. we should be able to patent our at thed rub our tummy same time as a society. we need to do all the above, not either-or. soledad: thank you so much for this conversation.
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technology, lifestyle, and health. it is 30 minutes. >> into next, we have >> and next, we've got a great fire side chat about the economy, e sharing promise, risk and reality and to do is think for one minute, and what can we do in the healthcare industry to this is going to be a very interesting conversation. so who do we have? --we have >> linda from we're curious, and business strategy. >> just out of curiosity, how wearables on ve right now? would be okay with going to the spectrums and around?g things
we have a great panel right here thank you. you, guys. >> perfect. >> i'm dave whelan, a strategy consultant. the e spent many years at intersection of technology, health and wellness working at wearables, from on-demand nurses to community building apps, and i have built destroyed a couple, to ys looking for more ones add on to the positive side. side.u've if you've watched the news recently, which these days is reading twitter and watching videos on snap chat you've been hearing a lot about the sharing economy. car on you can share a uber, we share our homes, we facebook, if s on
you use google, you're literally information f your with google incorporated and advertisers, as my 5-year-old son who is somewhere n the audience likes to say, sharing is caring, but in the healthcare world there has been a lot oh changes for the past both from a technology standpoint, enabling technology, as well as things act the affordable care which we're continuing to see changes coming down the line. >> today we can share with all of our co-workers. medical hare your records sometimes, if the systems work. create a hair disease community overnight, with its own hash tag, and you can contribute to health research research kit.d
this connection is really strong. we're just talking backstage, there is a company which was research kit.ormer this twitter person. this connection between social sharing and healthcare sharing is very real. we start a couple of ground rules, so please, no buzz goinglike big data, we're avoid the presidential election. got a couple of people -- anyway, so let me start with linda. c.e.o., we're he curious. yearsd i met four or five ago at a faster cure conference great to k, so it's reconnect here. let's take a couple of minutes, tell us who you are and how you where you are and a little bit about what's going on with curious. >> great. thanks, dave. great to be here, always fun to come to los angeles from up north.
i got here really came from eeing how research was happening in mostly the academic world, where we saw these on ters of studies going whether it was autism or chronic fatigue or whatever the disease condition. i was first thinking about this over 10 years ago, you would see these little tudies in little pockets being funded by the nih but typically underpowered and we weren't able to get enough enough nrolled or get information or grants big enough to fund large enough studies co-founding of the 23 and me. a whole new way of doing research, due to crowd funding and crowd sourcing. like a logical way to approach a problem not being fast enough. 23 and me led to this opportunity and while i was still there i started thinking
all the other data that we ave in us and around us, and with the wearables face starting to boom maybe five years ago it like a logical thing. ability to allel the tap into it through wearables, and all of itors, these things going around, why don't we try to build a platform for people to do that. idea came in he your data ve it's answer questions that you might have or other things or have a social layer on top that hendz find other people to have conversations around the data. you can start a community very a disease or a question or any kind of a topic. he problem is a lot of times these turn into conversations that go nowhere. they have people comparing things.
they might have ideas that they want to pursue but they don't have the means to do. come together, share their say, let's track our migraines and track what we eat every day and do we start to pattern. our analytics come in to look at atterns and trends and fed those back to people to say it does look like when you eat this thing happens, so it's all about gathering data something ly getting productive out of it. >> you're wearing a very cool ring. tell us about the ring. sure, happy to. one of the things on our in the and you can see graphic the word cloud, that sleep is one of the biggest things that people have questions about. found that out on our website. when people can pose questions them are majority of around sleep so we hook to as a lead, that that was a good topic we launched s curious bun of the most important components is how can
accurately.eep luckily i have an investor in lamenting someas of the wearables on the market at that time. about a year and a half ago. no great way to track sleep. he said, i have a company for you. so he's also an investor in aura, a ring-based sleep tracker. basically a sleep lab on your finger. of all of the different echnologies, and it's not perfect but of all the technologies i have seen it's of the better ones. it tracks deep, rim, and light leep but when you wear it during the day it keeps tracks of your steps. it will calculate for you based n your activity in the day and how you slept that night, what your readiness is for the following day. takes it to the next level, what are you learning from that? the data through our platform and the api connection. ow you can trap things like caffeine, alcohol consumption, things you you think might affect your sleep and learn from
that. you.hank >> with base health -- i'm going the wrong way here -- i met him couple of months ago but i feel lake i've known him forever. you here.d to have how did you get here? you have a great story from early days. now?are you working on >> sure. thanks, dave. >> i feel the same way and for having me here. great very entrue. wasn't too bad so i got here faster than most people. live in an amazing era. before, it was computer before that was the industrial revolution. is definitely gy to be that we're going living in next. about becoming our own
of health destiny. the consumer is being powered in i was rent way and fortunate enough to be a stupid san diego, w up in biotech beach and started my career at the salk institute and there i wasn't smart enough to get into research, but, you i was sharp enough to and stand that jenobics sequencing and clinical diagnostics is going to hit at some point ng and i've been fortunate enough ground front of various general next sequencing tests within the genomics at's changed forever. people onof the first genome net to be whole
sequenced, panels done. ost people obviously know of genetics and genomics from the consumer side because of all the me did tall and marketing money that was spent. really ple don't understand is that there is so much more information than just your genetics. i think geonomics, even though fan is one piece of mettae and there is other sleep at come into play, data, walking around with how of this s we take, all stuff is great, base health, one that i'm involved with, we're into predictive analytics. as we hear more about artificial intelligence and natural processing, and lp really gy, how that's
driving various different decisions from the predictive analytics side is very interesting, too, i believe, you know, definitely health is the wealth, and, you know, we education, to get an to make some money, and hat's -- and have a family and all those other good things but witness you accomplish that you this is kind ay, of boring. what die really get interested in? i think the key thing is to die knowhy, and we all kind of that, but we don't really put enough effort into it. is the only way to do that if everyone gets involved. i just have a quick question. ever your hand if you have had a genetic test? about 10 people in the crowd. raise your hand if you've ever fully genome sequenced? i'm the only person, i think,
here. what that shows is, i drink the kool-aid. infancy of the changing medicine forever because it's really not about itself.icine it's really about disrupting disrupt e and how you healthcare is from people, you now, one day, next time, someone asks this question, everyone raises their hand and hat's how we disrupt healthcare. >> that's great. used three buzz words in that. hall pass. touched on the point. data is suspect, inconsistent and not very actionable right now so even if telling a device that's you something pretty much all it tells you is you haven't done steps or you have done 10,000 steps. thing?he right
too e sequencing is still expensive for most people -- integrations are challenging to least.e how do we get past these hurdles and get the right tools and the right results into people's hands? it will come from these initial insights that we'll start to have, even if the data isn't that accurate. >> we do see that people who a day, if theyps haven't been active at all it's a benefit so we're seeing coming out of the earables and this extra data space that people are interesting. maybe the employer gave them to wear and now they are more active. steps and the wearables, they will get better with time. starting to get more into the market, actually has growing ry good job of
he market and i think it will just be a matter of getting value from the data, seeing as improves, a lot of these companies are looking at the consumer side, looking forward of the clinical space, i think it's a smart strategy for the companies to come out and consumer's hands, start to generate data and find application that is might have clinical relevance. the very start of this, but because, just because the ata aren't that great maybe right now, i think it's enough there that we're seeing positive direction that towards something more clinically relevant. >> it's grant job. maybe not as great of a job but now they are exiting the consumer market but going sort the clinical market, maybe leveraging the technology they got earlier from that.edia and things like >> exactly. yes. >> they are starting to see the genomic side, e how do we make this access happen so people can take advantage of knit
really about education. with education of people knowing exactly what they don't have. we all have a blueprint of dna locked insideit's us, and we have ways of easily, g that very most people that aren't educated and don't know science and technology, don't understand what dna is. csi.think it's if you ask your next door joe, he's ennifer or probably not going to know what dna is. he knows what blood is but not dna. it's really about educating the consumer and we've seen that technology has happened very quickly. uber.d example is you never knew that you actually use something like uber.
kind of always existed. one thinks about taxies anymore. they changed the whole paradigm nd it's not because uber changed the paradigm, it's because consumers changed the paradigm. tv.r is not advertising on you hear about it because you're in d.c. and you want to catch friend g and you have a at a conference this had the and use it.nload it consumers want to know what to next. thing. the key that with oure do bring in al health think sharing is just the tip of
the iceberg. getting masses of people involved, and there is a way of doing that through of nonprofits. research institutions, academics, pharmaceutical various looking for different clinical trials. from different and have different diseases. you're going to pass that down so there is lots of information, think, now, within consumers where they can drive certain things. >> interesting. privacy a couple of times. i think uber is a good example. are concerned about safety with uber. safety. house being trashed. in the health world, people,
it's individuals or certainly the government via that, and things like there are all these layers of privacy and security, whether t's talking about peril health data, certainly your genomic data, how do we get around that, it come to life and add value to individuals, to physicians, to society? on the stepping government's toes? think.'s a challenge, i that's a challenge, it's going to involve, you know, more than one entity. a challenge that, you know, people are going to went to it and know that they can actually utilize i. can actuallyif you monetize and control your own data it's a powerful thing. the key to it is the fact that, you get people that are interested in making a themselves.for
obviously, there are sick people that are interested in various different conditions. have been affected by breast cancer and you carry that you're part of the community for sure, some other communities, rent you're part of the community and actually help, right? a very small population. what about everyone wheels is healthy? what i interested in genome.e healthy j we can learn a lot about disease people, not healthy just sick people. sick ians talk about people and that's great. to help sick people but how you really help sick people s by concentrating on the healthy population and motivating the healthy opulation from a social impact and social dynamic. > just one quick example,
it kills me that so many people, people share things instagram and don't think twice about it. they don't think twice about how private data they are actually sharing, right? actually you can anonymously shares or donate or monetize in a way where it's protected? would be key and getting, you know, the government, for i mple, involved with that, think, would be key. from nih and all the support from joe biden and the moonshine. example. we have to get over the fact, private and ithis don't want to share it because we're sharing so many other things that are way more
think., i >> i might add, the benefits have to outweigh the risks of access to this information and trusting a company that it's going to store keep it safe for you there. has to be some reason you really choose to take that risk because to be a risk.ing no data anywhere sitting in any is a hundred percent free of that risk but we've gotten over the hump in the and people get hacked all the time, credit cards, numbers get stolen all people still choose to buy things online because it's so much easier and there is benefit to that. i think it will be the same thing with health information, e're going to have to trust that doing this brings us a lot of benefit and we're willing to and hope h some risk, that the companies that are storing our data are doing the most they can to protect it and keep it private. so that's always going to be a rub in the system, but, i there is athink that lot of benefit to having access to your information and then
appropriate, en either with your doctor or with researchers. there is a lot of benefit that that. get from but that was one of the early questions we would get at 23 and genetic data, my goodness, and we would walk question, so the somebody hacks into your 23 and me account. access what are they going to do with that? when you talk people through hat, oh, yeah, it's like i would much rather have somebody my my genetic data than financial data. there are very clear reasons why that could hurt you where as perspective, what would they do with that information? you have to take it through a logical process. have k it's healthy to those conversations. >> great. we're here in los angeles, land movies, and with every good story there is a villain, who is
who is a big obstacle, who stands to lose the kinds of shifts happening, the same way -- musk car and the electric big oil worried about what's going to happen with them. or entities panies or someone trying to slow this down or ultimately will be by upted or destroyed opening up, whether it's health data? genomic >> early on, in the case of drca it was companies like marriott, because -- this is back when gene patents as they existed at that time were still still -- they were issuing patents around the gene, that.hey owned to me it seemed ludicrous that ou wouldn't go anywhere except marriott to get your sequence so ntities like that will be disrupted. that we're trying to hold and control information, and then pharmaceutical industry, probably everyone on the stage is all for prevention less drugs eing on
than more drugs. when you find the right players motivations, ame like i think -- is a good example of one particular health all about 's prevention. keeping people off drugs because they pay for it. not only are they the doctors providers, but they are the payers so when you have systems ike that, mayo clinic is similar as well, putting people on the medication is actually outcome, and so, anything that can serve that end getting peoplere wish we called it preventive health than medicine but we're moving in a direction here hopefully the pharmaceutical industry will get on-board and be supportive of these measures where we're going to keep people off drugs. i think the food industry as well, there is just a big sugar and some of these dietary things that have been pushed through america and we've got to stand up and say no more. our ed to really change
view of our food, food is medicine, and i think that's that's going to be pretty threatened by the fact that people are becoming educated. >> i think -- >> i think -- i agree with said other than maybe one. just kidding. health systems, i think, are a because, you know, let's take a scenario, let's say go to the doctor and, for whatever reason, you go visit a doctor, you have some kind of do some blood work, and they get all of your then they ask a health questionnaire and they get a lot of information about you, right? they get that information. what's -- what's happening now, know, st people don't there is a company called ims, and your lly sells my data for $12 billion lastier and most people don't know it because you're automaticallially automaticalliallialautomaticaliy
concepting to certain things so and e can take your data sell it. the health systems themselves problem. number one, they don't talk to each other. two, if you want your data, it's accessible to get it. and so if they actually let the all mers right away have their data, whether -- with whatever electronic form there platform there is a where you can get that, i think a whole new economy for both, you know, institutions, and the consumers. and i think the health systems definitely a barrier. >> perfect. i love the food example as well. a huge movement toward changing the food industry. you re talking beforehand, know, the food industry was very
local and natural till 50 years ago. for thousands of years food and in the ame way past 50 years it went commercial, corporate and manufactured and we're starting i think, hift which you know, could tie into everything we're talking about here in a big way. natural way, which gets to the healthy piece that you entioned, you know, how do we actually measure the healthy side of things. i imagine you're doing -- trying people, curious from a health standpoint, healthy as close to e're getting ime, so i tend to end things similarly, i'm a big steve jobst fan. wayne d reference gretzky, you want to skate where where k will be and not it is right now. things are moving quickly, but where do you each, see this going, and where are you skating to make it happen? our case, it's all about consumers owning their own health and owning their own
we get a lot hich of push back especially from the venture side because consumers be healthy ated to but we would challenge that to say we just haven't made it easy how to le to figure out be healthy and that's where data -- i won't say big data but that's where data comes into play where people start to figure this out and share it. here's arative part of what my genome looks like i do well on this diet, may not be because you're different in some way but if we can start to get that information into the hands of eople and they are able to share it with others, the net effect, we need a social network health that will rival something like facebook and i think it's going to be moving in that direction. perfect. >> i think we're on the brink of an era where we won't have to genome sequencing. we'll get it for free and it.eone else will pay for i'm personally interested in having the platform where people you know, get
genome sequence, get their in one nformation central location, because all so data is siloed everywhere if we can take that data that's central e into one repository where that data talks to one another in various you know, researchers and clinicians can access that a mass level, that's when you actually change disease and cure.s when you actually >> perfect. thank you, both, it was great to have you. here, you flew down you're flying back to the bay area. thank you for being here. we're here for the rest of the and would love to continue this conversation in breaks and things. lots more to talk about, we'll and do it ext year half.ike an hour and a thank you, guys. [captioning copyright national cable satellite corp. 2016] [captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit ncicap.org]
>> this labor day c-span continues our road to the white house. monday afternoon at 2:00 we're live from cleveland with emocratic presidential candidate hillary clinton and vice presidential candidate tim out their ey lay plans for the nation's economy. candidate and vice presidential candidate speak from the warehouse theater libertarian party presidential candidate gary johnson continues his tour iowa, at in des moines, grand view university. c-span is labor day on and cspan.org. republican presidential nominee donald trump in detroit. of a discussion on the use corporal punishment in public schools. after that, a look at the state america's foster care system. >> donald trump told members of
[applause] > >> i just wrote this the other day knowing i would be here and mean it from the heart and i would like to just greet it, and i think you'll understand it in e better than i do certain ways. for centuries, african-american conscience een the of our country, so true. pews and pulpits teachings of black churches all across this land that the civil rights movement its soul and lifted up the soul of our nation. from these pews that our inspired toward a better moral character, a eeper concern for mankind, and spirit of charity and unity that binds us altogether, and we're that together and i see today. for has been an amazing day me. the african-american faith god's ity has been one of
greatest gifts to america and to its people. no action our s leaders can take that would do heal our country and upport our people than to provide a greater platform to the black churches and churchgoers. you do right every day by your families. your you raise children in the light of god. always support your church, always. right to your worship. so important. i am here today to listen to hope my age, and i presence here will also help reach new to audiences in our country, and any of these audiences desperately need your spirit and your thought. i can tell you that. christian faith is not the past but the present and the future.
make it stronger. [applause] make it stronger. [applause] >> we'll open it up to great pastor jackson. bishop jackson. jackson. nd so many others, and so many others sitting here, darryl scott, who is phenomenal, who long.en with me for so [applause] >> so long. >> tom -- who is actually a very person, but i don't want to say that because i'll destroy her i am handling by saying that right? she's actually a very fine person and pastor, and i just all of the folks, and there is somebody that's been very special to me, dr. ben carson, who has been -- stand up, ben. come here. [applause] >> come here. man and a great guy. [applause]
>> so as i prepare campaign all cross the nation, and in every community, i will have an opportunity to lay out my plans change, which will be so good for detroit and so good for this community because going to bring jobs back. i will have a chance, thank you, taking it backk, from mexico and everywhere else, because they are gone. have a chance to discuss school choice, very important, and how to put every american on ladder to success. a great education and a great job. let oday, i just want to you know that i am here to listen to you and i've been we had a , and fantastic interview with bishop jackson. amazing ally an interview. he's better than the people that professionally. i'll tell you. [applause] [cheers]
>> an i didn't really know what i was getting myself into. know.'t is this going to be wild? his a great gentleman and a guy.t i just hop you don't lose him to hollywood. that's the only problem, and jackson.y dr. she may be gone. hollywood is calling. [applause] those television cameras. ook at all the television cameras. [applause] >> i'm sorry to do that to you, of those things, right? divided.tion is too we talk past each other. not to each other. seek office do not do enough to step into the is unity and learn what going on. they don't know. they have no clue. i'm here today to learn. so that we can together remedy in any form and so hat we can also remedy
economics, so that the frican-american community can benefit economically through jobs and income and so many ways.different our political system has failed he people, and works only to enrich itself. i want to reform that system, so you, everybodyfor in this room. believe true reform can only come from outside the system. i really mean that being a is much different than being a politician, because i understand what's happening. we're going outside of the establishment. becoming the nominee of the of abraham lincoln, a lot of people don't realize that, lincoln, great abraham lincoln was a republican. of my n the great honor life. i hope his legacy that to build the future of the party, but more important, the
the country and the community. i believe we need a civil rights agenda for our time. one that ensures the rights to a great education, so important, live in safety and in peace, and to have a job, a goodly great paying job, and one that you every morning. and that can happen. we need to bring our companies back. it also means the right to have protects our hat workers and fights, really fights for our jobs. i want to help you build and ebuild detroit and we can do that especially with people like bishop jackson and dr. jackson. [applause] i mean that. it's been an amazing experience. amazing experience. [applause] >> nothing is more sad than when
sideline young, black men potential.illed tremendous potential. i met some people this morning incredible people and they are looking for jobs. these are incredible people. people. whenhole country loses out we're unable to harness the of these folks. nation, and when anyone hurts, we all hurt. that's so true. brothers and sisters and we're all created by the must love each other and support each other and in this altogether. altogether. fully understand that the african-american community has discrimination and that there are many wrongs that right.till be made
they will be made right. i want to make america prosperous for everyone. want to make the city the economic envy of the world, we can do that. do that again. [applause] new ctories everywhere, roads and bridges, no schools, especially schools, and new hope. i have been so greatly blessed so many ways with no greater blessing than my family. i have a great family. me happier d make and more fulfilled than to use learned in business and in traveling all over the orld, i've sort of seen a lot, to bring the wealth and prosperity and opportunity to who have not had these opportunities before. many, many people in detroit. when i see wages falling, people of work, i know the i'mships this inflicts, and
determined to do something at it. i will do something about it. things done. i will tell you. some people have strengths, that's one of mine, i get things done. i'll get things done for you. please know this. things who are hurting, are going to turn around. be better.ll much better. the pastor and i were talking bout riding up the street and we see all of those closed doors and people sitting don't you on no jobs and nond activity. we'll get it turned around. we'll get it turned around, pastor. believe me. [applause] win again as ato country and we're going to win people.r all of our i want to work with you to renew between of trust citizens. that makends of faith our nation strong. america has been lifted out of
most difficult hours through the miracle of faith and like bishop e jackson and dr. jackson. [applause] important. >> people have no idea how important they are. times for ourhard country, let us turn again to heritage, to lift up the soul of our nation. grateful to be here today, and it is my prayer of tomorrow, and i of that, that the america omorrow will be one of unity, togetherness, and peace. add the word can prosperity. prosperity. [applause] >> i would like to conclude with from first john 4.apter
if you want we can say "no one has ever seen god, but if we love one in us and hisives love is made complete in us." and that's so true! thank you very much. this has been such an honor. thank you very much. bishop, thank you, sir. [applause] >> thank you. [applause] has another title now. preacher. wife and i want to give you something -- that's you.be a blessing to
[applause] fromis is a shawl straight israel and with this -- hold when or me, please -- you're flying from coast-to-coast, i know you just -- and k from mexico from be flying city-to-city, there is an with the, an anointing of god. mra [applause] issue of blood -- i can only touch the hem of jesus'
garment i would be made whole. nothing else could help her but of god. [applause] your re will be times in life you'll feel forsaken, down, lift you ointing will up. [applause] > i'm going -- i prayed over this personally, and i fasted over it. i want to just put this -- [applause] the republican presidential nominee in detroit today at the great faith international church. related item from the associated press, the pastor
says donald trump was given questions in advance of a planned taped christian television interview saturday at a detroit church, but bishop wayne jackson tells cnn friday that it was not done to give the epublican presidential candidate an upper hand with his questions. jackson says these are questions need to know ans and that trump hasn't sat down with anyone in the black community. comments come after the "new york times" reported with ing a draft script jackson's questions and the for ign's proposed answers donald trump. well, also today, in detroit, joined by his former rival in the g.o.p. carson, whotest, ben is a detroit native, and the two carson's boyhood neighborhood in that city. let's take a look at that. [indistinguishable voices]
>> what's your name? kids with tutored their homework? >> how much are you going to pay? a's? did get straight did.es, he >> thank you. just had someone cut the grass. >> she moved -- yeah.ah, she moved. >> this house is worth a lot of money. yeah, say that again? --if you guys -- if you guys >> we're ready to got. it's up for sale. [laughter] i'll send you a copy of the deal. you very much.
i liked it. >> donald trump not the only in the tial candidate motor city today. another nominee, this one the nominee, dr. joe stein, tweeting, i'm holding a at noon, etroit today and she left an rsvp. jill stein in detroit today. it does not look like at this oint anyway, jill stein or libertarian nominee gary johnson will be on the debate stage. point hillary clinton and donald trump set to debate. dates, monday, september 26 at hofstra university. washington ct 9 at university, and at unlv on ednesday, october 19, everyone at 9:00 p.m. eastern time, and you can watch live here on c-span. on c-span radio using the withn radio app, available video on demand on our website
cspan.org. debate moderators for september holt of nbc, october co-moderators, martha raddatz and anderson keeper, and chris wallace with fox news will have duties on october 19. regarding vice presidential that will be moderated news, elaine -- the head the ivision not happy with decision of the debate moderator choices. tv news, univision randy falco has expressed disappointment and isbelief, that's a quote, not to include a spanish language moderator for the upcoming presidential debates. it's an abdication of your responsibility to represent and largest and f the most influential communities in the u.s. falco writes in the letter
to commission executive director janet brown riday morning, the commission choices, the inclusion of elaine -- as a certainly s a welcomed addition but seems insufficient, again, quoting mr. falco's letter to the commission on presidential debates. >> this labor day, c-span continues our road to the white house coverage. we're afternoon at 2:00, live from cleveland, with democratic presidential clinton and lary vice presidential candidate senator tim kaine, as they lay nation's plans for the economy. then green party presidential vice ate jill stein, and presidential candidate baraka people from the warehouse in detroit and libertarian party presidential candidate gary johnson continues his tour stopping in des moines iowa.
watch this labor day on c-span and cspan.org. a discussion on the use corporal punishment in public schools. [captioning copyright national cable satellite corp. 2016] [captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit ncicap.org] -- are here to talk about corporal punishment in public schools. thank you guys so much for being morning.s >> thank you. >> i would like to talk with you, can you summarize what you in your recent research on this issue in education week. sure. corporal punishment was a lot 2016 thanlent even in we thought previously. data st recent federal shows that more than a hundred spanked, tudents were paddled, or otherwise physically
that was in 21 states. and how -- differ from the number of students or the number of states we've seen in the past? it is on the decline, and a pretty strong decline. 2000, you would see more being 0,000 students disciplined in that way. states that still shrinking.it's >> christopher, can you tell us a little bit about how you all conducted this research. how did you define corporal punishment and how did you determine what states and school systems were using it. >> right. we're looking at a federal database that's collected by the for civil h, office rights, department of the u.s. department of education and it's a census of all public schools districts in the country and so we're drawing on this big federal database which has been going on for a while one of the nice things about the resource is that it's expanded over time.
schools involved and different kinds of information being select sod we used the data available, in the 2013-2014 school year. we looked at incidents. were s of students who reported to have received corporal punishment and, as it's any sort , of use of physical discipline, spanking, paddling, so there is data on this week. across the at that country and the results are really kind of striking. noted, it's been on the decline in the past 15 years or the incidence 2 of corporal punishment has declined by 2/3. is, for because this many people in the country, this would be an out of sight, out of do look e so when you people will be surprised that it still happens in 21 states. matter of state law or state policy, states all over the actually. there are 15 states that allow corporal punishment. it's permitted, there are seven
one way or don't say another so it's allowed, but they don't have a particular law on it states, though, prohibit corporal punishment. it so when you look at where is in the country it's not everywhere. 21 states where it happens. of corporal e of punishment in states varies tremendously from more than half, in that context to very small fractions of a percent. the states where it happens most most students are affected tend to be in the deep south. really kind of running all the arizona through texas, through the deep south, into the georgia and carolinas. of really the core of where this happens. the rally where it's been most prevalent in the past. >> we're showing a map of our allows of which states do corporal punishment. you can see the states that screen, t there on your in yellow. within each state that does punishment, how is it determined which school ystems that might use this
disciplinary measure. sarah? >> sarah: it ranges wildly from state-to-state. in many of the states, they allow their school districts to one way or the other. mississippi ple, more than half of schools do use it. but, the differences in how they it, what grade levels are one way, spanked, in how many times they can hit a all of those ion, are different from school district to school district. state-to-state. sometimes individual school-to-school. >> are there any best practices when it comes to corporal or any regulations around knit >> this is one of the concerning things we found about corporal punishment. s there is virtually no guidance, ery little
accountabilityal for this practice. sometimes the people that we they learned that how to do it either because they kids themselves, watched the predecessor, that.ipal, or teacher do so we didn't find any actual training. to let our viewers know they can join in our onversation with sarah sparks and chris swanson in education week. here's how we're dividing the phone lines. call us at rt, 202-748-8000 and if you oppose,
202-748-8001. another interesting finding in your research was that there was ome evidence of racial disparity. according to the story you wrote both white and black students than students of other races to attend a school that allows corporal punishment. lack students are disproportionately likely to discipline.hysical chris swanson, can you talk about some of the disparity that you found. fascinatinge of the things about this. when you look within those 21 states where it occurs, it's not everywhere, even within those states. the schools where corporal unishment tends to be used, they tend to have higher percentages, of white and african-american students. they tend to be have higher levels of poverty, they tend to be located in rural environments and they also tend to be smaller. so part of this is just what art of the country this tends to happen in. it's more likely to be rural communities and small towns and hat's part of it but the student demographics are quite striking so the two groups that in schoolskely to be
with corporal punishment are african-americans and white students but it's a flip story. within those at schools who actually experiences corporal punishment and there you have some kind of very over and g underrepresented groups relative those schools. african-american students are highly overrepresented within schools. to be in ore likely schools that have corporal punishment and within those disproportionately receive it. whites are less likely to receive corporal punishment in those schools. one thing that's not in this report but which is quite not ing, and this will surprise anybody who thinks about our stereotypes of orporal punishment and who receives it, but male students are actually among the most highly overrepresented groups. male students make up about half the student population but they 80% of students receiving corporal punishment. ales overrepresented among recipients of corporal punishment. females underrepresented. story, lly a different
and so you're likelihood of being exposed to an environment uses corporal punishment depends on your poverty level, your socioeconomic and racial background, and then also, whether you, yourself, will experience it. it also very much tide to those factors. >> sarah, you mentioned that guideline or best practice, as we said for corporal punishment. is the range of punishments that your research and your uncovered? subjective range. punishment has been used for talking in class, bringing your homework in late, like more severe things bullying or fighting in the halls. it across the board. when you look at what when you look at what administrators say they are
trying to do with it and people who are against corporal punishment say the schools are using it for is an alternative to suspension. it's we'll get the kids in, give them a couple whacks, send them back to class. it's seen as a way of keeping kids in line and yet in class. but the range of disciplines that it gets applied to are as varied as the school districts that use it. host: to the phone lines, diane from albuquerque, new mexico is our first caller, calling opposition of corporal punishment. good morning and what's your thought? caller: good morning and thank you very much for having this discussion. i've always wondered why adults spend so much time thinking about how to deal with corporal punishment instead of being creative with our children. why can't we come up with adults that think about ways to
help instruct a child when they ave done something wrong rather than punishment for what they've done wrong? host: one more caller then we'll turn to our guests. john from tennessee is calling in support of corporal unishment. i think it's appropriate. and maybe up to third or fourth grade, you know, and even then, i think as far as the teacher/principal, whoever is giving the punishment to the kid, the spanking, i think you got to limit the number of spanks like to three. and then it depends on the teacher principal that does it. if the teacher principal has a health problem, disability of some sort, physical, you know, they should not be giving the panking because they could
miss and hit the child in the back and cause a disability and put the school in a bad situation. that could be -- so like i said, i'm making more reasons not to actually probably to oppose corporal punishment. actually like you said a while ago based on the training if there is not more training than that, there should definitely be some, at least an hour or two hours' training. my dad was a teacher and they had in service training a lot of teachers do where students didn't go to school. surely, they can give -- someone can give two hours' training on how to do -- conduct that. like i said, after the age of fourth grade, i don't see corporal punishment doing any good. host: calling from tennessee. sarah sparks? guest: well, we found corporal punishment through every grade from kindergarten up through
high school. so there wasn't a limit in what ages received it and which ones didn't. but we do have about 50 years shows it h now that is not associated with the outcomes educators generally want it to be associated with. there was a really big study that just came out this year from the university of texas that found it's associated with higher degrees of long-term defiance, aggression, mental health issues, lower educational outcomes for these students. now, granted, researchers are not randomly assigning kids to be paddled or not paddled. but they are able to do some very strong comparisons to make sure these are very similar students and look at their outcomes over time. and across dozens of studies,
they're not finding good outcomes for these kids. guest: to pick up on that sarah mentioned this happens just as equally at all grade levels. about 5% to 6% of students in the elementary, middle school and high schools receive corporal punishment so it is very widespread and not isolation among certain age groups. you know, picking up on diane's point about do we have more creative methods to kind of change student behavior i think one of the important ways to think about corporal punishment and what we're finding is in the context of the larger discussions i've been underweighing about school discipline generally. the things viewers are probably more accustomed to hearing about is zero tolerance and that is very strict following of rules that would remove students from classrooms or schools, suspensions, expulsions for disciplinary in. one of the concerns about that has been not only are students receiving a form of discipline
that may not be effective in terms of addressing the behavior. it also at the same time removes them from a regular learning context. so you're out of school. you're not learning. you're home. you're in the detention room. it's a double whammy. you're kind of getting it both ways. and so as part of the rationale in favor of corporal punishment is that you can just get it done with and the students can get right back to the classroom and keep on learning. so that's kind of one of the pro/cons there. there are a lot more especially in the past five or so years much more prevalence of other approaches that are restorative justice, positive behavioral approaches, that really try to address the behavior very much also to keep in mind not wanting to remove students from the learning context. >> can you find the sort of justice and positive behavior interventions? guest: i can give a great example of this. restorative justice is when the
student is rather than having an abstract punishment for a misbehavior they actually have to do something that makes it up to their presumeable victims. o if they were making a lot of ruckus in class and making it hard for other students to learn, then they might write an apology to them or help read with little children or something loo ick that to make it come home to them what they've done. and positive behavior interventions and supports, p.b.s., which is getting a lot more popular right now, is a method of giving each student a plan for what their discipline should be trying to catch them doing good. and also sort of ramping up discipline as it goes.
and one of the districts that we looked at that had had higher rates of corporal punishment during the 2013 year, they had adopted p.b.i.s. and a number of these other disciplinary practices because they were a little concerned about how often that corporal punishment was being used. and it has cut their use of corporal punishment more than fourfold. so this can be a good alternative. when districts are interested in lowering their rate of corporal punishment. and when they sort of sit down nd have a discussion about it. >> charles from louisiana now calling in support of corporal punishment. go ahead, charles. caller: yes. i'm 70 years old now. i put in 34 years in the public
schools as a teacher in math and science from fourth grade up through 12th grade. and in our bible which a lot of people think that all religious books can compare with our bible, but the bible says foolishness is bound in the heart of a child but the rod of correction -- that doesn't mean to beat him to death -- but the rod of correction shall drive it far from him. and we do it out of love. i know when they took our boards away from us i had been teaching for about 12 years, and you didn't have problems. you took care of it right there in front of the whole class and he sat right back down. you went on with your lesson. and you very, very seldom had to whip. but when you did, you took care of him. you didn't put up with all this stuff that they're putting up with today.
and the bible also says that if you don't love him, you won't whip him. host: all right. that's charles from louisiana. this story in abc news in some u.s. schools resistance toneding corporal punishment. in some places this is very much an entrenched part of the disciplinary system. guest: right. it is. it's been used for years as charles mentioned. he had a long career in the schools and this is the way they did business. and it is also a practice that is kind of culturally entrenched in certain parts of the country as oppose today more so than others. and these are public schools. they're reflections of the communities they are located in and the students and families they serve. so that is part of it. it's interesting to think, kind of given the caller's experience, norms change. norms are different across the regions of the country and they
change over time. i can think of any number of social issues that now are not too controversial but kind of, you know, 10 years ago, 20 years ago some issues may have been virtually unspeakable. i think corporal punishment may be a little bit like that. there will be people who are surprised that it still happens in schools at all. kind of given their own experience and have schools operate in their parts of the country. and there will be others that, you know, kind of think it's perfectly fine. but when the caller kind of mentions the public aspect of some, you know, administration or corporal punishment and what happened in public someplaces, privately in other places as sarah mentioned, the way this is administered and regulated is just all over the place and there is really a lot of local discretion. a lot of things having to do with schooling. i think we'll kind of good reminders as to what the overall kind of sentiment in the country and the culture is about corporal punishment whether at schools, whether in
families, it's just not the same as it was 20 or 30 years ago. and so whereas there may -- it may have been a different experience for a child to have been punished in school when i was a kid when charles was teaching but it is a very different experience i think potentially today when, you know, we didn't do public opinion polling about this but we have sites kind of trending on this. it is much less acceptable in -- iew of the public to whether families spanking children or teachers or other educational professionals administering corporal punishment it is not as acceptable as it used to be. that context a student takes in when this happens. some students are very impervious and it won't affect them greatly. some students it will be very damaging and something that is traumatic to them and part of that is potentially the shaming aspect and the stigma attached in some places.
host: from twitter, students can touch each other like a hug but teachers can beat kids. what kind of world is this? another person tweets kids are not getting discipline at home. they are not going to act civilized at school. no amount of talking to will change that. let's get to another caller susan from clarksville, tennessee calling in opposition of corporal punishment. go ahead, susan. aller: good morning. i'm 53 years old and back in fourth or fifth grade, it was a private school, but for some reason they gave me an assignment to do 16 pages on communism. and we didn't have computers back then. we had to go to the library and several pounds of books. and my mother thought it was ridiculous because she thought i was too young for communism. but i ended up only getting six
pages and that was not acceptable so i was whacked 10 times. with a board. and i swear it haunts me to this day. there was a witness. you know, the assistant principal was standing there. and as i was getting the whacks about the fourth one i started to run down the church aisles because i -- in my heart i knew it was wrong. and -- but i came back and finished. when i got home, the blood vessels in my rear end and back down my legs were broken. and may mom and grandmother got together and they didn't have a clue on what to do. they were just, do we call the police? no. we can't call the police. it's the pastor. you know? but it haunts me to this day.
i would love to take that -- patrick meninggay and bend him over the pews and whack his behind a few times. host: all right. susan from sparksville, tennessee. sarah sparks? guest: that sort of goes to the point that we found over and over again. the administrators that i talked to who used corporal punishment, they were operating in good faith and they thought like the educator we spoke to before that this was a good, disciplinary practice and would help the kids grow up to be good, strong members of society. but it is very, very easy for rong degree of pressure, the wrong angle, the use of something that is 20 inches long on a kid who is 60 pounds. all of those things can make it
much more likely that a student is going to be seriously injured. and that could be emotionally or physically. at we found is the situation your mother and grandmother were in at that time, that is still the situation today because the supreme court, last supreme court ruling on corporal punishment was in 1977. the court rulings since have really not favored parents or students even in some pretty severe cases of corporal punishment. going to the hospital, being out of school for weeks, having serious injuries, do not mean that you're likely to win in court. so there isn't a whole lot of legal recourse if something
goes wrong. host: as part of your research you spoke with a student who described an incident of being paddled as an eighth grader in 2011. here is a little bit of the interview that you guys did. >> i'm in trouble. my buddy is in trouble. we're talking, starts telling us to hush. i had something smart to say ack. i get three licks. tried to escort me to class. we walk out of his office. i went to walk around him and just woke up on the floor. i felt something in my mouth and i started, you know, holding my hand out to see what it is and i start spitting out teeth like shards of my teeth. i'd done bit through both sides of my tongue. i got one tooth already missing wired shut h stayed
for six weeks. host: that was a little bit of an interview. sarah sparks, what happened in this student's legal case? what of the conclusion? what lesson can other parents draw from that? guest: well, he and another student who was also suing at the same time for corporal punishment did not win. trey e school had paddled several times in the past. he didn't have a problem with it. called said they go ahead and do it and send it back to class. that is something we found in many, many lawsuits. that a student comes in and either y come in they
choose to be paddled or their parent says go for it. please do and get them back to class. and it doesn't take much to ve something go a little wrong and something bad can happen to the kid. he is now, he sort of disconnected from school after that both because of the paddling incident and the injuries. and the lawsuit. he eventually left school entire. he is now back at college pursuing a nursing degree. it took him a while to come back around to being invested in education. that is something that a risk the school is tabing in using this discipline. >> it is a really compelling story and i encourage the viewers to take a look at the longer account.
in some ways i think it is the perfect cautionary tale for these issues. this young man, this is a student who had experienced corporal punishment before prior to the experience in the eighth grade it hadn't seemingly affected him very much and the family was supportive of getting discipline done with and sending him back to class. that is some of the kind of pro corporal punishment argument we heard earlier. on the other hand it does not take very much for something to go wrong and you just never know. and this is a corporal punishment that went very much awry and resulted in not just severe physical injury but also his disengagement from education which was very much opposite of what kind of pro corporal punishment logic would want to happen. d so i think it is interesting. a couple callers earlier mentioned if we're going to do this this should be trained, it
should be administered very carefully. at the same time and that is in a profession that takes its education and ongoing training very seriously, and it is in a country that is risk averse and litigious so it is interesting to think about why a school would open themselves up to that riss norfolk this day and age if they didn't have to because one little thing can go wrong and it can seriously side track a person's life and it can, you know, really kind of ing a lot of controversy and disturbance to the school. host: next call camille from florida in opposition to corporal punishment. good morning. caller: good morning. thank you for taking my call. i believe some parts of what both guests are saying. it is cultural. i, myself, coming from italian immigrants migrating to the
united states pride was a very big issue. six children. so fear was instilled. where do you go with a second grader with fear of home and fear of school, fear of church, everything was fear, fear, fear. in fifth grade and sixth grade three black children in my classroom, this haunts me to today, the teacher got upset with one of the children. he came from a large family of 11 children. nice kid. nice kid. and he needed a little extra attention. she said to the children, to the one boy, if you don't stop acting up, i'm going to ship the three of you back on the next boat to africa. well, by the time we got back from recess the school was closed. and the pickets started. all because a teacher, and she was single. she had no children. okay? and she was known to be, have these outbursts.
okay? it goes on and on and on. to me, what i'm trying to say, some teachers know the material but not all can convey the message. okay? most children today, they don't suffer from fear. they have what i consider entitlement. host: all right. camille from florida calling in opposition of corporal punishment. let's hear from one more caller, paul from nottingham, maryland in support of corporal punishment. paul, what do you think this morning? caller: yes, good morning. host: good morning. go ahead. caller: you showed today in the guests that you have on it are part and parcel to the problems that we now have throughout society. teachers are not supposed to be social injustice correcters. they're supposed to be teaching. if you have to spend time continuously sending the same
child out of class, over and over and over and over again, at what point does it stop? we can sit around with our eads in the sand and avoid the issue. the issue is the lack of civility in our society today from children's disrespect for their own parents and themselves to adults' disrespect of the law system and the court system. we can sit there and boo hoo and use our little study and ick out two or three hundred incidents over a period of time that involve thousands maybe millions of students and say oh, this is terrible because of this incident. this is terrible because of that incident. that's easy to do. that's what most people who make their living doing studies like the two people you have
on, that's what they make their living off of. host: all right. paul from maryland. sarah sparks? guest: we want teachers to be able to control their class and help all students learn. that's something that the research shows corporal punishment might not actually do. in fact, there is another separate study on the use of training teachers and students in how to respect one another. how to talk to a student who is causing this behavior and, or doing it themselves, and they found that over time, the students who felt their teacher respected them mentioned respect. they had far fewer incidents, problems in the classroom. they were more engaged in
class. the teachers felt more respected. and so it's not so much that we're trying to talk about teachers not having control of their classrooms. it's more looking at what the evidence says is the more effective way of getting control of the classroom. and i think it's a case in point that most states in the country don't allow corporal punishment. and their students are not more likely to be running wild in the halls. host: chris swanson, one interesting point is not just the type of discipline that is required in some schools but how parents can potentially opt out of that disciplinary measure if they don't agree with it. what are the options for parents that you guys found?
guest: it is very much like what we found in general about the regulation of this practice. it's just all over the board. there are some states that allow parents to opt out. some that don't. some states where parents can opt out but it doesn't have the full effect of the law and can be over ridden. if you are a parent in a state where corporal punishment is allowed it is probably good to understand ho you that works and what your rights as a parent are or are not. it is interesting. paul's comment and sare's response about maintaining an orderly environment in the classroom is extremely important. right? it is very important for all students to be able to learn in that kind of setting. there are a number of different kind of ways to maintain that kind of order, student discipline and focus and engagement in the work. and so the question here is not necessarily why, you know, that corporal punishment is good or bad. it's the larger question about what is corporal punishment intended to do? if it is to provide a learning
environment, what is the best way to do that, there is evidence to suggest corporal punishment may not be the way to do it and other approaches that are out there that also need to be looked ad in the larger context. schools are not car engines. they're not a mechanical machine. they are social systems, right? students are people. teachers are people. and, you know, have students learn and experience their world is very much rooted in social and cultural norms and structures and so when you look at the prevalence of corporal punishment over time it is clearly declining, public opinion and use of corporal punishment in and out of school have very much changed. the question about what is an effective way to maintain discipline and order within the classroom changes over time. it's not a law of physics that is immutable for all time. it is very much what is effective given how students are raised. how teachers are taught to teach. do know, what experiences
students bring from outside the school in their families and that is how you have to look at corporal punishment. it may kind of work now. it may have worked in a different way 50 years ago. host: go ahead, sarah sparks. guest: there was a lot of conflict in states i found within state laws and policies on corporal punishment. texas, for example, not the only state that did this, it allowed corporal punishment and is one of the higher prevalences of corporal punishment. but their child protective services and their foster system required foster parents to opt out and have an annual written statement to make sure foster kids were not subjected to corporal punishment at school. and the reasoning was that it could damage their ability to trust adults. they could be -- have trauma in their background and therefore
would be more prone to, again, trauma from this. and that was kind of an interesting contradiction on a number of states that had these. because it's a population -- if you're in higher poverty schools you might be more likely to be in the school that practices corporal punishment. the same challenges kids are coming to school with that might make them more likely to be disciplined in the first place, could also be make them more vulnerable to potential negative effects from one discipline practice or another. host: a few more callers in our final minutes in this segment. let's hear from ann in sugar grove, north carolina calling opposition to corporal punishment. ann, good morning. caller: good morning. i thought you took the last call so i'm really happy to be on the air. thank you for c-span especially
for "washington journal." the young man in the >> we have corporal punishment, just horrible. i'm kind of nervous. does bring up a lot for me. i was never hit at school, but i was at home. and just as a headline, this morning, i do not have a chance to look into the article more, because i'm busy watching c-span washington journal, but that south carolina security officer,