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tv   Key Capitol Hill Hearings  CSPAN  September 30, 2016 3:00pm-8:01pm EDT

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otherways, is a debate that needs to be had. we need streckturel reform in all areas. for example, fair laws with respect to collective bargaining so workers can make their choice on a level playing field. immigration reform. criminal justice reform. overcome poverty. we need to -- i think we need to have some sort of a framework that applies -- benefits versus costs to our regulatory structure. and so much else. and if we do all that and we absolutely need to address our intermediate and longer term fiscal trajectory which are unsound and in many ways very risky for our economy and for our working people. but if we do all that, david, then i think within that context, we'll be addressing the wage pressures and the dislocational wage pressure, you will, and job pressure, that trade and far more importantly technology have created, and it could change the attitude toward
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trade, spread the technology, the technological development is far the greater factor. david: what about wall street where you spent so much of your career. secretary rubin: let me say one more thing on trade. when president clinton was there, he was very much in favor of trade organization, even president clinton never was really able to explain to the american people the benefits of trade. but i think the key now, technology predominantly but also trade are creating if we do that, we can create a cycle in which there's broad support for policies that fundamentally are very good, on balance, for our economy but do have, as i said, these pressures that need to be addressed. >> you can see the political difficulty during the debate. hillary's only bad 10 minutes in that debate was the stuff about trade, politically. so wall street. i'm sures you didisagree with critiques of wall street from both the left and right. it's clear that there's a broadly held sense in this country now that wall street is
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-- has tone things that make life harder for a lot of americans. i'd be interested in your thoughts about what do you think should change about the way our government policy treats wall street? secretary rubin: i think that's a complicated question. in 2008, we had the worst financial crisis since the 1930's. and there were a lot of people, including myself, who thought that we had developed excesses before that, david. but virtually nobody, you look at the fed transcripts, virtually nobody saw the fuel panoply of powerful forces that were at work and interacted with negative feedback loops to create what turned out to be, as i say, the worst cry sess since 2008. there was a lesson then. the lesson in that was the downside of our system was far worse than virtually anybody saw. and therefore -- including, i'd add, myself. therefore, we need to have reform. i think there are parts of dodd frank like the protection agency, the derivatives, i think
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we could have done considerably more on derivatives, as i said in my book, which came out in 03 and is still available in paperback if you're interested, and there's no quota on the number you can buy -- [laughter] other parts of dodd frank could turn out to be counterproductive but it was important that we address the issues and have a stimulus bill to try to get us back on track. i think in terms of wall street today, i get the impression that you're sort of right. there's a negative attitude toward wall street. i noticed that. including, i might add, in the "new york times," with all due respect. but i do think we need -- no modern economy can function effectively without what is in some fair measure a market based financial system. and that, i think, is something that we need to recognize in our legislate -- our legislation and our regulation. but we also have to deal with the kinds of problems that 2008
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manifested. so i think we need ta balance an i think the pendulum politically has shifted toward a nonbalanced view of trying to deal with what is actually a complicated question, which is how you have an effective market based system and not have the kind of issues that arose in 2008. david: david bradlee, one of our hosts here, a master interviewer, gave me an idea before we came on stage. imagine that you're graduating from college now. when you graduated from college, in the 1960's, you went off to law school -- secretary rubin: i did not. i went to law school for three days and dropped out and went to london school of economics for a year which was a great year. david: and then to law school. secretary rubin: then i came back to law school. but i had a wonderful year in london with no responsibilities, didn't cost much, the dollar was a terrific thing to have. i had a great time. david: so i want you to imagine that you were graduating from
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college today and let's say you go off to london and you have that great year and then you're coming back. let's imagine you have a lot of options, as you did when you actually graduated college. what would you consider to be, in this society , in this economy, with all of our benefits and all of our challenges, what do you see as the most attractive and important an engaging things for a young person to do? what to you imagine being drawn to if you were 23 years old today? secretary rubin: from very early on in my life, i wanted to be in the political arena in some fashion or another. i knew i'd never run for office, i'm not equipped for it, it's not my nature. but i did from an early age hoped that someday i could be part of the political process. partly because i was fascinated with how the system worked, but when i was younger, and even later, that there was a lot i believed in and that if i was in government i could be involved in trying to pursue and advance
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the issues i believed in. i guess if i were graduating today, the area most promising in a financeable sense is probably to get involved in technological world in some fashion or other. wall street has become a very, very different place. i think there are some aspects of the financial world that are still interesting and promising and i think i would at least think about. but i think it's very different than when i graduated. david: how has it changed? secretary rubin: there are -- the big firms have become very big. the regulatory environment is extremely difficult. there's obviously, as you pointed out, a very negative public attitude toward wall street. i think the financial industry has a -- as a whole, but i think there's some exceptions to this as a whole, is going to have -- could well have a difficult time for a long time. so i think -- most of these are big, public companies today. when i went, goldman sachs was a small partnership. and that's a very, very different, very different
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environment. but i would -- whatever i did, whatever i did, i would try to do again what i was fncht enough to be able to do in that day and age, it was easier to do then than now, in addition to focusing on my job as best i could, i would try to get myself involved in civic and political activities outside of oy job. i think it makes life a lot more interesting. you meet all kinds of people you wouldn't otherwise have known. in my case it gave me an opportunity both in civic activity and ultimately political activity to pursue objectives and values and ideas i had about what our world should be like that i very much wanted to be involved in pursuing. david: that reminds me of something. for all our problems as society, when you look at poll, the group most optimistic about the future of the country are the young people who have had the most problems with the economy. they have had the most problems
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with the economy but are still more opt mickic than people nor in their 60's and 60's -- 50's and 60's and 80's. secretary rubin: maybe they dent understand it as much. >> and a look from the debate commission -- a look at a debate commission statement. after donald trump said something about his microphone, there werei, he said issues with donald trump's microphone that affected the sound level in the debate hall. if you didn't catch the debate, watch it any time in c-span's video library the next presidential debate is sunday, october 9. and a tweet from donald trump's latest appearance, thousands
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waiting in the rain to get into the michigan rally. and a debate between newt gingrich and political commentator laura ingraham and jennifer granholm. their topic, whether or not donald trump can make america great again. the munk debates are held twice a year in toronto and organized foundation. you can watch that live at 7:00 p.m. eastern on c-span2. and here on c-span, the opening of the african-american history and culture museum. president obama, first lady michelle obama, former president bush and his wife laura, an others attended the event. you can watch the ted case tonight at 8:00 eastern. this weekend, c-span's cities tour, along with our comcast cable partner, will explore the literary life and history of pueblo, colorado. >> it's really the railroad and the steel industry and the coal
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industry that bring pueblo as a city to where it is today. i think it sort of speaks to how this is a natural place to settle with the confluence of the creek and everything. people still keep coming back to this place. it's a natural place to build a city. on book tv on c-span2, fawn amber montoya, colorado state university professor, author of "making an american work force," the rock fellers and the legacy of ludlow. talks about the deadly strike between miners and the colorado fuel and iron company which resulted in a public relations nightmare for john d. rockefeller jr. >> united mine workers president frank hayes walked out to rockefeller's car and tells him to turn around. he said you're not welcome here. i cannot guarantee your safety. >> then author matthew harris discusses his book "the founding fathers and the debate over religion in revolutionary america." >> they didn't talk a lot about religion at the constitutional convention.
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one of the only things you said -- they said was you didn't have to hold public office, or didn't have to believe in some form of christianity to hold public office. >> and hear about the lud low massacre which took place in the colorado coal strike of 1913 and 1914. and we'll visit the steelworks center of the west museum and talk to its cue rator about the colorado fuel and mine company. >> this is the shift change whistle for cf&i. many generations of pueblo children learned to tell time by this whistle. >> the c-span cities tour of pueblo, colorado, saturday at noon eastern on c-span2's book tv and sunday afternoon at 2:00 on american history tv on c-span3. working with our cable affiliates and visiting cities cross the country. california congresswoman mimi
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walters tweeted a picture of the u.s. capitol's flags flying at half-staff in honor to have former israeli president shimon peres. president obama is on his way back to the united states after a 5 1/2 hour visit to israel for the tune threasm former leader died at age 93 on wednesday, two weeks after suffering a stroke. president obama called mr. peres a man who saw all people as deserving of dignity and respect. here are some of the highlights rom the service. [speaking a foreign language]
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[speaking a foreign anguage] resident clinton: to the perez family, the leader of the knesset and president obama and all the distinguished leaders who have come from around the world.
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yesterday the prime minister did something that was unthinkable back in the dark ages when i was president of the united states, he sent out a tweet. and the tweet reminded us of a simple fact. it was israel's first day. ithout shimon perez. he was in the knesset for 48 years, but for more than 70 of his 93 years, in one way or the other, in and out of government, he was a public servant. i was honored to share almost 25 of those years with him. first in our common efforts with prime minister rabin of blessed memory to forge a just and lasting peace between israel and alestinians.
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then just as his friend. someone who listened to, learned from, and laugh with him. and always was in awe of his endless capacity to move beyond even most crushing setbacks in order to seize the possibilities of each new day. i am honored the family asked me to tell you what he meant to omeone who is not a citizen of this country i love so much. but who was never the less blessed and inspired i think in many ways is representative of millions more he touched though
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he never met. israel watched him grow first from sort of young genius during -- ding his best to build undefeatable defense forces. through a long life to become a wise champion of our common humanity. someone who wanted the best for all children. yes, the israeli children. but also the children of his neighbors and the larger world. the previous speakers have reminded me again of a clip i saw last night on television where shimon was being interviewed by charlie rose, and he looked at him sort of saying i'm going to serve a softball up to you. and watch you hit a home run. what do you want your legacy to
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be? and he said, i'm more concerned about tomorrow than yesterday. our complicated, brilliant friend steered by a simple straightforward creed. perhaps in no small measure to his constant relentless rging. the tomorrows he envisions are already being lived here in israel. by many young people in spite of all the troubles. you heard the prime minister talk about the dedication of the new high tech park. he's been talking to me about that for 25 years. and there are young people now hroughout the region who are trying to break both the mental
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and material chains that have held them in bondage perhaps in no small measure to the inspiration he provided. as has been said, his critics often claimed he was a naive, overly optimistic dreamer. they were only wrong about the naive part. he knew exactly what he was doing in being overly ptimistic. he knew exactly what he was doing with his dreams. he never gave up on anybody. i mean, anybody. you heard the prime minister talk about their beautiful friendship. it followed a very tough ampaign. but shimon always kept the door
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pen. we shared so many wonderful times but my personal favorite was sitting with him and his old and personal friend sharon at his 80th birthday party listening to the back and forth was a sight to behold. it was worth the price of admission as the saying goes. in addition it was a perfect perez night. the stage was full of young people talking about what he had meant to their lives, including a young ethiopian member of your defense forces who had met as a very young child at the airport as part of the operation he supported. the night ended, however, with a
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choir of israeli jewish and arab children singing together john lennon's wonderful song "imagine." shimon actually could imagine all the people living in the world today. he imagined all the things the rest of us could do. he started off life was israel's brightest student, became its best teacher, and ended up its biggest dreamer. he lived 93 years in a state of constant wonder. over the unbelievable potential of all the rest of us to rise above our wounds, our resentments, our fears, to make the most of today and claim the promise of tomorrow.
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it must have been hard for him o do this. it's easy to say things like this at a memorial service. it's hard to do. first he had to master his own demons, forgive himself for his own mistakes, and get over his own disappointments. the monumental effort required to do that grew his heart to be bigger than his brain, which is really saying something. that effort also, i am convinced, is what made him forever young. ow he is gone.
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leaving only a blessed memory and a powerful example. that's more than enough if those of us who loved him from near and far accept our duty to keep his gifts alive. for the rest our lives, whenever the road we travel comes to a dead end, or the good we seek to do hits a stone wall, or the hand of friendship we extend eets only a cold stare, in his honor i ask that we remember shimon perez's luminous smile. and imagine.
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>> the honorable barack obama, president of the united states f america. resident obama: generations of
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the perez family, prime minister netanyahu, members of the israeli government, and the knesset, heads of state, and government, and guests from around the world including president abbas whose presence here is a gesture and reminder of the unfinished business of peace. to the people of israel i could not be more honored to be in jerusalem to say farewell to my friend, shimon perez, who showed us that justice and hope are at he heart of ideas.
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a free life in a homeland regained. a secure life in a nation that can defend itself by itself. a full life in friendship with nations who can be counted on as llies. always a bountiful life driven by simple pleasures of family and by big dreams. this was shimon perez's life. this is the state of israel. this is the story of the jewish people over the last century. it was made possible by a founding generation that counts himon as one of its own.
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shimon once said the message of he jewish people to mankind is that faith and moral vision can triumph over all adversity. with shimon that moral vision was rooted in an honest reckoning of the world as it is. he said he felt surrounded by a sea of thick and threatening force. when his family got the chance to go to palestine, his beloved grandfather's parting words were imple, shimon, stay a jew. propelled with that faith he found his home.
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he found his purpose. e found his life's work. but he was still a teenager when his grandfather was burned alive by the nazis in the town where shimon was born. the synagogue in which he prayed became an inferno, the railroad tracks that carried him toward the promised land also delivered so many of his people to death camps. and so from an early age shimon bore witness to the cruelty that human beings could inflict on ach other in ways that one group of people dehumanize another. the particular madness of anti-semitism, which is run like a stain through history. that understanding of man's ever
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present sinfulness would steel him against hardship and make him vigilant against threats to ewry around the world. but that understanding would never harden his heart. it would never extinguish his faith. instead, it broadened his moral imagination. and gave him the capacity to see all people as deserving of dignity and respect. it helped him see not just the world as it is, but the world as it should be. what shimon did to shape the story of israel is well hronicled.
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starting in the kibbutz he founded with his love he began work on building the model community. ben-gurion called him to serve at headquarters to make sure the jewish people had the armaments and organization to secure their freedom. after independence surrounded by enemies who denied israel's existence and sought to drive it into the sea, the child who had wanted to be a poet of stars became a man who built israel's efense industry. who laid the foundation for the formidable armed forces that won israel's wars. his skill secured israel's strategic position, his boldness sent israeli commandos to rescue jews from
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ethiopia. his statesmanship built an unbreakable bond with the united states of america and so many other countries. his contributions didn't end there. shimon also showed what people can do when they harness reason and science to a common cause. he understood that a country without many natural resources could more than make up for it with the talents of its people. he made hard choices to roll back inflation and climb out from a terrible economic crisis. he championed the promise of science and technology to make he desert bloom. and turned this tiny country into a central hub of the digital age.
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making life better not just for people here but for people round the world. indeed, shimon's contribution to this nation is so fundamental, so pervasive that perhaps sometimes they can be verlooked. for a younger generation, shimon was probably remembered more for a peace process that never reached its end point. they would listen to critics on the left who might argue that shimon did not fully acknowledge the failings of his nation, or perhaps more numerous critics on the right who argued that he refused to see the true wickedness of the world and alled him naive.
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but whatever he shared with his family, his closest friends, to the world he brushed off the critics. and i know from my conversation was him that his pursuit of peace was never naive. every year he read the names of the family that he lost. as a young man he had fed his village by working the fields during the day, but then defending it by carrying a rifle t night. he understood in this war torn region where too often arab youth are taught to hate israel
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from an early age, he understood just how hard peace would e. i'm sure he was alternately angry and bemused to hear the same critics who called him hopelessly naive depended on the defense architecture that he himself had helped to build. i don't believe he was naive. but he understood from hard-earned experience that true security comes through making peace with your neighbors. we won them all, he said of israel's wars. but we did not win the greatest victory that we aspire to. release from the need to win victories. and just as he understood the
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practical necessity of peace, shimon believed that israel's exceptionalism was rooted not only in fidelity to the jewish people, but to the moral and ethical vision, the precepts of is jewish faith. the jewish people weren't born to rule another people, he would say. from the very first day we are gainst slaves and masters. ut of the hardships of the diaspora, he found room in his heart for others who suffered. he came to hate prejudice with the passion of one who knows how it feels to be its target.
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even in the face of terrorist attack, even after repeated disappointments of the negotiations, he insisted that as human beings, palestinians must be seen as equal in dignity to jews and must there ever -- therefore be equal in elf-determination. because of his sense of justice, his analysis of israel's security, his understanding of israel's meaning, he believed that the zionist idea would be best protected when palestinians, too, had a state f their own. of course, we gather here in the knowledge that shimon never saw his dream of peace fulfilled.
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the region is going through a haotic time. threats are ever present, and yet he did not stop dreaming and he did not stop working. by the time that i came to work with shimon, he was in the twilight of his years. although he might not admit it. i would be the 10th u.s. president since john f. kennedy, to sit down with shimon. the 10th to fall prey to his harms. i think of him sitting in the oval office, his final member of israel's founding generation, under the portrait of george washington, telling me stories from the past but more often talking with enthusiasm of the
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present. his most recent lecture, his next project, his plans for the future, the wonders of his grandchildren. in many ways he reminded me of some other giants of the 20th century that i have had the honor to meet. men like nelson mandela, women like her majesty, queen elizabeth. leaders who have seen so much, whose lives span such momentous epoches that they find no need to posture or traffic in what's popular in the moment.
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people who speak with depth and knowledge, not in sound bites. they find no interest in polls or fads. and like these leaders, shimon could be true to his convictions even if they cut against the grain of current opinion. he knew better than the cynic it hat if you look out over the arc of history, human beings should be filled not with fear but with hope. i'm sure that's why he was so excited about technology because for him it symbolized the march of human progress. and it's why he loved so much to talk about young people. because he saw young people unburdened by the prejudices of he past.
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it's why he believed in miracles. because in israel he saw a miracle come true. as americans and israelis we often talk about the unbreakable bonds between our nations. and, yes, these bonds encompass common interests. vital cooperation that makes both our nations more secure. but today we're reminded that the bonds which matter most run eeper. anchored in a judeo-christian tradition, we believe in the irreducible value of every human being. our nations were built on that idea.
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they were built in large part by stubborn idealists and striving immigrants, including those who had fled war and fled ppression. both our nations have flaws that we have not always fixed. our history which dates back to our founding that we do not always squarely address. but because our founders planted ot just flags in the eternal soar, but also planted the seeds of democracy. we have the ability to always pursue a better world. we have the capacity to do what s right. as an american, as a christian, a person partly of african
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descent, born in hawaii, a place that could not be further than where shimon spent his youth, i took great pleasure in my friendship with this older, wiser man. we shared a love of words and books and history and perhaps like most politicians we shared too great a joy in hearing urselves talk. but beyond that i think our friendship was rooted in the fact that i could somehow see myself in his story and maybe he could see himself in mine because for all of our differences both of us had lived such unlikely lives.
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it was so surprising to see the wo of us where we had started, talking together in the white house, meeting here in srael. i think both of us understood that we were here only because in some way we reflected the magnificent story of our nations. shimon's story. the story of israel. the experience of the jewish people. i believe it is universal. it's the story of a people who over so many centuries in the wilderness never gave up on that basic human longing to return
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home. story of a people who suffered the boot of oppression and the shutting of the gas chamber's door, and yet never gave up on a elief in goodness. t's the story of a man who was counted on and then often counted out again and again and who never lost hope. shimon perez reminds us that the state of israel like the united states of america was not built by cynics. we exist because people before us refuse to be constrained by the past or difficulties of the present. and shimon perez was never cynical. it is that faith, that optimism, hat belief even when all the
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evidence is to the contrary that tomorrow can be better that makes us not just honor shimon erez but love him. the last of the founding generation is now gone. shimon accomplished enough things in his life for a thousand men. but he understood it is better to live to the very end of his time on earth with the longing not for the past but for the dreams that have not yet come true. an israel that is secure and a just and lasting peace with its neighbors. so now this work is in the hand of israel's next generation. in the hands of israel's next eneration and its friends. like joshua, we feel the weight of responsibility that shimon seemed to wear so lightly.
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but we draw strength from his example and the fact that he believed in us, even when we doubted ourselves. scripture tells us that before his death moses said i call upon heaven and earth to bear witness his day that i have set before you life and death, blessing and curse, therefore choose life that you and your offspring may ive. choose life. for shimon, let us choose life as he always did. let us make his work our own. may god bless his memory and may god bless this country and this world that he loved so dearly. shimon --
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[captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit ncicap.org] [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2016] >> later today, a monk debate on the 2016 presidential elections. arguing for the resolution, former house speaker newt gingrich. and syndicated talk show host laura ingram. arguing against the motion, former labor secretary and former michigan governor. you can watch them on debate live tonight at 7:00 p.m. eastern over on c-span2. also tonight, we'll re-air saturday's dedication of the african-american history and culture museum on the national mall. we'll hear remarks from president obama and museum director. those who attended the dedication include michelle obama, former president, george w. bush, and his wife, laura, and congressman john lewis. you can watch the dedication ceremony tonight at 8:00 p.m. eastern here on c-span. caretak. good morning, toney. guest: good morning, thanks for having me. host: thanks for joining us. explain to us in simple terms if
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you can what's going to happen to the internet oversight tomorrow? guest: that's actually a big question right now. originally the obama administration had planned beginning on october 1 to transition oversight of the domain name system to the international community and its global nonprofit known as ik in real people terms that means the system we're on, your browser like gookle chrome and you're typing in "politico."com to read political stories. it's the guts that makes that show up when you type it in. that's that was the whole plan. it's been two years of an effort by the obama administration to ensure the international community has a greater say. has greater oversight over the system. but things recently have hit a snag. first folks in congress wanted to block it but ultimately they didn't prevail. and now we're waiting to hear from the federal court in texas which is weighing a challenge from a group of states attorney general who think the obama administration's plan is inconstitutional.
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and if a judge later today sauce that he wants more time to take a look at an issue and he imposes a preliminary injunction on it, that transition that was slated for october 1 may not happen for quite some time. host: i'm going to read from your story on this a little more about this challenge. it says in their lawsuit the attorneys general for arizona, oklahoma, nevada, and texas contend that the transition lacking congressional approval, amounts to an illegal give away of u.s. government property. that it would be so unchecked that it could "effectively enable or prohibit free speech on the internet." does this argument have merit? guest: a lot of folks in the obama administration and a lot of technical experts say it certainly doesn't. first they point to studies from government watchdogs that say, but in fact there isn't any give away of u.s. government property. and they argue that there really isn't a free speech issue here because what we're talking about
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isn't a content of what you're seeing on the internet but just the day-to-day oversight of the architecture. the things that this group called ican is already doing just with the u.s. government standing overhead. this really all bubbled up just a few weeks ago when folks like senator ted cruz began to use the september budget bill, the most recently continuing resolution, to try to block the commerce department from proceeding with this transition. folks like senator cruz have said that, this might empower the likes of russia and china who seek the censor the web. another argument with residents on republicans on capitol hill, but if you talk to tech companies like google and facebook and amazon, or talk to technical experts, all they say is that the obama administration's plan doesn't do any of these bad things that republicans have said. they just point to the republicans as trying to stall on an issue that the obama administration has put a lot of priority on in the past few months. host: a little more what you
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were talking about, today's washington times. proponents of the transfer say engineers, businesses, technical experts, civil society groups should lead the internet forward rather than the u.s. government. whereas conservatives such as senator ted cruz of texas say president obama is diluting american power. thus creating space for rogue actors such as china, russia, or iran, to wield greater influence over web access. is this something congress can stop? guest: it might be something that congress can stop. folks like senator ted cruz wanted to use the most recent bill funding the government until september to block the commerce department from proceeding. essentially they were going to use the power of the purse to prevent this transition from happening. but senator mcconnell, leader mcconnell, others in the senate ultimately prevailed on that issue and they didn't include a prohibition in the most recent funding bill. that being said remember that bill only keeps the government running until december.
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we have a world in which the court comes back today in texas and says we need more time to study it, we want to weigh the constitutional issues here, that creates another opening for congressional republicans who want to try just one more time to block the obama administration. that being said, we also have next year we have a new president. we have this issue hanging over 2016. and we have heard both hillary clinton and donald trump weigh in on this very wonky issue about the domain name system. as you might expect clinton has taken obama's side. she believes the international community should have the say in the oversight here. and donald trump unexpectedly rushed to the defense of ted cruz last week. and cruz was very quick to point to his support from trump despite the fact the two were pretty bitter opponents on the 2016 primary trail. that election ultimately has some consequences even for the future of the internet domain name system. just to go back to something else you said. the international community has been so vocal on this,
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particularly because of what the u.s. did when it comes to surveillance. it's been since the 1990's that washington has tried to transition oversight of the domain name system to world control, but what quickened it was the leaks from edward snowden, as you had governments around the world looking at the reports that the u.s. was having its thumb on the internet's traffic, many of the webpages that had been loaded around the world, there really was a push to see if other governments could have more of a day-to-day say over what happens with the architecture of the internet. that's why the obama administration pursued this plan because they want to keep governments, including the u.s., out of it. they want the technical expertise from folks at ican. they want the academics and so forth, to be the ones that guide the future of the internet. and not the likes of russia and china who are very angry at the extent of u.s. surveillance. host: thank you so much for joining us. tony romm, senior technology
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[captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit ncicap.org] [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2016] coming up saturday morning, ted ge smbing t will discuss the increase of violent crime in the u.s. then military times d pentagon reporter will be on to talk about why 600 additional troops will be sent to iraq. and u.s. efforts against isis in iraq and syria. be sure to watch c-span's "washington journal" live at 7:00 eastern, saturday morning. join the discussion. >> the next president making appointments to the supreme court of the united states will be president donald trump. >> with hillary clinton in the white house, the rest of the world will never forget what they've -- why they've always looked up to the united states of america. >> c-span's campaign 2016 continues on the road to the
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white house, with the vice presidential debate between republican governor mike pence and democratic senator tim kaine tuesday night, live from longwood university in farmville, virginia. beginning at 7:30 p.m. eastern, with a preview of the debate. then at k 30, the predebate briefing for the audience. at 9:00 p.m., live coverage of the debate, follow by viewer reaction. the 2016 vice presidential debate, watch live on c-span, watch live and any time on demand at cspan.org and listen live on the free c-span radio app. earlier today, a group of medical doctors specializing in cancer research spoke at a forum about preventive measures concerning obesity and to bang -- tobacco use. the forum was hosted by the bipartisan policy center and was moderated by the co-chair of its prevention initiative, dan, a former congressman and agriculture secretary during the clinton administration. this is an hour and a half.
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lisa: good morning, everyone. i'm lisa loy, vice president for programs here. i'm also privileged to direct our prevention initiative which is part of our comprehensive eament care program. i'm thrilled to be joined by three assistant secretaries from h.h.s. whose service has spanned multiple administrations, from both parties, both democratic and republican. for those of who you are new to b.p.c., our mission is to drive principled, actionable policy solutions that combine the best ideas from both political parties. today we're here to talk about health and in particular to talk about ways that we can promote health and prevent disease, specifically cancer,
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for ourselves, our families and our communities. from individual behavior changes to changes in our environment, to policy changes at the state and federal level, there's a lot we can do to prevent cancer. for many of us, cancer is personal. something that has touched us personally or affected someone we care about. there's a tremendous amount of good work happening to better understand and treat cancer. what we hear relatively little about are ways we can tap into what we know to prevent cancer from occurring. we're fortunate this morning to be joined by dr. richard wender from the american cancer society, who will share what the research and evidence shows about cancer prevention. before i introduce him, a couple housekeeping notes. this event is being streamed live online and a recording will be available later today with a link on our website. if urso inclined, please -- if
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you are so inclined please tweet us. after the panel discussion, we'll be taking questions. if you're watching online and ave a question, please use #bpclive and we'll try to get to it. i'm pleased to the introduce dr. richard wend rembings r, -- wender. he's a primary care physician by training who has devoted much of his career to improving preventive care with a particular focus on cancer and on reducing health disparities. you can read more about his impressive career and accomplishments in the bio packet. for now, dr. wender. [applause] mr. wender: thank you so much. i'm so excited and appreciative of b.p.c. convening this opportunity to discuss prevention, specifically focusing on cancer and i want
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to add my welcome on behalf of the american cancer society cancer action network, and, again, thank you for the opportunity to join with you in putting together this event. you know, through history, prevention has been responsible for many of the great advances in health. going back centuries, improving conditions which people live, sanitation, getting rid of pests and insects, and vaccination are responsible for extraordinary triumph. as we moved into the last century, the causes of death shifted increasingly. particularly in high resource nations. but it's now happening in low resource nations as well. from infectious diseases to noncommunicable diseases. led by heart disease, cancer, lung disease, diabetes and others. and the question really has come forth, can these cancers lso be prevented or are best lutions to treat them once
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the progressed disease has occurred? we now know the answer. i will tell that you it will take both, but we cannot achieve the full potential in our cancer fight unless we embrace and implement everything we've learned about prevention. and in fact, in 1996, the american cancer society challenged the nation to achieve a 50% reduction in age-adjusted cancer mortality by 2015. in preparation for this event. i checked the calendar. 2015 has come and gone. just a few months ago we published our final report and the glass is half full. we actually achieved a 26% or we believe we will once the full data are in, that we will have achieved a 26% reduction in age-adjusted mortality compared to the peak in 1990. and we know critically, it's one thing to achieve it, the quite another to know how did it happen?
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what worked? these two slides show it. a 46% reduction in lung cancer deaths in men, almost entirely related to a reduction in tobacco use. a marked production, about 40% reduction in colon cancer deaths in men. in the era where we were able to remove precancerous poll ops or find cancers. we hit the goal in prostate cancer. 53% reduction in age-adjusted mortality. largest reduction of any country in the borled -- world. although screening has pluses and minuses, recommend shared decisions, we're now at a mortality rate in pros cat -- mortality rate in prostate cancer last seen in the 1930's. i should say, i put a little windows in here into some areas where we've not been so effective. pancreatic reas cancer, liver cancer rising, but they point the way to solutions because part of this rise is related to the public health challenge of
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our time. the epidemic of overeating and underexercising, which has crbletted to a 31% to 32% obesity rate in this country, and the increase in hepatitis c infection, which has led to the skyrocketing of liver cancer, potentially a preventable cancer. how about in women, sorry, i'll get there. here we go. in women. women started smoking later, they gave it up later, and so we only have achieved a 13% reduction, but it's good to see that lung cancer curve has turned the corner. and breast cancer, no reduction at all. ntil seven years after screening ma'amography was first suggested. colon cancer, which has been coming down for years. o, we now know, proven, that one of the most effective ways
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to reduce mortality from cancer is prevention. in fact, of the 26% decline that was achieved in this span, between 1990 and 2015, about 83% of the total decline was through prevention. 17% or so due to improvements in treatment. so we cannot realize our full we embrace and implement what is known about prevention. now, if you do all the modeling together, this is the best effort. the interesting, in 1996, we made this goal of 50%. reduction. and the best models that we have indicate that somewhere between 40% and 70%, around 50%, of all cancer deaths can be prevented by fully, by fully implementing what is proven to work. fully implementing. that's a big challenge. one of the reasons we're here. so, the formula's clear. we need to implement the proven
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strategies around tobacco control. clean indoor air, smoke-free campuses, raising the price of tobacco, denormalizing tobacco. and continuing to educate and implement proven public health strategies to promote cessation and reduce uptake. screening, what does it take to increase screening? insurance matters. we publish articles over the past five to 10 yue years showing that people with insurance were more likely to be screened than those without. but that's not sufficient. people also need a regular trusted source of primary care and our distribution of primary care work force is not ideal across the country. so when people see a primary care clinician for preventive care, far more likely to receive screening. we now have another health care-driven proven way to prevent cancers. and that's through h.p.v. vaccination.
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it causes all cervix cancer around the world and about half of head and neck cancers. vaccination rates in this country at or about 50% for all three vaccines for girls, and significantly lower than that for boys. . that's something we can implement here and we have to then d it arn the world where the burden of cervical cancer is so much greater. what are the opportunities we have not taken advantage of? i already mentioned obesity, where we've gone in the wrong direction. just behind tobacco in this country today, overeating, underexercising, leading to obesity. the second leading cause of preventable cancers and we believe with continued progress against tobacco it will become the leading cause in the united states of potentially preventable cancers. we have not taken full advantage of what we know will make a difference in skin cancer
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prevention. we need to do a much better job of implementing lessons from around the world about the right mess messaging in sun protection which doesn't begin and end with putting on lotion. and making sure that we denormalize and restrict access to indoor tanning. so we know what works. the challenge is to implement it to achieve this 50%. but everyone sitting here also knows that -- this is true. the benefits for prevention are not being equally enjoyed. we are seeing that where you live, where you're born, has a traumatic impact on how long you live. cook county, chicago, alone, wealth in ntile of he county, versus lowest quintile, almost 14% difference
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in age at death. so we believe where you live shouldn't determine how long you live. and figuring out how to make these happen is central. so can we achieve this reduction in disparity? addressing the true, what i like to call the true determinants of health, often called the social determinants. when you look at the data, they are the true determinants of health. can we address this just by continuing to message good health and you know the answer. that alone will not be sufficient. that's why there's been such a traumatic movement toward imagining creating healthier places to live. the true healthy, what i call -- and other the movement toward creating healthy communities. but as was said in the introduction, this is not a problem that can be implemented or addressed simply through the health sector. this is an all hands on deck
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challenge. this demands engagement, yes, of the health sector, but it has huge impact on what policies we choose to pursue. both at the local, all three, local, state, and national, federal policies. and it demands engage ofment the private sector, of c.e.o.'s, of large and small businesses. and the policy implications are not confined just within health. there's housing, there's food availability. clean air. they are education because when you look at disparities, the impact of having a college education versus never having grang waited from high school is actually one of the most consistent, reliable, unfortunate predictors of true disparities in health outcome. so this healthy community movement, i think, is an extraordinary opportunity that will define the great challenge for us. you know, when i think about
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disparities and there are so many ways to define them, by color of skin by where you live, by education level, by economics, but in cancer, i would just give you one statistic which maybe summarizing all the challenges we've had in front of us. breast cancer -- mortality. breast cancer mortality, 25, 30, 35 years ago was high for the white women than in black women. and in the post-mammography era, as i showed you, virtually immediately mortality started to decline in white women and has declined every year. but for the first 15 years after that year, mortality went up in black women, bypassed mortality rates in white women and now it is coming down but not as quickly. not as quickly as mortality is declining in white women. so while the good news is, black-white disparities are declining in almost every
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cancer, they're widening every year for black women. and although mortality rates are coming down for black women, they are just as high today as they were 30 to 35 years ago. this is not a simple solution. this is not just biology. this has to do with all the true determinants of health and defines a great goal for us to focus on. so the answer is clear and it's y i'm so grateful to b.p.c., a.c.s. can, for convening us together to talk about this. this statement is proven, that the road to achieving a road with less cancer, to ending the pain and suffering from cancer here and around the world, must include a substantial and sustained focus on prevention. thank you so much for letting me kick us off today. [applause]
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>> thank you so much, dr. wednesdayer. -- dr. wender. and now i'd like to introduce my boss, secretary dan glickman. he's a senior fellow, co-chair of our prevks initiative and co-chair of b.p.c.'s democracy project. he's also on the board of the american cancer society cancer action network and helped bring us together today for this event. thank you so much. i invite you all to come up to the stage now. >> thank you. first of all if you believe i'm lisel's boss you probably ought to be in another room, i want you to know that. dr. wender, thanks for the terrific remarks. it set the stage dramatically. i have the privilege of being part of this organization, which is promoting what i call constructive bipartisanship, not
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nonpartisanship, but ways that republicans and democrats can work together on serious issues and -- in health and disease prevention are one of those areas, we've seen this year, work on the faster cures, 21st century ways to deal with disease prevention. it's one of the areas where ours indeed tend to get along better than other areas which is an porn thing. maybe we could learn some lessons in other areas. then being on the board of the cancer action network, the advocacy arm of the cancer action network, and like most people here i've had family members and close, personal friends afflicted by this disease. it is something that is really critically important and we've learned that we can work together and find common solutions to these problems. so we have, you've all seen these peoples buy yow. we have three of the most
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distinguished health experts in the country right here. right in front of you. so we should be very, very pleased. i think i'm going to ask the first question, which i think dr. wender brought about, and ask each of you to respond. that is this linkage between prevention and preventable risk factors and how to influence not cures and risk but ending of the disease itself. is the link between risk factors and prevention and ways to actually deal with the disease in a way that disposes of in it a positive way. i wonder if you could all comment on this linkage. what realy got to me is his oint, 50% of all cancers are preventable. 50%. that's extraordinary when you
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think about it. so i wonder, we'll start with you, dr. garcia, and go down the list. dr. garcia: my voice is a little raspy today. 60% of the cansers are preventable. so i think when we look at h.p.v. he mentioned that this year is the -- 2015 is the first year ever that more male die from h.p.v.-related cancer than women. we can control that with h.p.v. vaccine. u.v. protection, we are pushing now for protection, bed tanning, my no, sir shouldn't be using bed tanning salons. so tobacco.
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there have been some the crease, but we're seeing increase with the vaporizers and e-cigarettes. so those three are the biggest challenges we have. we control those, the rates will come down significantly. >> i am so pleased we're starting with this concept of prevention and i want to thank dr. wender also for his remarks because they -- i was listening to you thinking that that's -- that could easily be my speech. it's the things on the top of my mind. i would just add in a couple of points. as a physician for a lot of years, taking care of patients who are uninsured, the bigger barrier for them was they didn't have a way to pay for preventive measure, colonoscopy, mammography, or followups that might be necessary. ewe should take a moment, i think, just to recognize that the advances in prevention include the 20 million more
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people now in the last few years who have access to getting the screenings the vaccines, etc., that they need. the work is not done there. we still need to continue to, for example, expand medicaid in many states and those happen to be states on the map that overlap with many of the major risk factors for cancer. so we have important work to do to see that that's not a barrier. i want to pivot to this point about the creating the conditions in which everyone can be healthy, having a healthy community allows for taos really move upstream such that healthy behavioral choices are the easy choice for people to make about lifestyle things such as eating and exercise and physical activity, but also exposure to second hand smoke or smoke or any other of the potential carcinogens. we have made a lot of progress on the front end of giving people access to strong, known preventive measures and we will have more work to do.
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but our big chapter ahead, i think, is seing that we're creating this healthy environment, the conditions in which everyone can be healthy. it will be a shared responsibility. no single sector alone is going to be able to achieve it. there are such great models of how that's working, hopefully we'll get a chance to talk about hat. >> dr. coe, you have an amazing background in oncology and other areas, so your comments on this. >> let me thank, b. -- let me thank b.p.c., and dr. glickman for hosting this. cancer prevention is such a hugely important public health priority. it's very personal to me because as the secretary mentioned, i'm trained and boarded in medical oncology and my public health journey began many years ago when i was caring for a -- caring for patients who i knew could have benefited from cancer prevention. there's so many lives lost where
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prevention could make a difference. and the -- i'm so glad that my good friend dr. wender emphasized that 50% of cancer deaths are preventable. there's a lot of pertinent research you can talk about today. one key study that came out a month ago in general oncology from my harvard colleague looked at some 170,000 nurses and health professionals and looked at their cancer outcomes and found they fell into two group, the low-risk group and high-risk group they feel low-risk group had four features. nonsmokers, not obese, they had no or moderate alcohol intake, and they exercised regularly. and that low-risk group had half the cancer death rate of the high risk group. so that is powerful. and in a time when we're talking about the future of public health or the future of cancer control, if we talk about those four simple measures and make
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that apply to the cancer prevention landscape it could really make a difference for the future. >> so building on that, going back to the same order, dr. garcia, we have we now have the vice president very involved in this moonshot apollo program so to speak to end cancer. and i know you're at m.d. anderson which has a major role in this. but almost everybody in the cancer world is involved in this. i wonder if you might talk about that moonshot program, especially as it relates to cancer prevention. i know that so much is in the world of research and new techniques, immunotherapy and all sorts of new drugs and that of course is extremely critical if you actually have the disease. but if 50% of the cancers are preventable, does the moonshot address that as well?
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>> when we started the moonshot at m.d. anderson, it was 3 1/2 years ago. we have been partnering with the vice president and white house -- we did tity and the moonshot, each one of the fact sheets were sent out as part of general science. each one of them has a prevention and cancer control part, meaning early detection or prevention on cancer. i can tell you one thing we're looking at right now, dr. wender mentioned a little about this, is genetics. we think that if we continue finding cures of cancer, we're we have to target specific population for early detection. they have high risk like howard
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just mentioned. we cannot treat everyone in the nation the same. you saw the map. genetics is extremely important but it's not only that. we are sequencing everybody. that's good. but what about identifying what are the other aspects that will increase that risk? not just your genetic profile but where you live actually might not be having the same screening as the person with a higher risk. we should be targeted specific. we do that with every other industry. and we would be able to help people. i know i'm talking too much. there's an old movie with ethan hawk. that movie change midlife cause that movie, they are brother, one is genetically engineered , he wants to be
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perfect so he can go to mars. so anything that we can empower, using the knowledge that we have, transfer that to our policymakers, health care clinicians and allow everyone to be ethan and be able to go to mars, meaning that that person will actually know how do diminish the chances, not only of dying of cancer but cardiovascular disease and other diseases. we firmly believe in that. we are pushing that in the moonshot. >> as a former chame of the motion picture association of america, i appreciate that mention. it is an important point. the entertainment industry and role models in sports and entertainment can certainly do a lot to deal with this issue of prevention. dr. glickman: especially with younger people. dr. disalvo, do you have any thoughts on that? dr. disalvo: i think the vice
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president say, it's time to muster all our resource the energy around it, across the administration and the private sectoring has been terrific. i think what it's caused everyone to do, across the administration, whether that's d.o.d., v.a., the scientific community, the pretchings of public health and health care groups of us but also, i think, everyone is trying to understand what we can bring to bear to make this a reality. it's an important point about the technology component, about precision medicine which is the president's initiative is broader than cancer, precision medicine work has begun to beg the question about precision public health which is prevention or the targeted prevention angle and i'm excited that many people in the country are starting to consider how we can use big data and analytics to better target prevention not only for people but for communities such that we are really pushing the resources where they need to be most, to
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go upstream, just at the same time we're thinking about the downstream efforts. to your specific question, secretary, prevention and vaccinations are part of the vice president's moonshot initiative, it's going to be important for everyone across government and the private sector to keep an eye on that. it's an every will i way to really make a difference in the lives of so many. dr. glickman: dr. coe, you have been one of the leaders in tobacco cessation. this is kind of your -- one of your specialties, in addition to all the other things you have done. i wonder, talking about prevention but also talk about what else we need to be doing on tobacco cessation which is still, you know, i go to this local c.v.s., they're supposed to be over a certain age, but buying cigarettes. not c.v.s. sorry, sr. sorry. rite-aid, are they ok to mention that?
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>> it's an important point. cvs is not selling cigarettes in their stores. dr. glickman: unlike many of the presidential candidate, i admit my mistakes. but anyway, watching kids buy cigarettes and -- which is, you know, probably the most single preventable way to prevent ancers from happening. dr. coe: there's so many colleagues in the room who have worked on this, i want to -- dr. koh: there's so many colleagues in the room who have worked on this. i want so tingle them -- single them out and talk about it. i'm so glad dr. wender showed those slides. did you notice in 1930, lung cancer was an uncommon disease. and then for men, it became -- lung cancer became the leading cause of cancer death in 1955 and stayed there since then. for women, lung cancer became
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the leading cause of cancer death in 1987, passing breast cancer, and stayed there until now. the only good news is those surfs are going down. the message from those two slides is that lung cancer should be an uncommon disease. not the leading cause of cancer deaths in this country. it's thoroughly preventable. there was an article in the new england journal called tobacco control in the obama era. he analyzes the decline in cigarette consumption in this country which has accelerated under this administration compared to previous years. there's a lot of reasons for that to happen but we can't be satisfied with that. we should not rest until lung cancer is an uncommon cause of cancer death once again. i hope we can all see that in our lifetime. the secretary asked how do we address issues like this with
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respect to the cancer moonshot. in my view work the revolution in life sciences, the emphasis on precision medicine, we have to talk not only about tailored treatments for individuals but also about improving public health and population health for everybody. the blue ribbon panel just came out with recommendations a couple of weeks ago, one of the work groups came out with recommendations. for every major health initiative, life science nitiative, if we can weave the prevention into it i think we'll be a healthier nation in the future. >> i'm going to ask you about an area where i'm not, i don't know what your areas of expertise are, but assuming this dr. -- but assuming that obesity as dr. wender talks about is one of the major causes and obesity is
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caused by a lot of different factor, some may be jeanette ex, some a lot has to do with simply what you put into your mouth. there's a famous french philosopher who once said, you are -- said, you are what you eat. i wonder how much of the work in public health on cancer really is developed into an understanding of food, how food relates to disease, what foods you should eat, what foods somehow shouldn't eat. my own experience is that there is a lack of research, good research, and of course there are a lot of interest groups in this country and in this world who have a vested interest in maintenance of certain eating habits, but how do you see food and the medical community relating to each other in this ssue of obesity?
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dr. garcia: it's an opportunity, the secretary served for six years there. i'm part of an organization, we work internationally, and the groups related to high fructose sugars and things like that we have to work from the political issues. this can be a trade issue but that was a big issue for us. talking about sugar, and restriction of shoe gars and restriction of fats. we have a 're doing, group that work with me and worked with dr. wender in the past, we have this concept that he mentioned that we're introducing in texas, which is about healthy communities and
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vibrant communities, and it is not related only to cancer prevention, it's the entire spectrum of disease and health. because we know the cause of disease, we don't know the value of health. -- the cost of disease but we don't know the value of health. what we're looking for right now is having those communities to be healthy, diet, exercise, not smoking and h.p.v. vaccination and also transfering the knowledge to them. because if the people are educated but the knowledge doesn't come to the community we are missing the boat as well. so i think it's an opportunity to work from the policy perspective, going to tobacco. we've done a lot of research about this as well. 23 kids are smoking before 1, it is seven times more difficult to quit smoking versus someone who starts up later on. so we have to start with our kids we have to start with our families and communities like
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they mentioned before. but i think this is multiagency, multicommunity effort and it cannot be just government working or just the health sector working. it has to be all of us in this oom. dr. glickman: the old adage arrange apple a day keeps the doctor away unless the aple is loaded with pesticides and herbicides and then maybe it's not so clear. one thing i would ask you is, how much does the medical community really understand about food? and what foods are good for you and what foods aren't good for you, what foods may be good cancer preventive things, what foods aren't, is there a knowledge gap in medical schools and other places where maybe medical providers aren't given the kind of information that they need to have to deal with this problem? dr. disalvo: there's a pretty
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established knowledge gap about diet's impact on overall health and a little research i did early in my career actually showed the additional fact that even though clinicians, physicians in this case, don't have training and education in diet they are very confident about their ability to educate their patients which i think mirrors sometimes the way we behave. but since that work has done in the last few years, many medical schools, like tulane in new orleans have instituted curricula that are not only about dietary education but teaching the medical students to cook, like bringing them to a teaching kitchen so they have the manual skills to be able to transfer that to their patients or to their teams and now many other schools are picking this up as well because the deficit isn't just, i'm going to give you a sheet of paper and tell you, but there has to be some understanding for themselves even. because clinicians stims aren't always the best eaters. so i think we're seeing good movement in medical education to
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institute innovative programs that are giving the tools and skills to doctors and others that they need. from a scientific basis, what we just released in the dietary guidelines for americans in partnership with the usda was a broader picture that is really more about your eating patterns and that it has to do with balance, caloric balance but also making sure that you have -- that you're attending to having sufficient fruits and vegetables, proteins that are low in fat, low salt, low sugar. we put some limits around salt and sugar to give broad guidelines to people could tailor it for thems and make recommendations around the mediterranean diet because we know in some areas of the dash diet there's better benefit. it's important also to say as a policy matter what usda, n.i.h. and others do is vlade out a road map for where we have gaps in science. we want to give the best information that's available to people to make good decisions. so there's a policy and a
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scientific and educational agenda that's well underplayed. all of that is wonderful except if you live in a community where you don't have access to healthy foods, or you have to stress eat because of the kinds of public safety challenges that you face, if you don't have the conditions in which the healthy choices is' thesey choice to be elt healthy, that's a significant barrier. broad public policy at the local level, think about smoking as a great example. access to tobacco is not only an individual business sales choice but also you can reduce access to tobacco by making smoke-free throw laws in a community. public health policy like that even at the local level is so critically important and going to address not just smoke bug things like access to healthy reen spaces and healthy foods. mr. glickman: dr. koh you're at one of the most famous public health schools in the country so you're dealing with all these issues. how well are medical professionals trained?
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we talk about obesity but obesity is a combination of factor, including what you eat as well as how you expend your calories and everything else. is this a big part of what your school is trying to do? dr. koh: it's interesting. with respect to the two leading killers in our country, cardiovascular disease and cancer, there's a general understanding by health professionals and the public that cardiovass collar disease, heart disease, is preventable. but then when you ask about cancer prevention, is that preventable, most people don't quite grasp that yet, despite the grow regular search, very, very strong reserge, so i want -- i want the audience direct the audience to two very nice publications from the last couple of month, i.r., the summary on the link between obesity and cancer and their conclusion was essentially that obesity prevention is cancer prevention. if you don't have excess body
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weight, that can reduce the risk for most cancers. that's pretty profound. again, very powerful. and then we have in the audience here, my wonderful colleague, dr. bill deeths, one of the leading researchers in the world. >> he works with us here quite a bit. . koh: he published in gema, stressing the themes of obesity prevention making a difference for not just heart disease but also for cancer, for diabetes and other outcomes. there's some policy ramifications here that we can keep our eye on, especially in this city. so in 2010, the healthy, hunger free kids act was passed which raised nutritional standards for some 22 million low income kids in the school breakfast program and national school lunch program. we need that to be re-authorized. there's a growing emphasis on physical education as part of a reasonable framework for elementary and middle school
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education. so these are all themes that should tie together as we're talking about health in the future. dr. disalvo: just to add, if you think about obesity trends in the country, for young kids, ages 2 to 5, rates are beginning to decline, which is an encouraging sign and reflective of probably a variety of things. it could be personal choice but it's also reflective of some of the ways that we've been directing systematically the kinds of foods that are available to kids in head start environment or in the school environment and when you see kinds of policy actions that -- at major cities -- that major cities like new york city take, and now it's happening aos the country, we can do so much from a policy standpoint by making healthy food available to kids in places like the school setting or the day care setting because that's where they're going to get a lot of calories every day and those sorts of changes and reductions in sugar and fat and increases in healthy
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fruteses and vegetables will make a big difference early in their life that seems to be sustain if you get the healthy eating behaviors early, it's sustained. there's some good news in all the bad news. it's reflective of big changes we're trying to make at the plcy -- policy level and curriculum and institutional level. >> i'm going to ask all of you to follow up on this question, maybe harder for you, dr. disalvo because you're still a federal employee. dr. disalvo: that's correct. when i walked in, i was. mr. glickman: if you were a leading policy official in congress, not in the keck executive branch, what would your recommendations be to congress in the future in terms of how fwoast deal with the issues of cancer prevention? i mean you mentioned one, the healthy hunger-free kids act, and re-authorization, dr. koh. if you're sitting around with
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your list of things, what ought we to be doing as a society especially what should the levels of government be doing to encourage better prevention? give me, each of you give me your thoughts on this. dr. koh: the national vial connection -- vital connections came out on monday. in the future, we in the health world have to join forces with those outside of health and -- in housing and transportation and education. and talk about health and all policies. one of the recommendations from vital directions twows make that more explicit for the future. i think it's collaborations like that and also integration of the prevention and healthy well being themes into all future health discussions is key. traditionally we talk about treatment over here, we talk about prevention over here. we talk about individual
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treatments over here. we talk about population health over here. got to be put together. i'd have -- i've had the honor of writing about this recently and i think in the discussion on system redesign that's going on in the era of health reform prevention and healthy outcomes and good well being should be part of the things we're measuring as we try to make our country healthier for the future. mr. glickman: dr. disalvo? and i promise to protect you. dr. disalvo: i might be back in new orleans sooner than i thought. speaking of challenges around healthy food. we are making progress in new orleans. that's a great example of how a community has been working to create a culture of health. as we looked at upstream causes of poor health in our community the community said it's really, it's really cardiovascular disease is a killer but let's
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think about why it is we're getting there and obesity was the major risk factor, so is tobacco. to give you a couple of example there is, that city has been systematically working across fashion to make sure we have green spaces and the community is smoke free by law soosm they have been taking action that is about environmental and systems an policy level change and we have been calling that public health 3.0 type work. which is really what i think is the next future and the kinds of actions that the next administration, but not even just the administration or the congress, it's really all of us in the private sector as well are going to have to take, to work together in a way that we're going to create healthy conditions. that's going to require a back bone a champion, a chief health strategist on the front lines and my viewen that is the natural leader in that kind of work is the local public health agency, whether that's municipal
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or state or federal, they have an accountability to every in the community and can bring together partners from health care and transportation, house, all the employers, state-based and civic society to have a shared vision about we want to go smoke free or have health foods in schools for kids. the communities that are doing that are showing us that they are indeed making progress on not only health outcome bus also the input in prevention. so what i hopefully will see more of and you're seeing some signals from us as an administration is the willingness and ability to include thinking about the true determinants or the social determinants in ways that we're funding care delivery but more importantly building up strength and partnerships for those other sectors that have such a key role to play in seing that we can achieve true health for veryone. dr. garcia: i'm going to give u an example that represents
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and echoes what my distinguished friend just said. we created an initiative called formerger together and a member of the c.i.a. joined us as well, they were working from the i.t. perspective all the way to the policy perspective to bring together an initiative to review infant mortality in the district of columbia when i was director of health. ery successful campaign. so we created laws here in the district so every pregnant woman ways to get ess to to their appointments. but patients were not showing up. so how if we pass a law, they have fry access to care, they have access to care, why are they not there? because the regulation prohibited drivers to pick up a mom if she has a stroller with a
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baby. so we were very smart but not smart enough. because we never asked the patients, we never asked the community what they needed. then the other question, why the taxis are not picking them up? after 5:00 p.m., they don't pick anyone up in ward 7 or 8. ut during the day they pick up pregnant women in ward 7 and 8. that's why you can have the best intention and best policy but we have to work for health for all. it cannot be in a vacuum. it cannot be in one part of washington, d.c. it has to start with wards 7 and 8, has to go to new orleans, has to go to puerto rico, has to go to the southside of boston and ask them what they need, what they perceive as their need. then match that with the science. that's when you create real policy that creates real change. so we can start thinking as much as we wavent, i think we're pretty cool people here.
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the secretaries here. but i think we have to reach everybody so everybody has health for all. with them, not for them. it should not be imposed from above. it should come from the ground up. >> i think your point about local health authorities being such a critical part of this is important. mr. glickman: i notice now if you watch a lot of television like i to, so many of the ads are drug ads and pharmaceutical ads. in addition to that, there's this one, and even in terms of print ads, even your center is advertising, as are most of the cancer centers in the united states. so there's a lot of competition out there for our patients. one center even talks about holistic care. cancer center treatment of america. i don't know anything about any of these organizations. but in terms of -- if somebody
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actually has the disease, what can we do to ensure that the dispensers of care actually provide holistic karin colluding -- holistic care including that they work in complementary fashion with traditional care fwiven to patients. that seems to me also an important part of the issue. >> i'm very proud of working for m.d. anderson. but one thing i learned right away is that we break the silence there and everyone, it's , a cack can keep an airplane from taking off if they know something's wrong. it's a holist exapproach.
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from nutritionists to henlmelt people. the challenge we have is 27% of the people who show up in our doors have the wrong diagnosis. some of them don't even have cancer. i believe one of my senior members of my staff, she has a actually had a hip replacement because he had no sarcoma. so our challenge right now is we have multiple centers look you now. we want to transfer our knowledge to level of the knowledge of all our partners. biden said it the best. one of the biggest politics that's challenging our nation is the cancer politics. we have to demock rahtize the data, share the -- democratize
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the data, we have to share the knowledge from one cancer center to another cancer center. we shouldn't be competing, we should be aligning ourselves. the moonshot is to discover within three years what you can o in 15. i think agriculture did it well when they learned that you have to let the grass grow six inches to feed cows because it grows faster, everyone spread the news right away. in cancer we have to wait until everybody publishes before you share the knowledge with someone else. new england has been pushing, the new england journal of medicine has been pushing for democratizing the data. carrie cant do it by herself. we have to work with constitutions -- institutions and share that knowledge. i think it is a great -- i think this is a great opportunity in time, the same way kennedy anouned the moonshot when he was at rice university, we celebrate a couple of weeks in houston, with the vice president and
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secretary baker. i think it's a great opportunity to break the silence this break these marble towers called cancer centers and make them work with a.c.s. and the center here and many other institutions. it's a will the of knowledge. this week i have spent most of my time with d.o.d. d.o.d. should be our greatest partner. we're talking about apoll he, about davinci, the moonshots. this is a great opportunity in time. everybody has to get involved. don't let the policymakers just think about how smart we are. mr. glickman: coming from experience in the land grant college field, i do know there's often a fair amount of ompetition between centers for -- for funding and -- disalvo: funding and glrry.
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i know that as part of the promotion possess. we've built that into the culture. i want to focus on the person with cancer for a moment. since you raised that question, secretary. if we were sitting here five having this conversation, we would be thinking about a world in which people had -- were forced to carry suitcases full of paper from one cancer center to the other and wouldn't have a way h conversation, we would be to integrate their data. unfortunately that's still happening in many places, but not all places because of the dramatic evolution of electronic health records. we've gone from some 15% of health institutions using electronic health records to now essentially all. every hospital in the country essentially has a digital footprint of someone's care. this mountain of digital data which is the patient's to access and use and carry with them, it is their right an they should be demanding that, to have it a digital footprint of their care, is a tremendous resource, not only to serve them better, to
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make certain they're getting the right treatment at the right time, but also to see that if they want, they can donate that data to the broader scientific agenda to help find cures. and when you talk to patient, when you do surveys, we hear that is what they want. they want the opportunity not only to have information available to help heal and cure themselves, but they want to be able to donate it for the better public good. and this data donation effort has been a policy effort, we've been supporting at h.h.s. to see that we can create the right private and secure doorways to the data so data donation can happen so research cent verse the opportunity to get information that can help solve big challenges so we can use it if precision medicine and the cancer moonshot. but that wouldn't have been here a few years ago so we all need to recognize that the reason that the vice president, for example, can call a cancer moonshot is because we're building it on the foundation of something that not only has been
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done in the scientific community but the health care community but that consumers can control, they can be part of the solution in a new and very exciting way. i want that message to be loud and clear for folk, that it's their right and we want to encourage that. mr. glickman: i would add one other thing. even though food is viewed as a primitive thing and i -- research into the kinds of foods that are consumed and whether they have any impact on cancer prevention or cancer formation should also be part of that. as much as possible. dr. disalvo: i was just talking about the health care record data, the movement and change that's happening in the country is that people want a full picture of their health, not just their health care. and so whether it's environmental exposure data because they can geocode location or healthy habits or dietary habit that increasingly is what we need to see to understand how they got to a place of having cancer or how
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they got to a place of cure. dr. koh: i'd like to amplify karen's last points here. i'd like to point out, this is a critical time to talk about themes for health for the future and some of us need health care some of the time, but all of us need health and well being all the time. so i am hoping that in the future we continue to talk about patient-centered care, that's been a tremendous advance, but also talk about person-centered care. that brings wellness and prevention themes into discussion. also, population centered care. we are a country that's growing rapidly diverse by the day and many of you may know the projections that by 2043 we'll be a majority minority country. i'm the son of korean immigrants so i'm very, very sensitive to those issues and we can talk about diversity not just by race and ethnicity but also sexual
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orientations, devil of disability, geography, income and other dimensions. so we need help to care for all populations throughout the life, talk about health and well being, not just about health care and i'm hoping that those are some of the themes we can start integrating as we move the discussion forward. mr. glickman: i think we're going to go to q & a now and i would ask you if possible, don't give us a summary of the constitution when you ask a question. if you could state your name and can your question and your affiliation and ask your question as quickly as possible. ack there, this gentleman. >> i'm mike miller, senior health and life science advisor, my question is what do you think the role is for behavioral economics in addressing social depermnants -- determinants of health to prevent cancer outside
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tobacco because it's been used o much in tobacco. dr. garcia: let me start with that. we already have data and research, people are wanting change, so i think we should do much more research about that. but i think it goes back to the behavioral health of the community, not only the individual. when a person is diagnosed with cancer, it affects the entire family, affects the entire community. so i welcome that question. i think there should be more like to get i will information from the others. dr. disalvo: we are still struggling with that in health care, much less the broader prevention agenda. one caution would be that we wouldn't want to place too much of the focus on an individual's
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choices and behaviors though that is part of the equation. there's a bar of context in which they're making those choices and behaviors and we certainly know that in the public health world and the -- to me, the bigger strategy that we can take that create these healthy environments, and i don't just mean having a nice leafy green vegetable at the grocery store but truly having public safety, education opportunities, all the determinants, those seem to be the communities where there's underlying strong structure that overall the gaps in and disparities in life expectancy are reducing and people are having healthier lives. there's a great example from stanford about how community more than behaviors seem to dictate life expectancy and gaps in life expectancy. dr. koh: it's an area of fascinating research. we look forward to more studies. i think from a broad perspective, the question is, this can perhaps help
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individuals at some level, what's the broadest impact of behavioral economics on health? i think that's an unanswered question. i think the research endovers ongoing are fascinating. dr. disalvo: i'm really violating the rules, aren't i? but there's a broader way to look at this if you think about the world of social impact, the behavioral economic os they have whole system, not the individual. how do you bring the business community, health care, public health, the rest of the parts of the civic society today to encourage them to invest upstream instead of just investing downstream in health care, how do we create that loop that there is an opportunity for reinvestment and reward et properly? that's something we've been talking -- thinking about at h.h.s. as we take our care payment levers to find a way to invest those upstream. >> there's a gentleman here in the orange tie. >> thank you, my name is jay
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sweeney, i represent the international health racquet and sports club. we've been working just to build on that question, but kind of a very important question, we've been working hard to promote tax incentives for exercise to lower the cost of physical activity. one of the things we found from a policy perspective is when we go to the hill and start talking about this, and say, oh it costs too much to do something like that. i want to get your sense, what kind of timeline are we looking for to show the return on investment and real data. we all know intuitively as we increase healthier lifestyles an lower disease cost, we're going to lower health care costs and reap a tremendous return. i want to get your sense of where we are in that, it's a real problem for policy perspective. >> you did it yesterday, get going. i'm teasing. not really. here's something i would say that i sense from the business community in the last three years in particular that i've been pay manager attention is that they have evolved, i'm not
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speaking for them but i'm just reflecting what i've heard from the business community, employers, is that they saw good progress in bening the cost curve for their employees, through a variety of mechanisms, encouraging prevention and screening, even some inklings that maybe there are some wellness programs that may work but they realized there was much more to health than their health care benefits package and what they did in the workplace that there was a context in which people were going home and living and there was a set of family influences and cultural influences. so they're increasingly wanting to be part of the broader community health conferring. we're seeing this in places like nashville, where nashville health led by bill frist and the chamber of commerce is bringing the health care sector and public employers together to bring about policies that might make a difference in their community that may be unusual. so everyone is feeling a sense of urgency because not only because of the cost but increasingly because of some of the data that was reflected
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earlier that we're beginning to see some plateauing of life expectancy in the u.s. and some of the gaps are beginning to widen for some -- some populations that didn't have that before. >> one thing we faced in connecticut when companies tried to incentivize good behavior, the people that were going to gyms, doing the exercise, were the people that least needed it. the people that needed it most did not have access to transportation or time off to be able to do that. so if we're going to do that, we have to balance everything because otherwise you create more health disparities. that's policy issue. >> it's interest, the b.p.c. spends a lot of time and effort on health care cost generically and of course when you look at the federal budget and you look at those aspects of why the deficit is gring so rapidly,
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health care costs, i think, become the fastest growing part on the expenditure side in large part due to chronic disease. so this is not only an individualized issue, this is a massive macro tax issue affecting the public as a whole as well. this lady right here. we have a mic here for you. >> thank you, mr. glickman. tanna and i share with dr. koh parents whorn not born in the u.s.a. war bridewas a korean , my brother was born in japan. so fusion cuisine, i think my mother invebted it. because we know now that obesity is a major contributor of cancer, and many, many children
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spend days in school and school time is constantly being monitored as being excessive in cost, we do need to look at the fact that school lunch time ought to be considered as lab time. the teachers are not to be involved, they need their break, but the school lunch time lab time could incorporate a tiny bit of exercise and nutrition to completely and totally, there's peer pressure and sharing and it's just, the whole big picture is related to quality of life. thank you. i could go on but i don't want to -- >> do you all agree with her comments? >> yes. >> let's see this lady right here. i'll try to get to everybody if
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we keep the questions short. >> thank you, i'm selena from ping rib been-red women. we focus on women's cansers in developing countries. i was wondering if you could talk about opportunities in subsaharan africa. >> i want to congratulate you guys. i was supposed to be with you in congress, but any of voice. that was supposed to be wednesday. they're doing an amazing job related to breast and cervical cansers in subsaharan africa. project echo, led by dr. ellen baker, actually worked now in our office. that's a challenge that we also have to realize. it's not only about the united states. it's about the world. canser is a global issue. i was just spending time with ted trimby talking about how
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we're going to be dealing with eastern europe, central europe, subsaharan africa. cervical canser is an issue there, breast canser is an issue there because of the lack of human resources. they don't have the time to check the pap smear. that's one challenge. the other challenge is we have been so successful with h.i.v. now that the women now are not diing from h.i.v., but diing from cervical cancer in their 30's and 40's. so i think that everyone should be paying attention to the foundations that are working there. one challenge that i have seen, and i pledge that we're going to be helping that from our own institution, is we are catalogging with nci right now, one of the things that ted trimby was discussing how we can do this, find out how many universities are in that town, or in a city, in africa and what we are doing, so we can amplify
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the work instead of creating all these things we have here, if we do that we'll be able to succeed in the work that's being done in africa. but please, everyone in this room, look at that data, look at the information, look at what they're doing, look at what a.c.s. is doing, look at what n.c.i. is doing, there is a lot of need, when you look at the rates when we die here, 20 years younger, 30 years younger for women in africa and that's a crime. honestly. we have the resources, we have the knowledge, we have telemedicine. but it cannot be new mexico and m.d. anderson or vanderbilt, it as to be all of us together. >> we're very fortunate in the united states that we have cancer death rates dropping, as dr. weekender pointed out, some 25% in the last 25 years. but globally it's a different story. we make progress in highly
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developed countries like the u.s., but in low and middle income countries around the world, the cancer issues are getting worse. mr. koh: there's some eight million cancer deaths around the world. that emergency is projected to go up to some 13 million by 030. we should work with global partners. of course each country is different, has a different culture and a different political system. this is truly a worldwide ffort going forward. questioner: redstone center, george washington university. thank you for this panel. my question is about meat consumption, which is a significant contributor to cancer. a nice paper -- >> the cattlemen are outside. questioner: i'm not sure who should answer this question. we know that there's a direct
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route of meat consumption to colon cancer and an indirect route mediated by obesity. the dietary guidelines called for a reduction in meat consumption and based this argument on the increased sustainability of the food supply. because meat production is a major source of methane. so, increased climate change. yet meat is also a valuable source of protein and iron in the american diet. so what's the policy strategy to reduce meat consumption, thereby reducing methane production, thereby inpro-- improving cancer rates and reducing climate change? >> that's a very easy policy question to answer. i'm going to ask dr. kom maybe as public health specialist if he has any thoughts on this. mr. koh: as you mentioned, the dietary guidelines just released, i think started to address that anyway. and there is increasing
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emphasis on fruit, vegetable consumption and balanced diets, mediterranean diets that address that issue, either directly or indirectly. i think in terms of getting the message out and having people have a more balanced diet is really a hugely important issue or the future. i'm not sure there's an easy answer for you right now. but it is an issue that's been raised and flagged and directly addressed in the 2015 dietary guidelines and also been addressed more explicitly by w.h.o. and international roups. >> usda and h.h.s. backed off. which is why i didn't think i would direct this question to karen as much. [laughter] >> we have to also realize the
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reality of why some of the people are eating the meat. first of all, i'm a dairy farmer. i have to put it out there. processed meat has an even bigger issue than actually real meat. but the other issue is when ask you, and this happened here, when we did a survey here in the district of columbia into why people will go to the giant and people will go -- poor people. the first thing they will do was buy meat. the answer was, they were -- they never had meat when they were kids because they were poor. they really wanted to give that to their kids. the other thing is, go to a supermarket, see an elderly person buying cat food. it's not for the cats. they don't have cats. it's not only about the macro picture of what we have to do. we have to start with our communities. it's a big issue in terms of
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disparities, access to good food. before we go with the policy, let's find out how we can help these people to change their habits. as a dairy farmer i probably eat red meat once a month. i eat chicken or fish. it was a big cultural change for me. for breakfast i used to have a porter house. fresh porter house. with 32 ounces of milk. that's breakfast in a dairy farm. plus eggs. so i think we have to -- >> and cheese and salt. >> i'm lack toes intolerant now -- lactose intolerant now. [laughter] >> bill's point about in the dietary guidelines, for americans we recommended reducing meat intake, especially for groups who have a dietary pattern that's high. for young and young men, i think it's an important message, that has been discussed. a lot of men go to meat first and we want to recommend it.
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we link that to we the federal government, to some of our freshmans -- programs, so where we can, like in meals on wheels, for seniors, like in school feeding programs or head start programs, link those guidelines to the ways that we're paying for and providing food in those programs. so that's one mechanism that we use to try to drive down sugar consumption, salt consumption, etc. i think the other piece about the decisions about consumption flags for me important local policy issues. the whole conversation we've been having about the share of responsibility at all levels of government and by society, you look at actions that communities like new york city take, where they have been leaning forward about portion size and calorie displays and using every bell and whistle and flag they can to get the community to understand, to change their culture, to change their choices when they're standing there, or reading off of a menu or in the store. that has to compliment policy
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and scientific recommendations so that we can give everybody, again, sort of information they need to make the choice, but also make the choices available that are the right, healthy ones. >> i understand as a policy issue, it's more political than it is medical. half the proceeds of american agriculture are in livestock. 50%. so when you add fruit, vegetables, row crops, everything else, 50% is in livestock. this is a huge, just think about the monumental sociological impact of livestock as part of this diet. in addition to that, a huge part of crop growth is to feed those animals. there is no question that we've created an environment in this country, in large part because of our affluence, where people have wanted meat. plus it tastes good. they've learned that the taste is very good. and this is a growing trend worldwide. not so much with cattle. but with poultry and with hogs,
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where you see in china, massive growth of meat consumption. but -- so that's -- that leads to the political aspects, as you can imagine, on capitol hill. effects school meals programs and everything else. without getting into what's right or what's wrong. what is missing from this is the relationship between the health community and the agriculture communities. on discussing these issues. the only real confluence is in the dietary guidelines. which usda works cooperatively with h.h.s. so i've been at meetings on food and agriculture where there are virtually no medical people in the room and vice versa. so it's no -- it's not rocket science to understand if people aren't talking to each other about these issues, then people get kind of stuck in their own ways of thinking and they don't realize that these are in fact the political aspects are
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complicated. we have to do that much more han we have in the past. >> we do work very cooperatively, certainly since i've been there. i don't know if this was started under howard's tenure on developing a research agenda. we have -- we, h.h.s., through my office, and usda, have a shared work group that's interagency. we are working on going further upstream on the scientific agenda that needs to be developed. and in some cases are looking, as we've published in that research agenda at climate impacts and food sustainability, to try to understand that better and build a scientific agenda. we need to work together. the usda through h.h.s. i want to give people a sense that we recognize that there needed to be more conversation
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and we've created a structure of ways to be able to do that. mr. glickman: i also think the medical community themselves, that's just not physicians, but everybody else, needs to be involved in this discussion. particularly as they relate to their patients. their customers. i suspect that's a very small part of the dialogue that goes along when people actually go to see their physician or health care provider. mr. garcia: one thing related to nutrition. we are now getting a lot of return in terms of the microfloora of the bowel. we have some relationship with mel noema. when you keep looking at that research, as we progress in that research, that's also going to change how we're going to look at nutrition. mr. glickman: let's see. there's this lady right here. try to get a couple more, if you can ask your questions. in fact, we have about five minutes. so we'll get you and you had a question and you had a question. we'll get you three and then we'll answer all three of them.
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questioner: my name is donna. i'm with the nursing society. i'm also a nurse manage who are has been managing oncology units and at the bedside for 30 years in the united states and canada. we talk about smoking cessation and how it relates to lung cancer. but i want to know what your thoughts are on the e-cigarettes and vapors. mr. glickman: e-cigarettes and vapors. this gentleman right here with his hand up. questioner: you've each acknowledged the importance of local health authority or the local governmental public health department on the agendas that you have been talking about. can you describe the ways in which more might be engaged in the initiatives that you've talked about? mr. glickman: ok. and then last questions, lady over -- with her hand up -- yes, see her?
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left. yes. right there. ok. questioner: hi, thank you for the great organization that you put together. i just give you a quick background about myself. and cancer. about a year ago i became cancer diagnosed, stage four, pancreatic reas and liver -- pancreas and liver. i was very healthy, eating right, athletic. all the things you menged. it was a very big shot. what i became aware of was eating. g.m.o., non-g.m.o., grass-fed. i became familiar with acupuncture, constitution, not all the people can eat the same thing. i combined eastern medicine and western medicine. i only had three to four months, but it's been more than a year that i'm alive. chemo and n.i.h. i've done all the research, viral therapy, immunotherapy. i think it's more about eating
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and educating all the people and doctors, physicians, tell the people about what they should eat. i mean, i was never aware of g.m.o., non-g.m.o., grass-fed, all these things. i wanted to get your input about how can we get people aware bf all this and bring the cost down? because it is very expensive. ot that many people can afford non-g.m.o.'s, organic. thank you. mr. glickman: those three questions. i don't know if you want to try -- ms. desalvo: i'll take that one. former c.e.o. of the national association for city and county health officers, officials, and former local health officer also asked a question about how to get public health agencies more engaged. this work that i described earlier, public health 3.0, has been a strategic effort to put a frame around the modernization, the evolution of local public health, it's
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transforming itself on the front lines, just like health care has been and science has been, to really meet the neet kneads that are more about the -- meet the needs that are about the broader determine nanlts of health while doing its everyday important work. the exciting pioneering work. the been done largely without a playbook. in about a week and a half's time, we're going to produce a report that's going to talk about what are the five key areas and what we seeing as success and what can the federal government, states and other sectors do to really help support local agencies as they try to support local health and partnership with others? one really important take-away that -- this is about doing the work they do now well. so that is not to be left behind. however, it does require some change in the way that local public health officials, leaders and agencies are doing their work. they have to reach out of their traditional walls and develop new partnerships that take resources and time and if you're not paying attention to what's been happening through your local public health infrastructure in this country, you ought to. because it's been increasingly,
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dramatically underfunded over the course of the last decade. hit very hard by the great recession and being buffeted by the good things we're doing with the affordable care act, it's changing their business model and their role and place and they're working to lift themselves up, but from a policy standpoint, the risk that we're in as a country by not having a strong local public health infrastructure, i think we hear about every day, so i hope that they're going to continue to step up. we want to be helpful. mr. glickman: e-cigarette issue. dr. koh? [laughter] i don't mean to push it on you. mr. koh: that's one of the most cutting-edge controversies right now in tobacco control and public health. it's very much a double-edged sword on -- sword. on one hand this could be a very valuable smoking cessation tool and a form of harm reduction and if that pans out with the evidence in future studies, that would be very exciting. on the other side, we have now a new source of potential nicotine addiction, particularly for kids, and the
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use by kids has jumped 10-fold in the last five years. the f.d.a. has just put out regulations for this. that doesn't impact advertising, for example. so we need much more research to determine its ultimate place in tobacco control and public health. until we get that definitive information, these controversies are going to go on. for those of who you are following what's happening worldwide, the united kingdom is much more, in terms of thinking of this as a valuable harm reduction tool, so that's -- if you're favoring that point of view, that's a fascinating point of view. i'm just trying to be as balanced as i can. i think in sum, we have to follow this closely and demand the best research. because this could really impact millions of people in the future. mr. glickman: our last question, which i'm glad, we ended with a patient. so maybe you'd like to, first of all, you look great. i hope that it continues for a long time.
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[applause] mr. garcia: my heart is with you right now. my prayers will be with you. i actually think that, we scullsed this in terms of lack of data and we need to do more research. but i agree with you, i think hourds mentioned it before. and karen. in terms of nutrition, we're putting calorie intake, high fruke tas: toes and all these -- high fruke toes and all these things -- fructose and all these things. we have to know more about the ingredients and how they were created and give that information to the public. give that information to the local health departments and the policymakers. i think it's going to take some years. honestly, i think all of the people here, it's about the patient. like howard mentioned before. having you here, being a brave woman, telling the world that you're going through pancreatic cancer, give me more energy to
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find out orking and to be able to save people like you. god bless you. mr. glickman: ok, well. we thank you. this has been a great presentation. let's give a hand to our three experts who did a wonderful job. [applause] our keynote speaker. i just want to close with this one thing. you know, again, a little bit of a plug for the bipartisan policy center. our job here is to try to bring people together, to try to see if there are public policy solutions that we can successfully work across party lines. in a bipartisan way to get things done. i think the area of health research, prevention of disease , something that affects everybody, has nothing to do with what political party you are a member of. we're going to continue our efforts in this regard. and again i want to thank everybody for joining us today.
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appreciate it. [applause] [captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit ncicap.org] [captions copyright national able satellite corp. 2016] >> later today, a munk debate from toronto on the 2016 presidential elections. specifically on whether or not donald trump can make america great again. arguing for the resolution, former house speaker newt gingrich and syndicated talk show host laura ingram. arguing against the motion, former labor secretary and former michigan governor. you can watch them on debate live tonight at 7:00 p.m. eastern on c-span2. also tonight, we'll re-air saturday's dedication of the african-american history and culture museum on the national mall. we'll hear remarks from president obama and museum director.
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those who attended the dedication include michelle obama, former president, george w. bush, and his wife, laura, and congressman john lewis. you can watch the dedication ceremony tonight at 8:00 p.m. astern here on c-span. >> c-span's "washington journal" live every day with news and policy issues that impact you. coming up saturday morning -- >> what makes movies or stories about people and -- in crisis
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or in a crisis and the crisis either changes them or changes everybody else, and if you don't show conflict and if you don't show flaws and if you don't show someone growing out of their flaws or something like that, you're seeing something that you can't really connect to and it doesn't quite have the same impact. >> sun night on q&a, john podhoretz, editor of "commentary" maggeds and movie reviewer talks about the movies he's reviewed, ranging from "lincoln," "spotlight," to "straight outta compton." >> the movie itself, as a kind of classic -- an update of the classic showbiz story about how the band got together and recorded its big hits, was pretty strikingly, you know, effective. >> sunday night at 8:00 eastern on c-span's q ands a. -- q&a. for the next 90 minutes, an american history tv exclusive.
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our cities tour visits grand rapids, michigan, to learn about its unique history. for five years now, we've traveled to cities across the u.s. to explore their literary and historic sites. you can watch more of our visits at cspan.org/citiestour. >> the name it was given was la grande vitesse. he was living in france so he named his pieces in french. it really means the grand rapids. he recreated the rapids. the town had rapids in its river. that's what that represents. when you walk around it, you'll see how it looks like the water is just undulating and roaring up and cascading down and it has tremendous energy and it changes every step you take. it's never the same. alexander calder was an
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american artist. he was born in 1898. he was the son and the grandson of scupters. his grandfather, they were all named alexander calder, and his grandfather created the statue of william penn on top of the philadelphia city hall. calder invented mobiles. he added the idea of movement to sculpture. the first person that had ever done that. so he created a new art form. and it was very interesting that he added time and space to sculpture before mangan to explore time and space. two months after we dedicated the calder in 1969, neil armstrong walked on the moon. kind of fitting. lindsen john was the president in -- lyndon johnson was the president in office when the national undowment for the arts and the humanities were created. and congress approved the initial funding. but they were very new and
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breaking new ground all the time. the art in public places program had been started by a three-person committee at the endowment. what they wanted to do was make it possible for american cities to commission an original work of art for that city. and they said, this is the seed money, we'll give you 45ds,000. you have to match it. and anything else you need. i was active with the art museum at that time. they were going to have an exhibit of american painting and sculpture and the man who was responsible for accumulating that collection, was a man named henry. he worked at the metropolitan museum in new york and i asked him to come to grand rapidded and lecture. when he came to grand rapids, i picked him up and brought him for a little tour of the city. we were in the middle of urban renewal at the time and this place was a hole in the ground. i said, this is where the new
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city hall and county building are going to be. well, he said, we should have a piece of sculpture there. and i said, that's a great idea. how do i do that? he said, you write to your congressman. our congressman at the time was gerald ford. i wrote him a letter from the kitchen counter, dear congressman ford, i found out that there's going to be money sculptures le for in cities in america. can you help me get some of that money for grand rapids? the next thing i knew, the phone rang and it was roger stevens, the chairman of the national endowment for the arts at the time, he said, i just had a call from your congressman. apparently you'd like to have a piece of art in your city. i think there's a very good idea that that can happen. let's meet in chicago. so we had to apply for the grant, the city and the county had to fill out an official grant application, send it on to washington, then the council
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reviewed it and voted on whether to give the city of grand rapids the money or not. we were the first city to ever receive a grant from the endowment, to be used specifically to commission an original work of art for a specific civic site. we put together a panel of people who would select the artist. there was really only one person considered, that was alexander calder. because he was and continues to be, in my opinion, the preeminent sculpture of the 20th century. this object was created for grand rapids, for this particular plaza. it had -- was not sitting on a shelf someplace. it wasn't picked up orpiked out by us. -- or picked out by us. we met him in december of that year, 1967. and we had the architectural model of the plaza and the building, so he saw it, he knew where he wanted it, and whatever he wanted, by golly,
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he was going to get it. because he knew best. then he went to his foundry in france where he had people who had done large pieces with calder before. and they enlarged the small pieces and created the gussets and the braces that put it together. they had to take it all apart and put it in 10 huge wooden crates and they were brought on a boat from brussels and then by truck from detroit, came here and the pieces that were aid out in 27 sections, by steel workers, and they had a huge crane. it took them three days to put it together. another three days to do all of the welding. then we painted it calder red. and then we dedicated it. >> it gives me real pleasure to welcome all of youed to dedication of la grande
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vitesse. translated it means the great swiftness. it means the grand rapids. >> it was dedicated june 14, 1969. >> this is a great occasion for rand rapids. it's a great occasion not only because of the deal by alexander calder, because it's truly monumental. as i understand it, the largest calder in the western hemisphere. it's a dramatic and significant moment in the life of our community, because it illuminates our city, in the eyes of each and every one of us, even though some of us are not as expert or knowledgeable as many others in these particular fields. >> one of my favorite stories about it was, i was down here on a sunday morning and people
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were always coming after church to see the calder. and there was a grandfather with his little granddaughter and they were walking around and he was kicking at it with his -- the toe of his shoe. like it was the tire of a car. and he said, well, i could have done that. and his granddaughter looked up at him and said, why didn't you, grandpa? he couldn't answer that. many have said it's the best large piece he's done. i think they could be right. it brought a lot of positive attention to the endowment. we were on the front page of the "new york times" the day of the dedication or day after. we'd been featured in tons and tons of books and articles and it's always positive. locally this was an artist that not everybody knew about. his object was going to be abstract. it wasn't going to be a man on a horse. or somebody's dog. it was something that you had to take to your heart and then
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react to it. there were people that wanted a man on a horse. but that wasn't what calder did. so there was some controversy at first. but over the years, it's been 47 years now, people have grown to really love it. everything in town either starts at the calder, finishes at the calder, i'll meet you at the calder, the buses go around the calder, i mean it's just -- it is the heart of this community. >> we're at the gerald r. ford presidential museum in grand rapids, michigan, and we're in our new exhibits. the exhibits opened just a few eks ago and it's a brand new exhibit on gerald ford, his life and his times.
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that took about six months to complete. the museum spaces are broken down into his -- what we call his foundation years, his youth, we move into his congressional period, 25 years in congress, and then into his presidential and postpresidential experience. so in the first gallery, we feature his foundational years. gerald ford grew up in grand rapids, michigan, but he wasn't born in grand rapids, michigan. he was born in omaha, nebraska. his mother had married a usinessman in omaha by the name of leslie lynch king. so she was dorothy king. they had a child in july of 1913. they named leslie lynch king jr. he's the person we know as gerald ford. in this case we have his kristening gown and a few other things -- christianing gown and
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a few other things of interest. one of the things that we feature at this case is his baby book. a lot of mothers keep books on their children, even today, and dorothy was no exception back in 1913. she began keeping a book on the baby's experience. we can't present the real thing, but what we present is a duplicate of it in flip form. some of the things that you see in here, the first picture of dorothy with the baby. he was born in a house in omaha, nebraska, in his grandfather's house, charles henry king's house. some of the other interesting features about it is that she records baby's first outings. the very first entry is tax i cab ride. and -- taxi cab ride. it occurred two weeks after his birth. and that was when dorothy king was fleeing leslie lynch king. leslie lynch king proved to be
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very abusive husband. that abuse began really on the wedding day, through the honeymoon, and extended into the time of her pregnancy. as soon as she recovered her strength after the birth of the child, she secreted him into a taxi cab and drove them over to down is -- council bluffs, iowa, where she records the next entry which is baby's first train ride. she puts him on a train and takes him to chicago, where her parents lived, just outside of chicago, in harvard, illinois. so she has fled her husband, her husband files suit for abandonment, for divorce on grounds of abandonment. and then she countersues on grounds for abuse. the judge decides in her favor. this is 649 union arc house that still exists in grand rapids and that's the home of his youth.
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dorothy brought junior to grand rapids because her parents were developing real estate in the area, along with another partner of her father's. here she met a paint salesman y the name of gerald ford. by february, 1917, they had gotten married. they had themselves and the young child, whom they continued to call junior. in time he just became gerald ford jr. there never was an adoption. but there was a family. gerald sr. was a loving father. they would go on to have other children. tom, dick and jim. the kids became very active in school and in social organizations. each one of them became a boy
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scout. gerald became a june yor -- junior became an eagle scout by the time he was 14 years old. junior often is described as that boy scout, as that ideal boy scout. that wasn't always the case. ford brought with him into his youth some of the characteristics that his birth father, leslie king, exhibited. one of those was his temper. junior had an excitable temper. there was the story that's told of him as a young child, in his front yard, where neighbor kids wanted to climb a tree but he claimed that as his tree and he wouldn't let them climb it. in fact, he stepped on their fingers as they grapped -- grabbed for limbs. his mother was determined that that temper wasn't going to be carried with him into his adulthood. that he wasn't going to be -- he wasn't going to get away with the things that his birth
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father got away with. so she did a number of different things to help curb that. she made him memorize poetry, a poem "if" is one he carried with him into his adulthood. she made him memorize bible verses, one became his favorite verse and that he would lean on well into his adulthood. also was ridiculed by his mother when he exhibited these tempers. she would show him faces that he was making, she would shame him and show him the ridiculousness of his behavior. he recalled all of these things n his adulthood and recalled how that helped him to control a temper that never left him, but that didn't control him either. junior lived in a -- what i
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guess we would call a lower middle class family. dorothy married gerald ford sr. who was a paint salesman. but ford was ambitious and he wanted to start his own company etcht bought part of the company -- company. he bought part of the company he worked for and turned it into the ford paint and varnish company. it was a company he started two weeks before the stock market crash in october, 1929. he was able to hold onto the company through the depression. in fact, stayed in the family until the 1960's. but it was one that he struggled to hold onto. but it was that type of family that ford grew up in. ford himself was made to work, to earn his money. one of the jobs that he had was at a burger joint across the street from south high, a place called bill's place. bill was the proprietor of this store. he hired star athletes from the
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high school to entice other kids to come to his burger joint and spend their lunch money. one of the star athletes, of course, was junior ford. people would come to see the friday night stars when they were eating their lunch. but it was at bill's place where one of the important events, formative events in junior's life took place. he was 16 years old. of it in the spring of 1930. he was working at bill's place one day. when he noticed that a new car you will pulled up and stopped in front -- car pulled up and stopped in front of the store. that was unusual for this part of grand rapids because nobody owned new cars. and this was a brand new lincoln automobile. this big fellow stepped out of it and stepped into the entryway of the store and
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paused there for a long time and stared at junior. and finally ford asked him if he could help him. he looked the man -- the man looked at him and said, you're leslie lynch king jr. he said, no, i'm gerald ford jr. he said, well, you're my son. i'm your father. and i want to take you to lunch. of course that shocked junior and he went back to see bill and he says, this guy says he's my father and he wants to take me to lunch. and bill said, well, i guess you'd better go with him. they went to a place called the cherry inn and they had lunch together. junior, his birth father, and his birth father's wife, margaret. king told him about his life in wyoming. he lived outside riverton, wyoming. in between riverton and
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shoshone. he wanted junior to come out and live with him. of course young ford had no interest in doing that. he lived in a very happy home, why would he be at all eager to make a change? he demured and said, no, i'm happy here. he was later asked how difficult it was for him to hold his temper at that moment. and he said, well, there are times when you just have to bite your tongue and be polite and this was one of those moments. because otherwise he was angry. because -- he didn't understand what was going on, that this fellow claimed to be his father, if he was his father, why wasn't he involved in his life? this fellow was a stranger to him. and he knew also that he was going to have to go home and tell his parents about it.
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about the experience. and he wasn't looking forward to that. it was a hard dinner that night. afterwards he took his parents into the living room and explained what had happened. the experience he had. he said that there were tears that were shed in the living room, as his mother told him the story about his birth father, her leaving him, and coming to grand rapids. ford's parents were in their own way ambitious. ambitious to make something of themselves, to be something in grand rapids. junior ford also was very ambitious. and one of the things that he wanted to be was a leader. in his school and on the playing field. in school, what he wanted to be was president of the student council. president of the senior class. at the beginning of the senior
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year, students competed for these different offices just as they do today. ford ran on the progressive ticket. he said that he did that because somebody got in front of him and claimed the republican ticket. so the one that was left to him was, in this bull moose era, teddy roosevelt and bull moose era, he was going to run on the progressive ticket and he put together a team. on election day, what happened was that every member of this team was elected to their offices, but he lost and he lost miserably. to a fellow by the name of leo van tassel. van tassel was elected president and was elected that by an overwhelming margin. as everybody knows, these offices are popularity tests. so it raises the question -- popularity contests. so it raises the question, why in the world did the most popular student at south high lose and lose so terribly to somebody who wasn't that
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popular? well, it was because, later revealed, that his coach, a fellow by the name of coach gettings, his football coach, called the other athletes into a room and said, i want you to torpedo that election. because ford is the captain of the team, of the football team, and he needs to be on the practice field, he doesn't need to be wasting his time in student council meetings. the other athletes took that to heart and went out and made sure that ford lost. ford was well known as an athlete. he made his name as an athlete. he was on the swim team at the ymca. he was on the track and field team at south high. he played basketball his senior year at south high but he was best known on the football field that's where he made his name. he was a star center for the state championship south high football team. and he was captain of the team. but he wasn't just an athlete.
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he was also a scholar. in the classroom he was solid. in fact, south high gave an award to both the outstanding male scholar and female scholar, dorothy gray was the female scholar and gerald ford was named the male scholar. for both his g.p.a. and for his civic activity. he wanted to go to the university of michigan and the university of michigan was recruiting him as an athlete. he founded -- found it difficult, however, because his parents didn't have a lot of money. and he didn't have enough money to pay the tuition his first year. but it became a community affair, to get gerald ford to the university of michigan. it was his principal who steps in and says, we're going to help you financially to get there. and he starts a book sale, a library book sale, that
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establishes a scholarship to provide money to needy students and the first scholarship recipient is gerald ford. they give him $100 which pays his first year's tuition at the university of michigan. he's 18 years old when he gets to the university of michigan. and he's, as most 1-year-olds, he wants to have fun, -- 18-year-olds, he wants to have fun, as well as apply himself to studies. he earns very solid grades at the university of michigan and he excels on the football field once he's given the opportunity to perform as a starter his senior year. but it's at the deke house are we has his fun. he pledges to a fraternity, and it has a certain reputation at the university of michigan. it's the fun house. it's the party house. you wonder why this otherwise erious student would want to
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pledge to deke. it's probably as much a case that deke wants him as he wants deke. deke is constantly being threatened with expulsion. their g.p.a. is traditionally the lowest among the greek fraternities, the greek houses on the university of michigan. there was hope among some of the brothers that if they could get ford there, he could help their g.p.a. and that he could help right their ship. in fact, they give him the responsibility by his senior year of turning their budget around. ne of the other things that -- in the depression era, was that the house was financially strapped and they were in the red. so they turned the treasurer's responsibilities over to ford. by the time ford graduates, he may not have helped their g.p.a. that much, he does help keep them on campus and he puts
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them in the black. he puts them on a paying basis. so by the time that gerald ford leaves the university of michigan, he wants to enter law school. he'd really like to enter law school at the university of michigan's law school. the problem is, they don't have a job for him. ford need as job in order to go to school. he still has to pay his tuition sway and he's coming out of the -- some way and he's coming out of the university of michigan somewhere around $1,000 in debt . the football coach at the university of michigan introduced him to the coach at yale, ducky pond. ducky pond has a job for ford. coaching varsity -- junior varsity football, line coaching for the varsity team, and coaching boxing at yale. that earns ford a paycheck. it does not get him into yale law school, however. he approaches yale law school and the law school assesses him
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and says, he'd be a fine student, but not if he has a job. because you can't go to yale law school, take on the load of study that is demanded by them, and hold a job. so the reasoning goes. well, ford also talks with his coaches about that, who tell him that, well, you can't really go to law school and fulfill your coaching responsibilities. so he has these dynamics working against his ambition to become a lawyer. so he just -- he takes some provisional classes elsewhere to demonstrate that he can do the work and using that, he gets himself admitted into yale law school. he doesn't tell them that he has this other job. and he doesn't tell the other -- his other coaches that he's going to go to law school. and by this means, he's able to do both. he ends up graduating in the , p 25% of his yale law school
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while fulfilling his coaching responsibilities. yale law school represents more than just him attaining the means for him to fulfill a profession. it means him opening up. he spends six years at yale. during that time, he meets a woman by the name of phyllis brown. betty ford would be the great love of gerald ford's life. betty ford is not his first love, however. phyllis brown is a professional model. younger than he, she's about 21 years old. but she's one of the top models in new york city. the coaches have a term for her, have a name for her, they call her p.b. brown. perfect body brown. ford is competing for her
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attention. he says that in order to compete for her attention, he has to take on her interests. and her interests largely revolve around his strength, which is sports. she plays tennis, she plays golf and she skis. all of these things are rather new to gerald ford. but he takes them up and he becomes more than proficient at each one of them. by that means, he's able to catch her eye and they date such that by 1938 it's presumed that they are going to be married. he brings her back to michigan for a couple of summers. he visits her parents up in maine. they attend any number of events and broadway plays in new york. she goes out on modeling shoots, he follows her on those shoots. at times he ends up in the magazines alongside her.
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these are photographs from one of those shoots where she's on the ski slopes in vermont and there he is alongside with her. in one of the national magazines. phyllis brown represents to gerald ford an opening up, a broadening of his experiences, of his vision. he sees the west coast, she introduces him to a large part of that. he sees new york city, she's there to guide him through those experiences. she is urbane, she's witty, he's midwestern. if not plodding, at least stole i had in his attitude -- stolid in his attitude. she does a lot to broaden his horizons. but when it comes down to a decision of returning to grand rapids to start his life as an
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attorney or staying in new york where she has her modeling career, that's where a parting of the ways comes in. she remains in new york city, he returns to grand rapids to begin his career as an attorney. jarod ford passed away on december 26, 2016 -- 2006. he was buried on the grounds of the museum on january 3, 2007. we were open all night leading up to the day of his internment and over 17,000 grand rapidans lined the outside of the museum across the river and into the city, waiting to pay their respects. to the president. the gravesite rests on the
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grounds of the museum. it's an oval-shaped tomb. it's a site that was selected by gerald and betty ford while they were building the museum here. the architect asked them if they had considered a burial site on the grounds. they hadn't really considered it. they asked the architect to investigate that. he went to other presidential library sites and came back with a report of what others did, including eisenhower and truman. and the decision was made, we've got the grounds for it, there's a beautiful site, it overlooks the river and overlooks the city of their youth. and it was an easy decision for them to make. as part of the museum construction, the tomb site was constructed as well. betty ford passed away on july 8, 2011. she was buried next to her
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, the 98th uly 14 anniversary of jarod ford's birth. i think there's a measure of -- gerald ford's birth. i think there's a measure of pride and appreciation, respect for the fords and what they mean to grand rapids, what they -- the attention that they brought to this town. not just during the funeral but during the entirety of his professional career and of her activity. they were very much a product of grand rapids. people from grand rapids recognize that. the world, i think, saw that in him during his presidency and her in her battle with addiction and her reaching out to help other people, as a consequence of experiences she had in life with breast cancer and with chemical dependency.
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mounted onto the tomb above their names is a phrase they chose that says, lives dedicated to god, country and love. they both were deep believers, had a strong spiritual lives, that also can be seen in another plaque that's near the gravesite where they have their erse from proverbs etched. they were lives dedicated to their country, is in public service -- his in public service. hers in service to those who were in need. both physical need and emotional need. all of that anchored by love. a love for god, a love for country, a love for one another, a love for family, a a love this city, and that carried with them, they carried with them until the ery end.
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so we're at the gerald r. ford presidential museum in grand rapids, michigan, and we're in the gallery where we've gotten gerald ford through his educational experience and he's beginning his professional career. it's not especially clear even to him, because at the same time that he's establishing the law practice, he's applying to become a field agent for the f.b.i. he wants to be a g-man. he has his application in to washington for that and he's writing letters, toward the end of 1941, trying to figure out what the status of his application is. as he's in grand rapids in 194 1:00 he finds him is self -- 1941, he finds himself caught
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up in world affairs. that happens in december, 1941, when the japanese bombed pearl harbor. very quickly thereafter, he shifts his attention to the united states navy. he wants to become a naval officer. he sends in his application to be commissioned as an officer in the navy. by april, 1942, he's joined the navy. he's commissioned, he's sent down to annapolis, where he goes through an officer training program for 30 days. then he's in north carolina as an athletic officer training pilots in physical activity. and grows bored with that very quickly. almost as quickly as he's down there, he's writing letters to people he knows in washington, d.c., trying to get a sea billet. he's fortunate to find a person who can help him to that end. he gets him assigned to an aircraft carrier that's being
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built. the u.s.s. monterey holds about 1,500 sailors, about 30 planes, and ford is responsible for putting the sailors through calisthenics. ease the athletic officer aboard the -- he's the athletic officer aboard the ship. he's also the gunnery officer. so he has a responsibility for gun crews on the aft end of the ship. hey get to the pacific in late 1943. almost immediately are thrown into action. against the gilbert islands. and he would be involved in action against the japanese in the gilberts and marianas and the marshall islands, along the philippine coast, through the philippine sea, the ship will earn eight battle stars and ford along with the ship. a few months after he joins the
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monterey and they're in the pacific, an opportunity arises for him to become the assistant navigator. he's earned a reputation as a solid officer and he's given that responsibility by the captain. he's named the navigator. which means that he moves from the fan tail of the ship up to the command bridge of the ship. his general quarters station is now on the ship's tower, on the command bridge, as the officer of the deck. he stand as i longside the captain -- stands alongside the captain and the navigator of the ship and is, in his own words, now in the center of the activity. in the center of the action. he spends as much time in combat, in the pacific, with this ship as any other world war ii president we have. he earns eight battle stars.
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they are in a number of engagements, including the marianas turkey shoot. they are supporting macarthur's landing in the philippines. and it's duringthat activity inf 1944 where he comes very close to losing his mind, not to the japanese, but to a typhoon. the ship is caught up in a typhoon, and he is almost washed over overboard. he is able to save himself by the thinnest of means. his foot is caught, and that arrests his motion, and he is able to run himself a catwalk and then gather himself and make his way to his general quarter station, as the ship is burning. the ship has to return to
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port to fix the damage. on christmas day, 1944, he is detached from the ship and sent to the stage where he becomes an athletic officer, again training and it is there that he ends his naval career. he leaves the navy in 1946 and returns to grand rapids and picks up his professional career there. again, he is involved in a number of civic activities. his name is well known in grand rapids. his father is involved in the republican party, and he then, having been bitten by the political bug long ago, having worked in wendell wilkie's 1940
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campaign, turns his attention to politics. this challenge is the sitting congressman, bartel jonkman, who is an isolationist, but gerald ford has left his isolationism behind with the war. he has become an internationalist, and it is going to be this, largely, that is the separating point between him and bartel jonkmen. ford, being ambitious, approaches a number of civic leaders and asks them about challenging jonkman. they say they are not interested in doing it, but if you would run, we would support you. with their support and with the support of the grand rapids press, he throws his hat into
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the ring, challenges jonkmanm beats him in the primaries, and in grand rapids, if you win, that is the hardest job. 1948, hecampaigning in has met a woman by the name of betty blumer warren. he has become interested. they become an item. betty grew up in an upper-middle-class home, attended central high. there is a five-year difference between gerald ford and betty bloomer. she was born in 1918. she knew of gerald ford, the high school star athlete growing up, but she had never met him before. they did not meet one another until 1947. they were introduced at a party. she was working as a fashion
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designer, fashion purchaser for purple shimer's department store, one of the big department stores in downtown grand rapids. she had started there as a model. she modeled dresses in what they called the tea room where women would come to have tea, and young women would model dresses for the older women, and betty ford was one of those models. she loved dance. she studied in vermont and in new york for modern dance, and then had come back to grand rapids, had married a salesman by the name of bill warren, and now, in 1947, she is in the midst of securing a divorce from mr. warren. she is introduced to gerald ford at a party, and jerry is quite
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interested. late that evening after the party, he calls her up and invites her out for a drink. she is kind of angry about that because she is working on an ad campaign for the department store, so she has homework to do, but also she chides him. "you are an attorney, and you know better than to call me up because you know i am in the middle of a divorce." he said, "do not worry about it, i know a place that is private, and we can have a drink" and persuades her to do that, and from that moment, they become something of an item. gerald ford and betty were married in october of 1948. it was an announcement that was
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put off because he was running for congress and did not want to get married until october because he wanted to handle the primary. as soon as they are married, he wins the election, and they are off to establish a home in washington. by 1950, they have their first child, michael, then jack follows, then steve, and then by 1957, susan has arrived. so by 1957, they have four children at home as ford is moving up in leadership ranks and with increasing responsibility on capitol hill. the kids recall that when their dad was home, that he set the briefcase aside, and he was a dad to them. he took them fishing, teaches the boys how to use the lawnmower, how to do things around the house, and takes family vacations with them. they go on skiing trips and back to grand rapids. they have the grandparents there in washington on occasion.
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so in many respects, it is a typical middle-class experience except that their dad increasingly has building responsibilities on capitol hill. this is gerald ford's congressional desk from early in his career. the items on top of it are original to his congressional office. the desk itself was the congressional desk he used in his grand rapids office, but it is much the same as the one that he would have used in his congressional office in washington, d.c., because they were made by the same company. but gerald ford as a congressman enters congress in 1949, launching upon this new career, his ambition became not for the presidency -- an office he did attain -- but he wanted to become, rather, the speaker of the house, an office he was
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never able to attain. however, he has a fascinating career -- 25 years in congress, beginning in 1949 in postwar america. and in some of those critical moments of postwar america, he is right there at the cutting edge of them. he knows -- he is introduced to president truman, because in his first congressional term, he is on the public works committee, which means he oversees the maintenance, the construction, maintenance of federal buildings. one of those federal buildings is the white house, and that is white house is crumbling around president truman, so congressman ford overseas a lot of the reconstruction of the white house during the truman administration. truman is also trying to build a cold war strategy, a strategy for fighting the soviet union.
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gerald ford is involved in that. this internationalist congressman from grand rapids gains an important seat on the appropriations committee. he oversees -- in time -- the army's budget, and so he is involved in the cold war strategy as he travels from base to base around the globe, looking at american interests and particularly u.s. army installations around europe and southeast asia. ford was a republican on capitol hill. he is engaged in partisan struggle. he is interested in republican policies, just as the democrats are interested in democratic policies, but you have to find a way to work together on capitol hill, and ford quickly earned a reputation as somebody who could
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work with both sides of the aisle. he -- there were times when he challenged his republican leadership and he worked with democrats. and there were times when he pulled democrats into what were republican issues to further legislation on the hill. so he earned a reputation, even as he pursued partisan politics and a leadership position in the republican party, as being able to work with others in the democrat party. and that came to a head in 1964, following the assassination of president kennedy. president johnson pulled together a commission to investigate the assassination of president kennedy, which would take the name of the warren commmission, named after chief
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justice earl warren. johnson plucked two members of the house of representatives to sit on that commission. one was gerald ford. and it was largely because he had that reputation of being able to work together with people of differing ideas, to reach reasonable conclusions, and so he became one of the seven warren commissioners. after he completes his commission's work, he and another grand rapidian, jack stiles, worked on a book called "a portrait of the assassin." it is "portrait of the
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assassin," not "portrait of an assassin." he believed firmly that lee harvey always love had acted alone, as the lone gunman. there was no evidence that was brought to the commission that would refute that finding. he would remain open to other evidence that might prove otherwise, that might counter that, but during his lifetime, he never saw any that could conclusively show that it was lee harvey oswald alone who acted as the assassin of president kennedy. so congressman ford is earning a reputation through dint of hard work. what he is being known for is being able to move legislation on capitol hill, to be able to craft the coalitions necessary to get legislation passed, and it is that reputation that moves him forward in conversations about leadership. so in 1964, ford mounts a
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campaign against charlie halleck and by narrow margin is able to defeat him and become the minority leader himself. what ford wants is to become a majority party, and that is what he begins working at. in 1966 he makes great strides doing that on capitol hill, but he is never able to gain a majority of republicans on capitol hill. he is kind of locked in that minority position, and republicans cannot find a way to build a national majority position on capitol hill that would have secured for ford his ambition to be speaker of the house. other things were to intervene, however. a lot of that happened with the election of one of his friends, richard nixon, in 1968.
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richard nixon had selected as his running mate, the governor of maryland, spiro agnew. they are reelected in 1972 in a landslide election, a landslide for the executive branch. it barely moves the needle for republicans on capitol hill. so ford, after the 1972 election, decides he is going to run one more time in 1974, and in 1976, he is going to retire from congress. but again, history intervenes with that. agnew has to step down because as vice president because of malfeasance in office as governor of maryland. he had taken some brides, contract issues, the surgeon of justice, for things not related at all to watergate, what we know as watergate. he has to step down. able to doing is
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provisions of the 25th amendment, to nominate somebody to replace spiro agnew to become the vice president, but it requires confirmation on both the senate and the house of representatives. ford is a natural selection. he is not nixon's first choice, but he is a solid choice for richard nixon. ford, however, because of his coalition building, because of his work, because of his reputation, is an easy selection. carl albert said, "i can get you jerry ford if you want jerry ford." nixon makes that choice. four goes through an extended investigation, background investigation because even as he is selected, there is a whirlwind of controversy surrounding richard nixon over watergate, nefarious activities
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that had taken place during the 1972 election and before involving secret tapes, bugging of opposition offices, and a number of other issues that many people believed the president himself had been involved in. what nixon was involved in was obstructing the investigation into that. even as ford is being investigated for the vice presidency, there are a number on capitol hill who believe they are choosing not be president necessarily, but likely the next president of the united states. so nixon nominates ford to fill the vacancy of the vice presidency. over 400 fbi agencies spread out across the united states to investigate congressman ford, and he passes that investigation, the result of
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which are handed to congress. congress schedules a vote on congressman ford's nomination, and this is the card that speaker of the house carl albert hands to jerry ford noting the house vote. 387 voting in support of his nomination, 35 opposing. there was another vote that was held in the senate, and only three senators voted against his nomination to the vice presidency. congressman ford in december 1973 is sworn in as vice president. this is the bible on which he is -- was sworn in. again, he has it opened to his favorite passage, the passage that he and betty had leaned on many times in their lives, of proverbs 3:5-8.
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"in all your ways acknowledge him, and he shall direct your path." he had it open to the same passage when he is sworn in months later as president of the united states. he will only be vice president for eight months. he does not know it at the time. what he does know is there is controversy surrounding president nixon. his responsibility is to forward his responsibility is to forward nixon's agenda on capitol hill and promote nixon's plans abroad. he spends time promoting that message in campaigning for next nixon's agenda. so we have covered about four galleries in the museum dealing with his early life, his collegiate career, maybe in
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congress. the remainder of the museum is dedicated to his presidency and his post-presidency. i hope the visitors to the museum are able to take away from here what a unique time it was and what a unique man ford was and how he was able to meet the challenge. ford never aspired to become president, yet throughout his life, events and people he encountered prepared him for the burden that he was asked to bear in august 1974, when he did become president, an office he never campaigned for, an office he never aspired to, but one that was essentially handed to him, entrusted to him by those who knew him closest, those on capitol hill, and to be able to appreciate how he rose to handle those responsibilities. >> for over a hundred years,
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grand rapids has set the tone for what furniture is going to look like and feel like and how it is going to act. although it does not do that for home furnishings anymore, there is a good chance that most people over the course of a given day will interact with a piece of furniture made in grand rapids. we are at that grand rapids public museum in the furniture section. this is the oldest piece of grand rapids furniture in the 's collection, a windsor chair made around 1840. the first settlers do not start coming to grand rapids until
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1830. william haldane is in that first group when grand rapids was just a tiny village on the banks of the grand river. he is the first guy that starts up a woodworking, or cabinetmaking shop, as they called it. this is pretty primitive, made by hand. the spokes on the back were made with a spoke shave, instead of being turned on a lathe. it was probably just a one-off that somebody paid him a buck or two to make a chair. people who arrived in town needed furniture for their house. in and of itself it might not look like any thing special but it is the beginning of the furniture industry in grand rapids. grand rapids became the furniture city in the 19th century, and there were several different factors that combine
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to help grand rapids earn that title. they included having the raw materials needed to make furniture, the great hardwood forests of michigan, the transportation to ship those raw materials and ship the finished goods to market came in the form of the grand river, which runs right in the middle of grand rapids. and finally the labor force. grand rapids had many immigrants from european countries that had the skills to carve wood, operate machinery, and build furniture. so all those three things combined in the years following the civil war to make a perfect storm for grand rapids to become the furniture city. there was a whole class of wealthy town leaders who decided they wanted to invest in the furniture industry. these were those who wanted to
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control the banks, they controlled the capital. they had access to funds to set up a furniture factory. by working together, this first round of furniture companies was established in the 1860's and 1870's. these are some of the earliest furniture companies in grand rapids they got the ball rolling to start that. this is a highly idealized painting of a furniture factories in grand rapids, michigan. it is certainly true that this was one of the biggest furniture manufacturers and they had huge factories on the grand river. there is a bit of exaggeration going on in this piece. it really does convey the sort of scope and scale of a grand rapids furniture factory. usually furniture factories will
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be four or five stories tall with different aspects of the manufacturing process taking place on each level of the factory. a lot of times there would be easy access to railroad, like right here where raw materials could be brought in. almost every furniture factory will have a drying yard where raw materials can be dried to the appropriate level of humidity to be turned into furniture. most factories are designed with a courtyard in the center to allow as much natural light to come into the factories. some of them predated electricity. even once electricity came along, it was expensive. you wanted to have as much natural light, especially for people like decorators. it would help with painting and things like that to use natural light over electric light. then of course, you also needed all of your administrative
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options. so the administration building is featured right here, where all of the company's secretaries and salesmen, managers would be based out of to run a very large national company. when this painting was made in the 1920's, there were probably around 300 different companies in grand rapids making furniture or somehow supporting that furniture industry, so in this painting you can actually see that grand rapids of bolstering upholstering -- company here, which would be an example of companies themselves that did not make furniture themselves but what do the upholstery. wood finishing, brass finishing, all of these companies would succeed in grand rapids and supply. photographers were a huge what you're taking photographs of furniture to put an in catalogs
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was a big event in and of itself. the world's fair in philadelphia in 1876 was called the centennial exposition, and grand rapids had been making furniture for several decades by that point, but at that world's fair in philadelphia, three different grand rapids companies submitted bedroom suites to a competition, and all three won gold medals , so at this nationwide exhibition where companies nationwide were submitting for furniture, it was pretty much agreed that grand rapids was the best and really put grand rapids on the map as the furniture capital of the country. we call this the centennial bed, and at that is because it is an example of the type of furniture that won so many awards at the centennial exposition in
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philadelphia in 1876. this particular piece is a perfect example of grand rapids furniture. it is a piece that looks like it could be handcarved by a master carver, but in fact, it is actually lots of little pieces that were made using machinery that are all assembled, layer upon layer, to make that finished product that looks so elaborate. the pieces that come off the side are something you did not see before this time period. but they give the piece an extra level of detail that at that time period in the 1870's was really quite popular. another thing they were able to do beautifully ia combine the hardwood walnut with, like, the
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veneers, so that center section in the headboard is walnut veneer that they used beautifully, and it really stands out and makes an interesting look. i do not know this piece would be considered truly practical, but it would have been affordable for a middle-class or upper-middle-class family, and so this is something that would have been seen as a status and symbol in your home, if you had a home and a bedroom that was big enough for a piece like this, it really would mark you as a person of high status, and more importantly, maybe, a person of good taste. the made in grand rapids mark was synonymous with quality, and a lot of places throughout the country, the idea that a piece of furniture was made in grand rapids was much more significant than an individual company that it might have been made by that most people would not have heard of. grand rapids furniture companies realized this and a lot of them banded together into an
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organization that actually used as a train trademark "made in grand rapids." the heyday is probably in the 1920's. business was good. there were probably between 300 and 400 different companies that were making furniture in grand rapids or were one of the auxiliary industries that was somehow supporting the furniture industry, and business was really good. there was an event called the furniture market that took place twice a year in grand rapids where all the companies would release their new lines, and all the buyers from all of the country, from new york, from california, would come to grand rapids for a week and basically have a huge party, check out all of the new lines of furniture, and place their orders. those were really the good times for grand rapids furniture. and then, of course, that all comes to a crashing halt with the great depression in the 1930's. when the stock market crashed in 1929, the depression takes hold
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in the 1930's, the furniture-making model that has been established in grand rapids really starts to fall apart. people who were very wealthy and maybe weren't as affected by the depression as much were not the ones who were buying grand rapids furniture. the vast majority of people who were buying grand rapids furniture were middle-class people who all of a sudden found themselves in a lot of financial difficulty during the depression. so of course the orders went way down, and many, many grand rapids furniture companies went out of business. the other big factor that is starting to take place at the same time and is going to continue through the rest of the 20th century is manufacturing shifting from places like grand rapids to the south, especially north carolina, where labor is cheaper. grand rapids no longer had the advantage of raw materials that they once did in the 19th century.
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there is no big advantage to being in a place like grand rapids anymore. the availability of cheap labor in the south really undermined the furniture industry. over the course of the 20th century. if you look in the back of this display under the large black and white photograph, you'll see the beautiful frank lloyd wright design secretary desk. this is a highlight of the museum. this was designed by frank lloyd wright and manufactured by a company here in the late 1930's for a contract for racing, wisconsin. there's a lot going on with this piece. it is an example of the transition that grand rapids had to go through to remain relevant after the great depression.
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materials like to do a steel metal. it puts the design of the peace at the forefront as opposed to manufacturing and ball. -- in bulk. only 100 of these were made. because they were designed by frank lloyd wright, they had interesting quirks to them. one of the most obvious is that only has three legs. the story that goes with it is that it is because he wanted be secretary to sit up straight. if you were to lean back, you would tip over. some of the largest office furniture manufacturers are still located here in grand rapids. they are still huge employers, very important for the region and are making lots of furniture for businesses, schools and
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hospitals. likewise, the fixed seating industry to companies based on a grand rapids, the american and erwin seating company that makes the mid-majority of all the fixed seating. places like stadiums, movie theaters and trains. type ofa very different furniture than what was made and they can hundreds where was carved wood. this is going to be injection molded plastic and new materials. has a false. the common thread that's run -- runs through it is the design. we want people to come to the museum and see this exhibit and first and foremost to understand the history of the town. a lot of these beautiful pieces of printer they consider workmates pressure grand rapids. it was an important part of the history of the nation as a whole
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. more important than that, it gives you a sense of place. you can understand what a lot of these buildings in grand rapids that are now getting reused as , itos and upscale shops started out as furniture factories. it gives you a better understanding of the city and the things you are seeing everyday as you walk around context having a bit of for why things are set up the way they are. if people can realize that, you will see it. >> for those of you that watch real estate programs like house hunters, typically find buyers of homes looking for open concept for plans and stainless
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steal appliances and granite countertops. as they look at late 1800 and early 1900 homes, it is inevitable that they don't find that open concept. here's a home he created in 1908 that has very much all of those characteristics. the fluid feeling. we are in a southeast grand rapids, michigan at the meyer may house, which is a private residence designed by frank lloyd wright in 1908. we are told it is today the most conference of labor stored of wright's -- comprehensively restored of wright's prairie style homes. >> he was a very successful architect in 1908 when meyer may house grand rapids, michigan commissioned him to build a house for himself, his wife, and what they hoped would be children. meyer may was a local clothing merchant. his store was located in downtown grand rapids and he was
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successful as a merchandiser and a marketer. he was nationally recognized, for example, for being the first to display clothing on wooden hangers in a retail setting. he was very progressive, he was very successful financially, and those were two characteristics that were very important if you are going to be a client of frank lloyd wright because wright was going to build and design a home very different than the neighboring home, and having that progressive nature, having developed a thick sikin that an early adapter has to have -- as they are doing things that has not been done previously -- was an important consideration. the neighborhood that may wanted his home built and was a it is known as the heritage hill historic district. it is about a quarter of a mile
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wide and a mile-long and encompasses about 1200 residential properties. it was the premier residential neighborhood in the late 1800s and early 1900s. if your business was successful and you had a successful professional this is where you , wanted to live. most of the architecture was very traditional northern european architecture. clearly the meyer may house is not reflective of that architecture. as a matter of fact, frank lloyd wright was reacting to characteristics of other architecture that he felt were inappropriate. the neighborhood response when the home was under construction was "what is that?" it is an easy house to make fun of as you look at it starting with the fact that you went all the way to chicago and hired this hotshot architect who did
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not even know to what the front door on the front. he had a philosophical reason for doing this. it was about privacy. if the neighbors did not understand the concept and the philosophy the house was very , strange to them. there were several principles that were important. you might begin with the fact that it is a place of tranquility and serenity. it was not a commercial structure where you would hang out a shingle to encourage people to come and visit you. it was a place where you could retreat to at the end of a busy day or that you could invite friends over and socialize in the serenity and tranquility of your own residence. in contrast, the neighboring homes would have a large public sidewalk connected to a large private sidewalk that would lead you to a very obvious front door, frank lloyd wright talked his primary guest entry into a n alcove so that guests were not
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on display while they were waiting to be welcomed into the home. once inside, it opened up a great deal to be very spacious. one area would flow into the next. we are in a living area which flows very fluidly from the welcome space i was standing in just earlier. behind me is the southern exposure. in this instance, what frank lloyd wright has done is not only take advantage of the fact that the sun was shining, it would come from the south, so we have a tremendous expense of glass along the southern portion of this area, and then defying the convention of the period, he wraps his glass into the ceiling. overhead what you notice our natural skylights. they serve that function also.
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in addition, he has placed levels between the exterior glass and the interior decorative glass so that early in the morning and late at night, cloudy or overcast, it has this wonderful diffuse light. it is all very, very fluid transition from one area to another. rather than a rigidly subdivided area that guests will experience when they enter the home. we are in the dining area. to me, this is one of frank lloyd wright's magical creations also. in this instance, the architecture that surrounds the dining space actually becomes very recessive. it is just kind of there. what is important is the conversation you are enjoying and the food you are enjoying. he deletes the overhead
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chandelier that wants to call attention to itself and replaces it with lights at the four corners of the table. he combines that with high backs on the chairs so that now the focus becomes who am i eating with and what kind of food are we experiencing together? what is amazing about it is everyone gets a good seat at the table. perhaps you have been invited by a host or hostess to sit there. if it was not the chair they give you a view outside, you might have felt that the person who got the view to the exterior got a better seat. every seat at this table gives you the opportunity to have a view to the outside. if it happens to be on one side of the table, you have a full wall of glass behind me. if you are on this side of the table, you have a lovely mural,
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one of frank lloyd wright's favorite flowers. it is in the same color palette and balance as the home. it very fluidly blends it and brings the outside inside. adjacent to it you have sightlines to exterior windows as well. we are always connected, and we always like to be connected to the outside. that is a very significant feature of this space. the second level of the house contains family bedrooms and bathrooms as well as staff bedroom and bathroom. all spaces where you fully expect to have privacy. in those areas, the walls go to and connect with the ceiling to provide that level of privacy. wright wants to ensure that it does not become a box followed by a second box followed by a
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third boring box. he modulates the volume of the he pushes into the attic in order to increase the sensation of spaciousness. he makes a narrow corridor, reduces the ceiling height, almost claustrophobic to some of the collar guests today. -- the taller guests today. he wants you to have that experience. at the end of the corridor, the space opens up again. it feels very different from the one you just exited. in addition to connecting the inside and outside from the standpoint of the visual experience, it also helps the natural light helps to expand the feeling of the space. the master bedroom as an example. he pushes out the windows and adds perpendicular side glass. you have a 180 degree panoramic view.
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some may look and instead say why not push out the floor, too? he did not want people to fill it with more stuff, which would cause it to look crowded and diminish the experience of this expansive, panoramic view. if you were to retain him as your architect, first of all you had to have a wonderful revenue stream and it had to be continuous. you have to be progressive because your house would be very progressive. you have to be very compliant. you have to be willing to say ok, here is my checkbook, do what you think is best for me. as you look around the first level of the home, you will note that there is no additive art on the walls. wright felt that this entire structure was a piece of art and that anything mere mortals might add would simply diminish it. he also was a realist and
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realized you might wish to you express yourself occasionally. in limited locations on the second floor, he designed limited picture frames. this is where it can go. express yourself. it has to hang in that spot on that wall. meyer may moved into the home in 1909. at that time, they did not have children. they adopted an infant daughter in 1914, a son in 1916. his wife passed away in 1917. he remarried. she had two children from her first marriage. they chose to expand the home. the expansion was not designed by frank lloyd wright. it added about 50% square footage to the house. additional bedrooms, bath space, less formal living space.
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may lived into the home into 1936 when he passed away. a buyer acquired the home and had it rezoned multi family. a third owner acquired the home. they brought it back to what it represented in 1909 when the family moved in. you might walk into the house and say it looks different, and it does. the more important thing is to understand how it lives different and how it can support and reinforce an experience that family would have living in this space. it is not a museum in the traditional sense that you have to stay on plastic runners and stay behind velvet ropes.
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it is a home. with some imagination, we hope that you can understand and feel how a family could live very comfortably in an environment that is intended to help shape and support and reinforce their experience. >> we are in the streets of old grand rapids exhibit at the public museum. ofs exhibit is a recreation what downtown grand rapids would have looked like in the 1890's. there are historic businesses, sites that you would have expected to see if you are walking around downtown 100
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years ago. this exhibit is based on the 1890's. when we first opened, it was representing 100 years ago. the 1890's are interesting because so much was changing both in terms of grand rapids and the immense growth that was taking place as well as the new inventions like electricity were becoming more widespread, the automobile, it was a interesting time. exhibit begins here in the train station of the union depot which would have been in the center of red rapids. it is where all the trains arrived. it makes sense as an entrance point to the exhibit because anybody who is coming to grand rapids would have arrived by train and the transition would have been one of the first things they would have seen. it would have been incredibly busy.
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there were 10 different regular lines -- railroad lines with dozens of trains arriving and departing every day. from points arrive all over the country. people coming to live here and they would come from the east coast whether they were yankees led been in the united states for generations or new immigrants coming from europe. also, people from all over michigan and the midwest were coming to grand rapids. becoming a regional hub for west michigan. in the center of downtown grand rapids. this intersection has always been the heart of grand rapids from the earliest days of the city was first founded in 1830's. what we have done it created a recreation of what it might have with alike and 1890's
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series of different businesses representing different architectural styles. run by real people from grand rapids from different ethnic backgrounds and showing some of the different industries that were around town. the grocery store is run by the kaminsky family. they would have been polish. the print shop is run by dutch immigrants. house, william powers, one of the founders of grand rapids was a yankee. an old stock american from out east who came to grand rapids and set up lots of different businesses. including the entertainment business of the opera house. gives a goodind me idea of what the square would have been like on an afternoon with lots of people. streetcars rattling by.
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by the 1890's, grand rapids had electric streetcars. munro was one of the few paid to streets in town. some the big commercial buildings downtown, the wonderfully building shown here, the sick story building this is intended to convey the scope of grand rapids which is starting to become quite a large city with close to 80,000 people. ,he regional commercial economic center for western michigan. we are standing inside the drugstore. not from grand rapids. this is from saint murray, michigan. the 1960's,rough the family donated the entire drugstore, all of its contents
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to the museum despite the fact that it does not a grand rapids business. it is one of the more accurate story creations that we were able to have in the streets. the drugstore had all of the same furnishings as one was originally built around 1900. the drugstore is in a transition or period. the people who operate it would have been certified pharmacists with some medical knowledge but, unlike pharmacy or drug stores today, they are still compounding their own prescriptions, a medicine in the store. they would have had the ingredients that they needed to make a particular medicine and could have put together right in front of the customer. they also had a lot of off-the-shelf remedies for every things different patent medicines. all sorts of funders that somebody might like to find and
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more modern walgreens received things liketh sodas, postcards, camera films, toothbrushes although things .ould've been available we are standing inside the department store which is one of the important fixtures of grand itids for over a century started in the 1870's more as a general store. one of the transitions that exhibit chronicles of the transition to more specialty stores. upscale890's, it is an apartments are modeling itself after similar large businesses in bigger cities around the country where they would sell all sorts of goods for the home, , silver, glass, shoes,
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all kinds of more upscale department store products. store likepartment this was one of the signal by grand rapids was starting to become a large city as opposed to a small town it had been before. the goods that were sold here were more targeted at a middle-class and urban audience, things beyond the groceries and farm equipment they would have been more demanded general store. a store like this, in addition to imported goods it would get from all over the world, also able to feature some products that were made right here in grand rapids. a good example of that is as carpet sweeper display. time, ifund the same
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it meant of the carpet sweeper. this wonderful device. design used electricity. you can clean your carpet. various different models of these carpets reapers that would have been for sale. becomingime, it is even an international company. the invention was so useful and so popular that it was marketed and sold all over the world. the company is still in business and based here. as we lead the streets of old grand rapids, we're looking at it seemed that the showing this avenue as the sun is setting on a polythene. .- fall evening it is a good way to end the exhibit. we hope as people finish walking into the exhibit, they will think a little bit about all of
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the immense changes that would have taken place in grand rapids all around the country. as they can hundreds come to a 1800s come to a close, you start to get changes in society that people are having to cope with. try to take a critical look back on the good old days thinking of what made them the good old days, the automobile had not been invented. electricity is just becoming invented. immigrants are coming to the united states from countries all over the world. ethnic makeup of the cities are changing. grand rapids is growing tremendously in terms of its industry and economy. it is a period of the lots of change and a hopeful ending at the sunsets and everyone heads home for the evening.
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[captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit ncicap.org] [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2016] our visit to grand rapids is an american history tv exclusive. we shut it to introduce you to to c-span cities tour. for five years we have traveled to cities across the united states to explore their literary and historic sites. you can watch more of our visit that c-span.org/cities tour. >> this weekend, c-span cities tour along with our comcast cable partners will explore the literary life and history of colorado. >> the railroad into steel industry and coal industry that bla to where it is today. it is a natural place to study. -- settle. people cap -- keep coming back to this place because it is a
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metal plate to build a city. , call robust a professor and author of the book, making an american workforce. the rockefellers and the legacy of ludlow. talks about the deadly strikes between minors and the colorado fuel and our company which resulted in a public relations nightmare for john d rockefeller junior. walks out toent rockefellers car and tells him to turn around. he says he will not -- you were not welcome here. then matthew karas discusses his book, the founding fathers in the debate over religion and revolutionary america. they did not talk about religion at the constitutional convention. you do not have to believe in the bible or some form of christianity to hold public office. on c-span3, here about the ludlow massacre which took place during the colorado coal strike
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-- butthere did you 1913. >> this is the whistle. such -- many generations learn how to tell time by this was. saturday at noon eastern on c-span two. working with our cable affiliates and visiting cities across the country. >> with car is out until mid-november, some of them are back in their home states and campaign ahead of the november 8 election. and look at an article from politico talking about the department of homeland security. more than 20 states facing major election hacking attempts after
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fears that it is honorable to hacking and a series of suspected russian hacks against u.s. political organizations and party officials. voting in new hampshire is facing a different telestrator taking a picture of your own ballot was banned until wednesday when the first circuit ruled the ban unconstitutional. the court had decided taking a picture of your own ballot should be allowed and that banning voting with selfies is like burning down the house to roast a paid. law ending a 2014 the ruling that a picture is worth a thousand words. there,ate race bears -- but as will head to the polls in a most watched race. polls are typing into the ads ratcheting up the contest between democrat jason kander and the incumbent, roy blunt. a first-term republican. some outside

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