tv Key Capitol Hill Hearings CSPAN September 16, 2016 6:00pm-8:01pm EDT
is that there is one perception of what constitutes corruption in the public, and another standard of corruption in the court. what you have seen from the supreme court in particular is a step-by-step process in which the definition of corruption that can be prosecuted has been made this big. it is very narrow. it started from a standard which , when you have any appearance of corruption, very broad terms of making sure the american people have faith in their public officials. citizens united, that standard was knocked down a notch. they said if there is the appearance of a conflict, justice kennedy wrote, that will not decrease america's faith in the government.
that is a pretty astounding statement based on no facts whatsoever. you have the second decision where they started saying that corruption is only quid pro quo, tit for tat. where you have an explicit agreement, i give you this coming you give us that and it is explicit. then you have the mcdonald case where the court said all of the gifts that the governor of virginia took did not constitute a criminal violation. there is no quid pro quo. dore was no explicit, if i this, give you this wedding gift, a rolex or whatever, you will perform this act. even though we know the governor did in fact give this businessman access to the
mansionr's and set up meetings for him. we have a prosecution where unless you are, if you will, dumb enough to sit down as cunningham did to write your napkin,an -- on a you can get away with almost anything. we have a start contrast between what the public sees as corruption and what the court has defined as corruption. host: anything in particular to the last caller you want to mention? guest: the notion of criminality , for secretary clinton or many public officials, because the court has defined that standard at such a low level, and we're not describing what happened in the clinton foundation, we are at a point where the court said , meaningd influence
you give a contribution to a campaign committee or foundation -- the clinton foundation is not the only foundation connected to powerful politicians -- the odds are you can get in the door. that is the way the system is in washington. particularly for large campaign donors and those with the resources to give to foundations. host: you are on the line for democrats. caller: good morning. you know, it bothers me the last caller. snarky.l innuendos and it reminds me of someone climbing out of the deplorable basket. been around.have i lived in arkansas and she did wonderful things. when you see people who have served and worked hard to bring health care to children, the chips program, and the work she
did for women as she has traveled, it is wonderful. nothing that they threw at her ever stuck. it was all innuendos. she is not her husband's sex crimes, or whatever he did. she did not kill vince foster. there are horrible made up things. like she is some kind of, i don't know, it is so sexist. i think, so unfair. it is like the whole thing she is keeping something. i want to say that i think they muchlawyers and trump has more lawyers. as far as i can see the contents did not have to cheat people with trump university or
horrible real estate deals like trump does. also, she has all of the holdings -- he has all of the holdings in russia just for his business. he will not let that go. away, need to really take the haters that cannot stand this woman being president, and making up things with no actual proof. the last caller did not say one specific thing. did she sell the white house silverware? no. the foundation was created to help people. that we are lucky to have them in the political system. i think that when you tear down , that someonees
is not the real president of the united states, or have done this or that, and you cause them to be unable to lead -- like donald trump did to obama, there should be a charge of harassment. host: thank you for calling. .? -- meredith mcgehee? guest: the caller strike me about the polarization in america. one issue that i hear a lot of the times is about the question of the dysfunction of congress. how congress is a loggerhead, cannot even pass the zika funding bill. a lot of the times you look at the dysfunction in congress. regardingn issues money in politics, ethics in government, making the process work. these are important issues. these two colors show one of the reasons -- these two callers show that one of the reasons
there is gridlock in congress is we have a divided country. we have seen that sense the 2000 elections. we have seen that in these showions where the polls the differences between those who favor clinton and trump, there is a chasm between them. the people in the middle are miniscule. what is going on in washington, in my view, a fair portion of it, not all of it, there are changes to the campaign finance system needs to be done to deal with the dysfunction, but it reflects the polarization in the country. apte 2 callers are an demonstration of that. host: tax returns "detract from the political message" they are trying to put out. the quote from him, he has a 12,000 page tax return that
create financial auditors from everyone in the country that would detract from his father's main message. guest: i think that is silly. this is what good reporters do. is every american going to go through 12,000 pages? no. are there going to be some that go through all 12,000 pages and highlight the most absurd parts? absolutely. the american people are smart enough to be able to assimilate reporters from the right, left, and in between to handle that. host: one more voice from the trump campaign. aboutnne conway talking privacy and donald trump. [video clip] >> mr. trump had a physical late last week. in advance of knowing hillary clinton had pneumonia or what happened on 9/11. he had the physical late last
week because he believes it is important for the public to know what his basic health condition is. he said the doctor is preparing his report. it will be of -- will be made available this week. i was not present for his physical. >> we don't know if this is the same doctor who released a report in december that was very ?rief a four to five paragraph letter? >> dr. oz and millions of americans, i'm with the band. i don't know why we need such extensive medical reporting when we have a right to privacy. i am with most of the american people that are upset that many of them had to change doctors under the obamacare affordable care act. why would someone change a doctor when they had been healthy? that is being lost in the conversation.
he was being ridiculed by an anchor that is not a medical professional. that is out of hand. host: anything to respond? right toe notion of privacy, for americans it is very important. we're not talking about all americans. where talking about people running for president. we are talking about the two people passed the primaries. -- past the primaries. there is a right to privacy, but it is a grueling job. job fornonstop 24-7 four years. there is some right to privacy, when you enter the most powerful office, not only in the country but in the world, the expectations are different yet you do not give up every right to privacy, and that is certainly a concern in this modern day and age. 'sether it is colin powell
personal e-mails being made public, it is a concern. it is easy to model these together. i will go back to the public policy interest. the public policy interest for presidential candidate is for voters to assess these 2 candidates in terms of their ability to serve in the office, their capacity to serve in terms of their physical wherewithal, their mental capacity, and any conflict of interests they bring to the table. the question about physical health is important. why otherwise did president roosevelt hide for many years the fact that he was in a wheelchair? he was concerned about how the american people would react. can you imagine in this day in age given the health problems he had, or when we learn later that dwight eisenhower had a heart
attack and the public was not told for a long time afterwards -- there is a balance on the health question. the public policy interest is to know is this person capable of withstanding the rigors of serving as president? that is the public policy question. having a detailed physical about every aspect of their health is interesting, but not the public policy concern. host: salem, oregon on the republican line. good morning. caller: thank you for having me on. starting off, my uncle is a district attorney. i would like to start off with obama. havelerner, then you airplanet clinton on an
with grant, that is a no-no. you have her servers, which is illegal. she knows better than that. colin powell told her. she know she is hiding money from countries that like to kill gays and lesbians. gays and lesbians, if they want to be married that is their business. she is deplorable. i am in that basket, i guess. i'm sorry. that is pretty much what i had to say. host: let's get a response. guest: when the caller was speaking, the first reaction was they sound like many other to thats i've talked are increasingly trending to a more libertarian view of government and how they want to interact with the government. have expected in
this election to have a growing set of the population that is trying to separate from the traditional democrat viewpoint of labor union support and the government safety net. the traditional democratic values, and traditional republican values of promoting business. in the last several decades, they have been very conservative on social issues. you are finding a significant and growing segment of the american people who may be deemed conservative in government intrusion. on social issues they want the government out of those issues. issues that married, if you'll , with the pun republican party. this color is representative of the growing set of the population who is probably what you would call conservative in
terms of a government's role and privacy concerns, but liberal when it comes to the social issues. host: let's hear from lydia in chattanooga, tennessee. caller: i was calling to say that i think we need to hold all congress,s working in asneed to hold them as well trump on issues of taxes. him to republicans want become the president, they should be the ones to say "you need to show your taxes. " 40 years of his taxes need to be shown. i thought that he would be great at first. as far as i'm concerned i think .e is crooked trump
i don't know who i'm going to vote for. i believe this man is very dangerous. thank you. host: a response? thet: it is interesting notion that republicans in congress and elsewhere would bring pressure on mr. trump. so far in this election, it does not feel like anyone is able to bring pressure on mr. trump, especially within the republican party. many within the republican party are doing everything they can to distance themselves. whether it be -- security officials, generals, it is an interesting dynamic. it will be fascinating to watch after the election what happens with the republicans. as a party are in disarray. many republicans have been in, and i would not call them the
, republicans in name only, we have the tea party which does not know what to make of mr. trump. on many social issues they disagree. you have the moderate, traditional republicans who are horrified sometimes by the dramatic statements he makes. then you have republicans who feel like the party has left them. it will be fascinating to watch how the republican party brings itself out of the election. the said, is mr. trump wins party will probably remake itself in the image of mr. trump . host: we have been talking mostly about the presidential race, but here's a tweet about congress. voters are unhappy with everyone in congress except for their own representative. why is that? guest: that has been a statistic floating around for many years. if you look at some of the
polling, it shows we hate congress but like our representatives, those numbers have decreased. many members of congress do not -- many members of the public do not like anyone in congress. if you look at some of the polling that has been done about the faith in the american system , faith that elected officials are making decisions based on what they think is best for constituents or their own conscience, those are sometimes in the single-digit. they are saying decisions get made because of who contributors are, or what the party wants great when you see a poll that says the american people do not theire that representatives are making decisions on what is best for the constituents or their own conscience, that is disturbing.
this dynamic is changing over the last several years. host: carol on the line, a democratic caller. regardsi was calling in to both candidates. first of all, mr. trump is , asking what african-americans have to lose? i think we would be losing our dignity because of some of the only abouts said not african-americans, but other races and cultural backgrounds. i am glad the preacher spoke up. someone else would only do that they wouldnyone that step in like he did and say, this is not the place. he would have been stopped a long time ago. say that heting to has something important to say on this white piece of paper in
his pocket. pulle ever makes him say out this piece of paper. the first time he did it was at the presidential reform for the military. something people in the military that he said was backing him. , shey, hillary clinton needs to be more available, more available information on the negative things that people are saying about her in regards to the clinton foundation. her speeches to wall street. go ahead and give everyone what they want, because i think that is the only way that you are going to put the kinds of things that have been said, put to rest those things. hopefully, in the coming days, she does that as well as this whole thing going back to back,
the basket of deplorable, i think that she was meaning that she was not speaking to the people, but the actions of the people are deplorable. for calling.ou anything to respond to? guest: first, i think it is clear mr. trump will have a challenge in gaining the support of people of color because of what he has said. that will be a turnout question. we will see what that looks like to actually get the voters to the polls. a lot of the people that i've talked to may stay home because they don't like the choices. in terms of transparency, one of hillarylems that clinton has exacerbated on the question of transparency is by not holding press conferences. i would contrast that to when mr. mccain was running. he had his bus with reporters on the bus. they had almost total access to
him. it benefited him on coverage. this reluctance to engage with the press on a regular basis, to have the openness is i think damaging her in terms of the overarching narrative, which i referred to earlier. it is reinforcing that narrative. host: does donald trump do better in that area? -- one been complaints of the general sense of actually answering questions from folks? guest: he has such a different style. he is a candidate in a style we have not had before. he makes statements that drive the media coverage because it is unon politician-speak -- -politician-speak. he does not have the baggage that she brings.
he is also making his own news, because he makes statements no other politician would imagine making. inis not quite appropriate the sense that they each bring to the table their own problems. one of the ways mrs. clinton could have managed her problem better was to increase her availability. one of the ways that donald trump could have managed his problem better is probably not doing off-the-cuff speaking and making statements that riled up folks. that is easier said than done on the outside. host: there is one quote i want to read to you from usa today thethe headline for president clinton foundation to enter ethical uncharted waters. 2 ethical situations are very different with one commonality. the trump organization and the clinton foundation are inextricably linked to the founding families.
earn their success to the personal brands of their families, making separating the personal and political more difficult. the clinton foundation and the trump foundation are not the only foundation that have politicians connected to them. one example, mr. dole, senator dole, the longtime senator from kansas created the dole foundation years ago. the dole foundation worked on disability issues and did great work. word got around town that if you really wanted to get on the le'sggle's -- on mr. do good side, you would give not only to the campaign, give to the dole foundation and i got you on the radar screen of access and influence. the connection between politicians and foundations is very dangerous.
mr. mcconnell has the mcconnell center at the university of louisville that gets contributions from interests lobbying him. leahy center and from what deals with environmental issues. the point is that the work, and certainly for the clinton and dole foundation, the chairs do good work. if they were false front that would be one thing. that is not the public policy problem. the problem is that people big euro pretty clearly that -- people figure out pretty clearly that in the washington money game how do you buy influence? these foundations provide a clear avenue for the money to enter the system. when you enter public office, when you run for office, those connections should be severed. host: good morning. caller: good morning.
thank you for taking my call. thank you for c-span. this is an interesting discussion. it is starting to worry and bother me. say hillary and trump provide their tax and medical records. they answer all of the questions we have then asking every day. what difference would it make? we are not talking about issues important to the american people. that is what scares me. we have an election coming up and we're not talking about what is important to us. i don't know what it will take to change, but i hope the american people wake up, get smart, and do something about it. host: let's hear from our guest. makes a pointler p or when you start talking about tax returns, or the saying they i'm not
are not important issues, but in terms of the presidency, many of the public policy decisions the new president will make will have to do with education, the environment, social security, foreign policy. this campaign has been remarkably notable for its lack of specifics. a lack of clarification. the american people, the policy choices, in those areas. what is the difference between donaldillary clinton and trump are on education policy? i would make an educated guess that most americans could not articulate the differences on the policies. host: 2 more calls. thank you for waiting, maria. caller: i have 2 things to command to the viewers be at the whichy pundit of 171816
is a report of how the clinton foundation in which to itself by ripping off haiti. it shows how the clinton foundation parlayed american donations in order to get a rare permit for gold mining in haiti are hillary clinton's brother. also, i would like to say that it is the horrible that hillary's brother got the gold mine and the haitians got the shaft. all of the funds for haiti, along with what bush was supposed to monitor, should be monitored. everyone should agree to an audit of the clinton foundation, which they have refused. host: meredith mcgehee? i'm not aware of the particular link in the gold mining in haiti. would agree that having transparency in terms of having the client and -- clinton and
trump foundation, it would be helpful. it would change anyone's mind with these few weeks to go, but i would like to go back to where the previous caller said that there are many other issues that i think the american people could benefit from more clarity on. we have a very keen awareness in terms of choices that each person can make. the point is to have the information so that everyone can make up their own mind about how they feel and what they want the president to do on a range of issues. everyone has an everybody has an issue they care about more than the other and this election has been remarkably content free when it comes to public policy. host: danny from alabama, democrat line. caller: thank you for taking my call. i have not heard anyone say anything about it but donald trump's financial disclosures
are a matter of national security, he has businesses in foreign countries and we need to know what his financial disclosures would say. because he might not even be able to make a decision against a country that he got a business in or whatever and we -- he could make a decision that would benefit him and not our country. i was like to know about that. host: a final thought from our guest. guest: exactly the purpose of transparency, to understand for the presidential candidates, what the conflicts are and their interests are. if you have a holding in a foreign country, a holding that is affected by what happens in a foreign country, the american people should be able to hold you accountable for the decisions you make regarding that decision. this is thes right, whole purpose of transparency is to protect against these conflicts and to ensure that decisions are made on critical
issues of national security are in the economy or other issues about trade etc., this is why the transparency for these presidential candidates is so key. director of the organization has been our guest. announcer: c-span's washington journal, live every day with news and policy issues that impact you. coming up saturday my, louise read well ski will join us to discuss the exit of major insurance carriers from their formal care act health insurance exchange. president obama plans to meet with health insurers next week. then set three wessler on his investigation uncovering health care problems with federal
prisoners who are housed in private prison facilities. and robert basil of the council for a strong america will be on to talk about their report titled "america unprepared," which warns that america's youth are unprepared for the workforce, military service, and more. be sure to watch c-span's washington journal live beginning at 7:00 a.m. eastern saturday morning. join the discussion. theuncer: sunday on c-span, top democrat on the house intelligence committee, adam schiff, on rush and hacking, north korea's nuclear tests, and the residential candidates' approaches to form policy. newsmakers at 10:00 a.m. and 6:00 p.m. sunday on c-span. the next 90or minutes, an american history tv exclusive.
visit tos to her denver, colorado, to learn about its unique history. for five years, we travel to cities across the u.s. to explore their literary and historic sites. you can watch more of our visits /citiestour.n.org >> this is john money, the city hall room order for the denver post. ride in our local content vehicle to talk about it hass history and how changed from the place we see today. >> never been here before. in summary like me has never been to denver, give me a sense of the city.
john: denver is going through a lot of economic change because the cap is widening so quickly. affordability is an issue here. people who make good salaries live comfortably. people who are middle-class and below are struggling to keep up with property taxes or rent. that is pricing some people out of the city. the dynamic is that teachers, firefighters, middle-class employees are finding it harder to stay in denver. it's much more expensive. denver has added 80,000 people in five years. it is growing very quickly. >> what is bringing people here? >> the strong economy, the quality of life. keep going straight. you will meet so many people here who have moved here in the
last few years. >> tell me about the neighborhood we are about to head into. john: you are about to meet the part of denver that has changed the most in the last few years. the riverfront area and union station, and downtown. union station just reopened a couple of years ago after a $500 million renovation. it has a new transit center, new bus center, rail lines going in. some will be opening in the next couple of years. there have also been a number of buildings going around. >> what was it like previously? >> 25 years ago, 30 years ago, this whole area was a big railyard. it is now fashionable neighborhoods. >> who lives here? give me a picture of who spends their time in this neighborhood. >> it is not all millennials, it is millennials with college educations and good paying jobs. it is a pricey neighborhood. and then you get to empty-nesters and people of retirement age. it is mostly apartments, but there are some condos. what they are kind of high-priced apartments. >> how is that changing the look of denver? it is a beautiful city. the rocky mountains backdrop.
how is that kind of changing us -- kind of-- changing aesthetically -- i see warehouses over here, but i see new construction. >> it is making central denver into a much different place. there are light rail lines, heavy rail lines, a train to the airport that starts right over here. that just opened in the last couple of months. all of these changes are giving denver a more urban character and more urban feel. we are still a city in transition. >> what is the downside of living in denver? >> if you are renting an apartment, you don't know how much rent is going to be going up. my rent went up by double digits percentage wise last year. that is hard to deal with when your salary is not going up that much. >> the cost of living is rising but what you are making is not. >> right. it's like the rest of the
country. denver is a diversifying city. it has always had diversity. there are some african-american neighborhoods and strongholds, one of which we will be going through. most of the ethnic diversity though has been hispanics. we have a large latino population. but what you see is that some of these newer neighborhoods that are overpriced are also mostly white. >> i have to say, it is a beautiful city, but i have seen a lot of homeless. what is the solution to that? >> it is kind of similar to the homeless dynamic you see in portland or austin. even though denver is known as a cold city, it is not east coast cold. it's pretty temperate.
so people can kind of get by out here. exit for a few days when it really gets cold. just as we are a draw for millennials and people on the higher economic demographics of society, it is also a draw for homeless and, quite honestly, there are people who move here and don't realize how expensive it is and get forced out onto the streets. that is a problem we are grappling with here. but we do have the issue of younger people who are homeless because they might have greg -- they might have drug issues. they might be drawn here by legal marijuana. we are still figuring out what that dynamic looks like and how much marijuana is affecting that. the city is still working on trying to solve some of those issues, but we haven't gotten very far. five points is historically african-american neighborhood.
when the rest of the city wasn't so welcoming to african-americans, it was formed. it has jazz clubs and social clubs. denver has large black communities as a lot of big cities do. it was a very close-knit community and still is in many respects. >> what are some of the holdovers from that old neighborhood? >> there are still some historic buildings over here. quite a few people have lived here their entire lives, but it is a rapidly changing neighborhood. as we go up, we will see some old buildings. and you will see some construction. >> what is in five points now? >> this is an historic intersection. there is washington. there is welton.
and downing. you have index of old businesses, -- you have a mix of old businesses, but also some new restaurants, some like, hipster joints, and a lot of white people live in this neighborhood now. there are african-american people who move here worth their latino -- with their latino spouses. that does diversify it, but it is mostly white people moving in. it does cause a little bit of resentment because it is a visible reminder of the change that has happened. >> if you were to have come to five points 20, 30, 40 years ago, what would you have seen? >> i think you would have seen a neighborhood that was much more african-american, much more culturally proud. it is still culturally proud, but in the 1960's and 1970's, it
was was a city that was -- a neighborhood that was struggling a lot compared to the rest of denver economically. >> tell me about that struggle. >> in the 1970's and 1980's, denver was part of the oil boom and bust cycle. the economy hit the floor, and so you had a downtown that was more like a parking lot than an office park. it was a less urban downtown or central denver area. that all has changed. >> so, you are on the government beat. you are in the city council reporter. what are some of the shifts you have seen? >> on the city council, we had elections last year, and we had a lot of turnover because there are term limits here. one thing you did see was a lot of younger councilmembers. a few in their 30's and 40's,
whereas it used to be, as in any urban city council, it tends to be older folks, retirees. now you have younger folks , working age folks, representing a little bit more of the millennial residents and their points of view. some are on the preservationist bandwagon, but some are more in favor of the marijuana industry. there are concerns and they try to balance those concerns. i think you see a loosening on the city council of attitudes. >> so, we went under i 70. is there a distinction that we are in a different neighborhood? >> yes, this is a hilarious once you -- this is a neighborhood south of the highway. it is kind of a classic urban story. from the mid-19 highways -- from the mid-1900s when the highways
were built. it was a very proud, working-class neighborhood, and then the federal government built a highway through it and toward a part and it has not recovered since. there is still an area of high home ownership. it has a fairly large latino population, spanish-speaking population. you have housing on the right here. on the left, you have the national western show. biggest stock show in the country. think really big state fair. you have a rodeo. people come from all over the country. there are all kinds of competitions. >> so in this pretty urban area, you're going to bring your cattle -- >> the stock show draws tons of
people. >> it's kind of a weird dynamic. people. >> here you have a marijuana production facility. because of zoning requirements, they are in industrial neighborhoods. this is an area where industrial and residential mix and that has been a problem. there has been a push back because industrial is taking over all of these spaces. neighborhood advocates feel that will constrain growth in the future. >> i am sure people in colorado get sick of being known for, hey, that's the place where marijuana is legal, but it is kind of fascinating, coming from d.c., where there is some legality, but when you drive through denver, there are dispensary signs everywhere. it's like an apple store.
>> there are more dispensaries than starbucks and mcdonald's combined. up here, this building is a production house for marijuana. up here, we will turn left. this was the first victim of neighborhood push back. when it came up for renewal in the last couple of months, the city agreed that it was a bad influence on the area. it was constraining development and it was going to hurt the plans for the neighborhood. so, they are going to lose their license, and this is the first time the city has denied the renewal of a license. there has been some pushback.
one of the big debates right now that you can only use it privately. you cannot use it in public. some people violate that law. so there will be one or two ballot measures this fall where to allow clubsde or vape ore can use use edibles. and then people are applying for permits for bars to pick consumption areas within their buildings. >> so it will be like the old days when you went into a restaurant and had a smoking or non-smoking section. so, we have been to three different neighborhoods. what is next for denver?
we've looked at the good and kind of the bag. every city has that. where do you see your city? >> denver has become a bigger, more vibrant city. it has become a magnet for younger people. a lot of people are moving here. in a lot of ways, it is a success story, but it has a lot of challenge. the next decade will determine whether it becomes a city of economic equality or a city with a widening gap between the rich
and the poor. denver doesn't want to become san francisco. it would love to have san francisco's vibrancy, but it doesn't want the issues that exist economically there. it is a problem that a lot of cities are facing, but i think denver is hoping to put a stamp on these issues and solve them more than other cities have. people in denver drive past the denver meant all the time. it is right in downtown denver. it is on a major thoroughfare, but people don't know much about its history, and it's a story that needs to be told. colorado experienced a gold rush in 1859, when gold was discovered in the mountains. in 1859, denver was founded. it was a wild west town. it basically consisted of a tent city with lots of saloons and bordellos. the miners would come down from the mountains with bags of gold dust and go into the saloon, and in the saloon, the bartenders would reach into the gold dust
bags and take out a fistful of -- a pinch of gold to pay for the whiskey. so obviously, having fat fingers was a major requirement for a bartender. but a city cannot really survive on a bag of gold dust economy, so denver needed a mint. to mint provided reliable measures of gold for commerce and shipping. we are in front of the denver , which wasenver mint built in 1904. coinage began in 1906, and it has been the pride and joy of denver ever since. by the 1880's, denver itself had gotten rich from mining, and it wanted to become the queen city of the planes, the center of commerce, the leader in the
western united states. the city fathers at that point decided that a mint they could be proud of was going to be part of that process. there wasn't a federal facility. denver was just a frontier, the wild west. so private industry, private banks stepped into fill that void. clark and gruber came in and set up a private mint. the federal government did not appreciate private bankers minting coins, but it was not illegal, so they could not do anything about it. so they bought clarke and gruber in 1882 and begin manufacturing gold bars at the first denver mint facility.
in 1895, congress passed an act to form a mint at denver, and that language would become very important years later. the mint was modeled on a florentine villa created for the medecci family in italy. the opulence and the expense and the grandeur of the facility was expensive even in its day. having such a beautiful grand facility that was all so a u.s. federal mint put denver on the map. the denver mint has been robbed twice. the first time was an inside job. orval harrington worked in the mint for many years. he was a trusted worker. in 1920, he had been working at the mint for many years,
handling gold every single day, but he knew he would never make more than four dollars a month, and it frustrated him. he had a plan to steal one gold bar a day from the mint, and he was going to do it between inventory periods so that no one would really be aware of the embezzlement. to dispose of the gold, he planned on leasing a gold plane -- a gold claim in victor, the gold downing and claiming he had minded himself. it was an ingenious plan and it might have worked. but he stole too many bars. one day, a coworker noticed him behaving suspiciously and
alerted the authorities, in this case, the secret service. the local sheriff, and they confronted him, and he confessed he had a gold bar on him. he spent years in leavenworth, kansas, in the prison there. in the 1930's, the federal government decided to move the gold reserves stored in san francisco to denver. they did it for a couple of reasons. probably first and foremost was the fact that they wanted to put a thousand miles of desert and mountain terrain between our gold reserves and the coast. while fort knox was under construction, virtually all of the countries gold reserve's restored at the denver mint. -- were stored at the denver
mint. there has never been a greater amount of gold in the history of the planet then there was in denver during the great depression. during world war ii, the denver mint went to war just like every other factory in the country. the men who had been operating the factories went on to war and women filled their places. this was always a menuing -- this was always a manufacturing job considered man's work. they did not think women could do this work. but women excelled at it. the denver mint production of coins actually rose during world war ii, and of course, after world war ii, the men came home and came back to their jobs at the denver mint, and the women went home. over the years, there have been several superintendents of the
denver mint who were women. while women were not working on the manufacturing floor, they were running the place. in the 1960's, the federal government decided they needed a new mint facility and they wanted to move the denver mint away from downtown denver. you can imagine the congressman from all over the country were clamoring to get the mint in their district. there was a movement to take the mint out of there. denver leaders wanted to keep the mint, so they played the card from the 1895 declaration, at denverls for a mint act . erupted as denver's leaders tried to keep the mint right here in denver.
fight,e course of that congress ultimately decided it did not need a new mint facility, but that the mint could be upgraded and stay right here in denver. >> i think what is so unique and interesting about this refuge is that most of it is tallgrass prairie. there are over 600 species of plants. this is unique to north america as well as colorado. much of the front range has experienced this at some level. -- experienced disturbance in some level.
to have a tall grass prairie is pretty amazing. we are really looking forward to helping people learn about it. it really is a story of transformation, how this land has been used in so many ways. i think this is an amazing opportunity to help people learn what our conservation future is. i think this is an amazing we do have porcupines at here. i think a lot of people are surprised to learn the porcupines live on the prairie. they do eat yucca.
we also have elk and mill deer. coyotes are common. occasionally, there is a bear. the connectivity of this open space really helps some of those larger animals, especially elk, because they do move from the summer to winter range. in the distance, you can see lindsay ranch. the house was constructed in 1949. basically, the site history, we have native americans use this site up until the property was -- use this site intermittently up until the property was taken over in 1951. we can go out and just look at the edge of the property where the department of energy still retains that interior core where the plant used to be.
the rocky flats plant was in operation from 1952-1992. it was a plutonium trigger production site. this was onepiece of the and piece of the nuclear weapon production, not so then those triggers were shipped to other locations for assembly, and then the final product was at that other site. it was one of 13 sites across the country that was supporting the arms race, so it was a national security priority to build these facilities. over time, there was roughly 800 buildings on this site, and most
of the activity was in the central part of the refuge, which it is now maintained by the department of energy. national security, these plant sites were located inland because the missile technology at that time was inadequate. it really would not reach places in land. so this was based on a national security selection, is why this site was chosen. i think initial in the 1950's there was a lot of support. there was a very -- it was a national security issue. people were very intereste ind safety, and our country's protection and security. as timing leave all i think movement,a larger that there was an interest and concern about what these materials -- who tony him has a very long lifespan -- so there
was a lot of certain about the community of proper disposal of what ever materials were used in connection with these weapons. in 1989, there was an fbi raid out at the plant based on the health and safety of workers as well as contamination. and so basically, production ceased at that time. in 1992, that was the final year of production. and then from that point on, it was a large effort was directed at cleaning up the site. the cleanup started roughly in 1992, and it was an extensive effort with many people. it was a superfund site, and very organized and systematic. the site, the buildings were , the materials
were transported off-site. senator wayne alla rd and senator mark udall got interest in creating a reserve out here. in 2000, they continue that effort. in 2001 they drafted and legislation. cleanup was continued until 2007. , that is whenife we begin to manage this. the department of energy still retains roughly 1300 acres of ongoinge, and they have monitoring of the site. i think that is one of the great stories of this particular site, is that this is a former production site that is now a national wildlife refuge, and it really truly is a story of transformation.
how, i think him amazing diversity of how a land can recover after there has been disturbance in the landscape, and the landscape and the vegetation continues to evolve. the gold rush begins in 1859, actually, in the denver area, where gold was first discovered. ining hits a good time in the late 1880's. ct in short government would purchase a large quantity of theer at a fixed price, and governor -- government was subsidizing this silver industry. president glover cleveland -- grover cleveland determined to
repeal the act, which he did in 1893, and the price of silver immediately plummeted, so people who were millionaires lost their fortune overnight. one family in particular i think is a really perfect illustration rags and the to silver boom and bust. is aabor family multifaceted story. tabor wastin warner he marriedmont, and his first wife, nate costa, and she was also from new england. they married and tried their hand for a late time in the late 1850's for farming in kansas and then came out to colorado in 1859, and they settled in the leadville area, where they ran a store. one of the things that horace
someas called grub stake, of the mining prospector, which he gave them goods. they did not have to pay him. they paid him with shares of should they strike it rich, he would get x percentage, and one of them did, that gave him initial resources to invest in other mining interests. and he got very lucky and struck a big, and became very wealthy and in some circles was known as the silver king of colorado. that hehe companies formed with some partners, it was incorporated in new york, but it was called the christlike silver mining company. -- chyrsolite silver mining company. we have the document that floated $10 million of stock
in the company. we also have a number, but this is one of the early dividend $5,833, which in today's money would be about $110,000. augustine -- cos lived veryaugusta well. they relocated to denver and lived in denver. met is point, horace had very beautiful young woman. her name was elizabeth. sometimes she was called lizzie. dustecame his mistreatment mistress. in 1883, they married in a formal ceremony at the willard hotel, in washington, d.c. had been appointed to
fill an unexpired term of a u.s. senator, so they married during the one-month time when he was senator horace tabor, a very lavish wedding, lots of politicians came, hundreds of dollars were spent on flowers. her wedding dress supposedly cost about $7,000. they were making the most of the mining resources and the wealth that silver had provided them. horace, before he formerly married her, he had built or had invested a lot in the infrastructure of denver, and he had don't an opera house -- he had built an opera house in leadville, and he also built the tabor grand opera house in what was knowno as the taper block, which was an office and commercial building that was five stories tall. it was a big deal, a huge, beautiful building. and he had with the upper house,
he said it was his gift to the citizens of denver. to me, this is one of the items that reflects the lavishness of the time. in return, the citizens of denver presented him with a fob.h b whether this is functional, i do not know, but it is reflective of his life. bucket and tools at the bottom. of theat images are store that he and augusta dville, ofn lovea the taper block in downtown denver, and the taper upper house. and she lived a lavish lifestyle together for a little the silverrs until crash. they had a beautiful home in denver. he had two daughters.
firstborn,was the and then silver dollar, whose full name was rosemary echo silver dollar tabor. and overnight, when the crash hit, they really lost their wealth and eventually all of the fine things had to go, their beautiful home, furniture. horace, it really kind of broke his health. he ended up going back to physically working, hauling slag in some of the minds. he being much older than baby married, she was half his age, he was appointed postmaster of denver the last year of his life. so the last year of his life is a little more comfortable, but he died in 1899.
just a few years after the silver crash. so it really did take a: him. she was still a very young woman. she was only 44 and still very beautiful. it supposedly, he told her to hang on to one of the minds, matchless mine in leadville, because the price of silver would go up again, and it might produce again. and we do not know if that is really something he said or not, but she took those words to heart, and she did hang on to the mine, and she did actually move back to leadville. her,wo daughters went with but before too long, they went their separate ways. lily went to live with family family indoe's wisconsin, and silver dollar went first to denver, and then chicago, and she struggled to find herself.
she worked on the stage, as a journalist. her later years, she seems to have taken to drink and lived under a variety of different names. one assumes probably with different men. and was killed in a suspicious accident where she seemed to have been scalded to death. this was in the 1920's. and baby doe never wanted to recognize that silver dollar was lost and gone. but baby doe lived in the cabin at the matchless mine. this is a picture of her as an older woman in the doorway. almost 30 --re for a little over 30 years. she lived to be over 80 years old. most importantly, she on to her writings and diaries and family photographs.
things in trucks, which she had put in storage in denver. and after she passed away, there is a group of citizens, prominent citizens, who banded together to purchase these items from the estate at auction and donate them to history colorado, so we are able to share aspects of this story. it has always fascinated me that because the watch fob, in her writings she talks about not having enough money for food or to buy firewood, and this is something that would have had great value at the time. the tabors were still very well-known, and she could have sold this, other items, and she chose to hold onto them to keep those memories close. we are on the steps of the state capital, exactly one mile above sea level. it is here that c-span spoke
with governor john hickenlooper about colorado's past and his visions for the future. known?t is colorado best governor hickenlooper: four or 10 skiix of the top resorts in the world. the rocky mountains, the outdoors, 300 days of sunshine. >> who lives in colorado? that is hickenlooper: one of the great things, it is one of the fastest growing states, and tremendous in migration, so there are more denver nowvenues in than there are in austin or nashville. a lot of great bands, the luminaires, one republic, suffer the fray, all colorado bans.
we have become a younger population from all the people who have been moving here. the typical colorado, if not young, easy on the heart, enjoys outdoor recreation. the state is very pro-business, no tax rate, so a lot of entrepreneurs who are starting businesses here. they come from everywhere, all flavors and all sizes. influxou feel that fx employment intolerant -- effects employment in colorado? they haveickenlooper: been moving here for seven years before we legalized marijuana. they are the reason they got marijuana legalized. they do not see the difference between beer and pot. you have young people, a lot things, and little more conservative, there is more pushback.
i think it is a positive influence. i am not sure the bun lemuel -- the millennial push is always correct. >> two 2012, amendment 64 legalized recreational marijuana colorado. in 2015, you thought it was a bad idea. how come your opinion has changed? governor hickenlooper: when you first got pass, i opposed it, because you do not want to be in conflict with federal law. no other state, city, even if june i am -- even amsterdam never legalized marijuana. they just decriminalized it. there is the potential for kids getting it pot, and the bowls, edibles, i was
worried about unintended consequences. now we are several years into it. i am telling other governors to wait a year, but we do not see a spike in usage. we do not see a huge number of young people trying it or using it on a regular basis. d the animals that look like candy, no gummy bears or animal shapes or things like that. we had made tremendous progress. we will see. everyone says you are getting all this money, $123 million last year in tax revenues, that is in a $27 billion legit. a drop in the money. makees provide money to sure we maintain public safety, and to make sure teenagers realize that high-thc marijuana can permanently reduce your long-term memory. >> you have a history of speaking for gun control
measures. with a history of gun violence we are seeing around the country, what do you think the next step is question mark governor -- step is? governor hickenlooper: it was like the sky was going to fall. inple were apoplectic opposition or in support. you step back and you look at 91, 92 gunths, deaths every day in united states. of them aree is 2/3 suicides, people taking their own lives. what we are focusing on now is to make sure that people that own guns, if they had a child or family member who is going through a mental crisis of some sort, that we make sure everyone up,s you got to lock guns they short yorkie knows --
teenagers do not have access to firearms if they have psychological issues. the unnatural our allies, people focused on gun safety, but part of the goal is to get from us and them -- these are issues let'sace everyone, and push the mental health, and let's get a big cross-section of allies get the word out. that face issue colorado and denver specifically, is increased services for homelessness. what do you think and be done about that issue now question mark governor -- now? governor hickenlooper: it costs us $30,000, $45,000 a year for a chronically homeless individual to be on the streets. services,ound
medications if they got mental counseling, and most importantly is job-training. we have to put more effort into getting them into jobs and a social framework where they had a support system. i think that is the issue that -- dropped the ball, that i even america,and for a while in the early 2000's, we were united and we were going to address homelessness, and now it has slipped away. >> to just read a book. you talk about your life and politics and in business. you were the mayor of denver. you were also a grocery owner. how has your past working in business interest the way you have governed now question mark it soundsickenlooper: so grand, but when you are going through it, you do see all the
places that i was a geologist you mix that in with the restaurant business, i learned customer service, no margin in heaven -- having enemies, things that a small smallss mentality, what a business approach can bring to government. in a funny way, having a scientific, having spent time inside, like geology, and time in small business, like the restaurant business, almost perfect training for being a mayor or a governor, because a lot of those executive decisions that mayors have to make every day, one very good way to learn them is to be in the private sector. >> are there any colorado lawmakers who have influenced you question mark -- you?
laurel runckenlooper were, when i was opening my ago, i was25 years opening my business, i do not pay attention to politics, i was too busy. -- i remember twice i saw him speak, and write your the beginning he was a quality of life's thought -- of life starts with a good job. and that struck me that the primary possibility is public safety. but quality of life does start with a good job. we have focused on really tremendous intensity to job creation and helping get rid of moreape, help the economy startups and more businesses that can grow. predecessor, a very good governor, and for him, i worked
.ith bill he understands how people think through self-interest. we have so many people -- gary hart, all great colorado politicians. bill armstrong just passed away, a great republican senator. colorado has had a rich history of political leadership. >> you're not from colorado originally? why colorado? the firstickenlooper: time i came was in 1976, just out of college, and then i came out permanently in 1981, just for a couple years. first it was a quality of life that be in a place where it is sunny 300 days a year, and in
denver it never snows, and when you want to ski, it is an hour away. after about three or four years, i remove her to my mother back east, i do not think i am going to move back. and it was the people. there is something about having people from all over the country, all over the world come to a place where there is a certain freedom. who yourres grandparents were, how ritual dad was. who will judge you on you are, how successful you are, making your dreams come true. a lot of elected officials when they finished they become a u.s. senator, do this, and they live in washington, even when they retire. a say in washington or new york. i will never live full-time in new york. i cannot imagine it. my house here in parkhill in denver, and all my scenarios see me growing old in
colorado. >> and there may be an era of colorado street that you find interesting? there ishickenlooper: so many interesting points of view. the governor in 1940, when we began arresting and putting into prison u.s. citizens because they were of japanese descent, the japanese attacked pearl harbor on december 7, and all of alph carr said we are americans, we are not going to do this, and he fought back the federal government, the whole internment program. amazing lesson in courage. about as aed potential vice presidential nominee, but he would not back off on it. at thee times
turn-of-the-century when colorado began to try to find itself, and it was part while wes, also cities and railroads and the beginnings of industry. i always think of it as that place where we are going to be defined more by our future than our past, but we have enough of a past now, real history, that we can create when we teach colorado history in our elementary schools. kids get a sense of what are the core values, what does it mean to be a coloradon. over, but isossed there anything about being governor that you do not like? hickenlooper: those of us who have the genetic peculiarity where we want to do good or we want to help other people, being in an executive position like this is about as good as it gets. it does not mean you love every
minute of every day, and when you go through a campaign, tv ads, distorting everything, whatever you said, your kid comes home from school and they are crying, not every minute of but overall, i get to work with us marcus people, the folks who really individuals, people who are passionate about what they believe and they want to see done. i think that is a gift. way yourin a funny love with joy is reflective with who you get to work with, and i get to work with amazing people. going around the state and talking with the citizens of colorado, what a gift. >> how does this appear to your role in a previous job, as a geologist, as a group owner? hickenlooper: denver
has a strong mayor, so the mayor is probably a stronger mayor than any other city in america. the mayor of denver makes the budget. need nine out of 13 city council votes to change one line item. larger stretch of land, and if you are trying to help kids instead of helping 70,000 kids, you are helping 950,000 kids. being in the restaurant business, i love to that because the energy and a team of people i alwaysd with, plus had a certain anxiety that i wanted to be financially secure. money was not for luxuries, was not to buy a fancy car, it was to be prepared if something happened. i got to that point and feel very blessed i could do so in a being soe restaurant much hundred as a geologist, 10 years, i spent two summers in
yellowstone park, doing fieldwork, and i traveled the world, going to latin america. what an amazing -- i look at that when i wrote the book. the opposite of woe is too giddy up, to work hard and engage life, and i grew up with these sick cook bottle glasses, and even nerds, if you work hard in some of can be the challenges of the times. look to the future. what is next for you and the state? coloradohickenlooper: continues to be the model. we are going to be the healthiest state. we are right now in the top oree or 44 job creation -- four for job creations,
startups. we want to be number one. we want to have the number one education system. we are closer to the middle pack, the that next 2.5 years, i think we're going to push that as hard as we can. after i finish this, i don't know what i will do. probably look around for starting a business or find someone who need someone to help run a business. >> thank you so much, governor. >> it was a pleasure. the colorado state capitol was built between 1886 and 1901. it took 15 years. construction started 10 years after colorado joined the union in 1876. we are called the centennial state. 100 years after the declaration of independence. it took 15 years to build on a
site donated by a businessman named henry brown. he was not an alternate spirit he donated 10 acres of land in the middle of his property so he would make a fortune selling the rest of it for people who wanted to build their houses and the capital. it took almost 20 years and two trips to the united states supreme court to resolve who owned this property because the state did not build on it for a long time. twice and made it all the way to the u.s. capitol building in washington dc for two battles before the supreme court which he finally lost in january of 1886. state capital stands at exactly one mile above sea level. then her known as the mile high city. there are three mile high markers on the west steps. original one was on the 15th step. it was a grass marker that was
the ultimate souvenir. people kept stealing it. in 1947, to save money, they carved one mile above sea level. in 1969, a group of students remeasured and said we were off by three steps. there is a little brass plug on the 18th step that declares one mile above sea level. in 2003, we got our third mile federalker because the government redefined sea level and how we judge altitude in the united states. and global warming and sea levels of side, the mile high marker actually dropped. now it is on the 13th step. we are on the second floor of the colorado state capital. this is the legislative floor. the house and senate chambers
are here on the senate -- second floor where the 100 members of the general assembly need from early january to early may. it was intended to be built out of as many native beer tyrrell's -- materials as possible. he want to keep as much of money as he could. most of the stone from the capital can from local quarters. decorative materials came from other states including oak from doorframes old the are out of that. inss came from boundaries cincinnati, ohio and louisville, kentucky. they represent various surgeries -- figures, historical individuals. men and women from many different ethnic groups. the women behind me honors emily griffith who was a schoolteacher in denver in the early 1900s.
in 1916, she founded the emily griffith opportunity school which now operates as a vocational training school. her intention was to provide free education on any practical issue that children or adults might want to learn if you wanted to find a better job or get skills that would help you earn more for your family. she would invent classes at the school year went on. there was no set structure or schedule. you showed up whenever you needed to to take what classes you want to. she would ask students what things they are interested in. what topics do you want to know about. then she would find people who knew that and hire them to teach a class. it did not matter what time. it was an open ended school. the model for it was always opportunity. it remains in operation today. the celebrity that centennial.
he was one of the few american politicians to speak out in support of earl harper. he took a great political risk treat that coloradans everyone with dignity and respect. the interment camp built in southeastern colorado was undoubtedly the most open, it had the best interaction with the local committees. he is remembered with several packs -- plaques. -- he signed the nations first neglect abortion
laws. it was a democratic bill signed by a relatively conservative governor in the 1960's. that was six years before the road the way decision in the supreme court. colorado is on the front lines of one of the most contentious legal issues. ever since the beginning of the 21st century, we have been working on trying to reclaim the building to the way it looked a century earlier when it opened at the beginning of the 20th century. capital architect lance shepherd can offer some information about all the projects.
a layer of metal. and copper on top of that. there's a waterproofing. -- layers of waterproofing. we are currently in the house chambers which is under restoration. this project started three years ago. the first year, we did the lower level restoring the ornate extensively. the second year, we did the upper levels. the 30th we were doing the galleries. -- third year, we were doing the galleries. in the 60's, they had glue stealing style -- ceiling style.
that is where all the stenciling in the lower level, we just touched up the original stenciling. on the upper levels and ceiling, we actually re-created it on top of an acoustic plaster material. we restored the gilding and these chandelier. -- the chandelier. they have added extra ball to the chandelier. bulbs to the chandelier. it was once asked at a time. the upper section, you can see the gas jets are there. had been toldere -- dulled with cigar smoke and cigarette smoke. we try to clean it up with the original colors.
the green is for the house of commons. and it is red for the house of lords. >> the colorado state capital serves as the heart of its community. there is not necessarily any reason for the state of colorado to exist. it's a giant rectangle that brings together cultures and environments and economies and geographies. this is the place where people gather to decide what do we want, what do we need. what makes us colorado? the building itself has a great deal of symbolic power but it has historical power also. it is a place where colorado history is preserved. there are murals and paintings and stained-glass windows to celebrate and educate the people of colorado and anybody who comes to see the state. what we want to commemorate, that is what it is.
our shared existence. >> this exhibit came about, looking back, our history was not in museums or in books. startedly, when people to look at the 60's, they realized that a lot took place. this was a stronghold of the movement. this was bona fide colorado. why is the store not being told? what you see here is the symbol of the united storm -- farmworkers. the thunderbird black on red. a flag. a banner.
a short handled hoe. we included this because the united farm workers union was organized to protect the rights of farmworkers and give the workers dignity. used to workpeople in the fields with. it was shorthanded -- short theird to remind them of short standing in life. it was finally outlawed. we can see where the struggle came from when you take a look at that. and when you look at the symbol, it is a strong symbol. it speaks to the people. it became a primary symbol in marches and on the picket lines when the union representatives and members and people from the urban areas and the countryside protested against the injustice.
the starting of this union gave more force to the union because they started to utilize civil disability and's -- disobedience and nonviolence. it was very powerful. they did an awful lot of work in organizing and their five-year strike was successful. it was one of the most in americanoycotts labor history. we wanted to talk about the story of women as well. they played an instrumental role within the movement. we decided we cannot give -- could not give a whole unit two women. to women. we will distort of women
throughout the exhibit. i would like to draw your attention to one particular story and that is the story of a floral worker in brighton colorado. these women worked in horrible conditions. they worked in rooms that were high and humidity. the floors were always damp. very healthy. the equipment was unsafe. worked 8-10 hour days without overtime pay. they let a strike that lasted one to two days. -- 122 days. here is one of the lead organizers. who chained herself with other women that include rachel , and several others and
they brought a lot of attention to their issue. women are often on the front lines of the movement. the chicanok about movement without mentioning rud .lfo gonzales he became the leader. he came up to the ranks as a young boy growing up, he became a boxer. adult inved as a young the war on poverty and mainstream politics. he became very angry as did many of his friends and family. believing that government failed
the people. voiceid not have that needed to determine their own fight, or create opportunities are better housing, education, workers rights. given those opportunities to us in the constitution. we are in the student movement section now. we tell the story of the activism that young people took up at the university level and high school level. at the high school level, the voicets were beginning to their opposition to their treatment by teachers that was discriminatory. they were often put down and make you feel lesser than --
there were no textbooks that had their history. no teachers that looked like them. .hey started to protest there was a blowout. in other words, the students organized themselves to walk out of class and protest. out and were followed by other high schools around the state including some high schools in colorado. the chicano movement is not ended. a continues today. we can still see many people still utilizing civil disobedience and peaceful means to try to make change. the important part of any movement and the important thing we have to remember is that
change was made. organizations sprang up. they benefited the community. they provided health care to communities. attorneys, judges, representing people in the courts. and teachers in the school, principles. we had a new generation of professionals teaching and making change. continuing the change. that does not mean the cap a perfect world. there is so much work to do. share who is willing to and stand up against and is carrying forward the principles people have and our a lot of work to do to carry forward the issues and work of chicanomovement -- movement.
c-span is in the mile high city of denver to learn more about its history. you may know her as a titanic survivor. the unthinkable molly brown made her mark on the silver mining industry and colorado state politics. we go to the molly brown house to learn more. >> a typical visit to this museum takes you on a tour through the first two floors of for home. , you go toy a way the first floor and presidential four. she found love and a millionaire. her story is much bigger and better than what i could ever come up with. this is molly brown. and the legacy of margaret brown.
she was born margaret and hannibal, missouri. they had five other siblings. home.s born in a small her parents were irish immigrants. the whole family pitched in. she came to colorado because her brother gave her a ticket. by the age of 18, they seem all at this time should be married. she came out and went to a local catholic parish. this is where she met her husband. they married within three months of their first meeting. living here in colorado and came to denver in 1894. they struck it rich at the mine. he created -- by trying to
improve the mine, he found the largest area of gold. they decided that no wonder -- that they wanted to purchase this home and move. it was built in 1889. they purchased it for $30,000. right now, we are standing in the library. this is my personal favorite room in the entire house. this room shows how margaret loved education. her and her siblings all did have an eighth-grade education. margaret continue to learn throughout her life. besides english, she spoke five different languages. spanish, italian, french, german and russian. when she passed away, she was learning great. reek. we also speak about the many causes she worked hard for. after the massacre in 1918, she headed to the picket line and
stroke with the minors. she went up against the head of the company to change the rights of these minors and did she do it. what you did when throughout the entire country and helped change minor rights. she also worked for the judge here in denver to form the first juvenile justice system. not only were children tried as children, they went to jail with other children. work comes were established some children could work their way into society. she also helped build the immaculate conception cathedral which is two blocks from us. it was completed in 1914 with over 1000 people in attendance. she worshiped with her mother every sunday. her and her mother would walk down together.
margaret was never supposed to be on the titanic. she was traveling with her daughter who is now grown. traveling, they received a telegram saying her one and only grandson was very ill. she had to hop on the first ship which was leaving which was the titanic. with herd on along daughter -- her daughter stayed behind. everything was going along fine until the iceberg. struck, she was relaxing in her room with a book. we do have a few things that are replicas. they do relate to margaret within titanic. the james cameron movie came out in the 90's and into three titanic into the spotlight. -- it through titanic into the spotlight.
she few people know that ran percent or. -- senate. she never won. we do have her campaign photo. as you can see, she is standing there eloquently. she is a strong western woman. believed they had the spirit to hold office and boat. -- vote.we were the first states do it by public referendum. we hope that people walk away from the same with the truth of margaret and the legacy. ♪ >> started in rural areas.
studies -- cities did not have cable until the late 70's or 80's. it is a nonprofit organization founded by the cable television pioneers whose main mission is to tell the story of the cable industry. cable grew out of the fact that tv signals can't get into the valleys. cable started -- the idea was to put up the antenna, collect the signal and send it back down to the people's homes. in 1973, the inventor of the demonstrated at the anaheim cable tv show that stationd use a portable to distribute the signal. you could get the cable tv signal from the satellite and send it to any head in.
that changed the business. that was satellite distribution. >> cable is in tune. and touch, and instrumental. ofmercial for entertainment premium channels. >> that is why you get the .uperstitions like wr new york turner station. and the dish network's like the food network. niche networks like food network. then broadband internet services for data. phone service starting to come in. the question is now, are we at the end of that, is there a fourth generation coming? we are done here in the technology archive in the lower level of the people center.
there are 2500 items. this is a unique arrangement. this is an single order. emeritus thought of that. chronologically manufactured signal order. the attendant stuff, where the signals are collected and the equipment is at the front. and it moves to the line equipment or the signal is moving through the path. coaxave become lax cable -- cable. then the set-top boxes. there is an overarching arrangement to this. , we of my favorite pieces have some coffee can amplifiers. homemade. all of this great analog tube equipment.
early manufacturing stuff. homemade tech equipment like this right here. this is from pennsylvania. this material in front of you, these are the items we are going to -- this is for the virtual reality project. you will be able to look at these, handled them, interact with them in our online exhibit. pay tv and cable tv companies are seeking the right to charge her for the programs you get free. alwayscable industry has facing lots of challenges. early on the broadcasters thought the signals were being stolen. you had to overcome that. you had to overcome a dilatory hurdles. -- regulatory hurdles.
there were polled attachment issues. crs. it was bcr's -- v and whether the funk up in his into the business. , you hadcable acts more competition coming in. then it was satellite. direct broadcast satellite. face the it had to huge challenges that affect the core of the business. now is the same thing with the over-the-top. as you track the changes and see how cable is responding and what cable has brought to society. decide what is important so we can grow together. >> imagine a world with three or four networks. people want choice.
happened to change with the cable industry. -- a lot of change happened with the cable industry. some people think cable operators would turn into broadband providers. there is a movement where some of the smaller cable companies are talking about being broadband companies. they want out of the television business. they want to offer great customer experience and provide technology. they don't want to pass the price increases from espn. a contract, it is up to to negotiate the price. s are coming with regulating cable companies and internet providers. >> our visit to denver is an american history tv exclusive.