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tv   Wikipedia Founder Jimmy Wales Delivers Remarks at the Cato Institute  CSPAN  November 26, 2016 10:56pm-12:10am EST

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>> translator: message to the national assembly. at the outset, only 8 weeks ago i believed that the imminent threat of war had no possible solution. so dramatic was the scenario we faced before us that i saw no other alternative than perhaps a likelihood of there not being any survival by this region that was -- that had no reason to be a direct target. it was very difficult with the
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knowledge that human beings always cling to the faintest hope. despite all of this i made an attempt and fortunately it didn't take me long to realize that there was some hope. a very profound hope, in fact. additionally, without the taking advantage of this opportunity, then the disaster could lead to the worst possible consequences. there would therefore be no hope for the salvation of the human species.
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nevertheless, i am now sure that it will not end this way. quite the contrary. currently we see conditions that are developing that could lead to a situation that would have been unforeseeable until very recently. one man will have to make the unprecedented decision. the president of the united states, who surely, because of his multiple concerns, has not
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yet realized that although his advisers are now beginning to understand this, we can see this unfolding through very simple steps taken. such as the tortures inflicted on geraldo that stopped. this is a situation that had not occurred in over 12 years of implacable hatred. by the efforts against both cuba and against him. today we can state that the next step will be authorizing
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adrianna to visit him, or his immediate release, or maybe both. i found out from her that his spirits are higher than they've ever been in the last 12 years of unjust and cruel imprisonment. given that iran will not give up one bit to the demands by the united states and israel and that several of the combat resources available have already been mobilized and that an attack would be launched as soon as the deadline has elapsed as agreed by the security council on the 9th of june, 2010.
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stipulating the norms and requirements established. all of man's plans have limits that cannot be exceeded. and in this critical scenario, president barack obama would issue the order of this preannounced attack following the norms of the large empire. in addition, at that same point in which the order would be
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issued, that is in addition, the only, and could only be, it could lead to an incalculable number of nuclear weapons accumulated in an absurd competition between the powers. he would be ordering the instantaneous death, not only of hundreds of millions of people, including incalculable number of inhabitants in his own country in addition to the crews of all
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of the ships that make up the u.s. fleet, deployed on the seas surrounding iran. simultaneously the conflagration would spread in the near and middle east as well as throughout euroasia. it was a coincidence that at this specific moment the president of the united states is a descendant of africans and whites, of muslims and christians.
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if this is achieved, then we need to be aware that, that is what we're doing here. the leaders of the most powerful nations on the planet, both allies as well as adversaries with the exception of israel, would urge him not to do this. the world would then render all of the honors that he deserved. the current order, the current world order would not survive, and inevitably it would
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collapse. it would collapse immediately. the so-called convertible currencies would lose their value as instruments of the system that has imposed both sweat and sacrifice without limit on the peoples. new modes of distribution of resources and services, education and the direction of social processes would come to the surface peacefully.
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but if war were to break out, then the current social order would suddenly disappear and the price would be infinitely greater. the planet's population may bury the nonrenewable resources could be preserved, climate change could be prevented. the useful efforts of all human beings could be ensured, the sick could be attended to. the essential body of knowledge, culture, science, that is at the service of mankind could be ensured.
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children, adolescents, and the young throughout the world would not perish in a nuclear holocaust. this is what was, is desired, esteemed comrades of our national assembly. now i am here to respond for my comments. i'm also here to respond to any questions that you may have. and i'm ready to listen to your opinions. thank you very much. [applause]
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i am going to say this as briefly in specifically as possible, as brief and specific hernandez at the time said, and i quote, "thank you, commander, for giving me the pleasure of hearing you and seeing you as large as life as ever." and now i would like to offer the floor to our representatives. dear commander in chief, distinguished representatives, guests. today we participate in a
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historic event and our national assembly, the commander in chief representative fidel castro is seated in his place. he was always here as a shining beacon supporting us and guiding us from his sick bed as he was convalescing. always identify himself with the people through his remarks. addressingent here, and announcing terrible events where the fate of our country in mankind are threatened. this is not the first or third world we are speaking of. the threat is faced by our youre planet and it is only as an internationally prestigious figure who does not know lies and has no debts with
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anybody. only you can do now to these thats with the certainty you know the empire never be satisfied with the reality of for anyit and is ready infamous act, including the holocaust. comrades, in 19 -- 1885, he said i know the monster because i live within it. in july, 1958, from the sierra muestra, a letter appeared in the headlines of the newspaper and was always in the office of the minister, hanging on her wall, that was an inspiration according to her for working until the very end.
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having seen the rockets that were launched, i swear the americans will pay dearly for what they are doing when this war ends. there will be a new and longer war of greater -- the war i will launch against them. i realize that will be my true destiny. currently, a ferocious blockade from the time that our revolution triumphed until the present, a genocidal policy, imperialist policy against our country that hoped to defeat us by creating hunger and disease. my question, commander, is with the u.s. government be capable -- will obama be capable of committing the cruelty of giving orders to launch a nuclear war given the imminent likelihood of
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the collapse of the empire? and also freeing the five heroes? >> not if we can persuade him. [applause] >> comrade. >> i, and the representative from guantanamo. dear commander-in-chief,
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pedro castro, -- fidel castro representatives, today we feel , profoundly pleased because our commander's health has improved as he recovers. every day he shares his knowledge and examples to help us develop our social socialist programs and our main triumphs of the cuban political system. commander, receive of the half -- on behalf of the people of cuba and guantanamo our love and admiration of being with you. the youth that see you as a guide, that are still never abandoning the ideals of our leader after celebrating the anniversary. 100th you would, all of you and your colleagues, continue to live in the hearts of the cuban people. the people remember and render
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tribute to you. we still maintain our expressions defending our principles, your words are manifest in our daily lives. among our children and adults, in our urban centers, among our people, all of these ideas came from the deepest depths of your heart and continued to be disseminated through your example of dignity, brotherhood. we wish you utmost success and congratulations working for our country. we know your colleagues in the barracks, these ideals continue to remain current in your book a -- on strategic victory recalling the victories in the sierra muestra. it is a continuous struggle recognizing the commanders, the captains, the lieutenants, those who have participated.
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their ideals, principles disseminated with transparency recognizing those who launched , efforts against the enemies. this book is a source of pride to us and we are sure everyone will be familiar with the struggles, our history, your struggles on behalf of our people. it will be passed on to the next generation. i would like to ask that we hope to receive this great gift and when will we be able to analyze this book? we would like to express our heartfelt love and appreciation. thank you. >> comrade pablo has the floor. >> dear comrade,
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commander-in-chief, commander of our armed forces and the president of the council of ministers. esteemed representatives of the national assembly and special guests, based on the recent information -- can you hear me better? let me reiterate that as a result of recent leaks provided through wikileaks, which has a broader public in the u.s., we have learned about the lies regarding wars. the crimes that have been committed as well as the corruption this has led to.
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that has become a concern within the u.s., as well as the major financial crisis that has been manifest with many closures of businesses, bankruptcies, loss of jobs, loss of homes, of social security. and that we're seeing a disappearance of the middle class. also it threatens the american way of life. although it is true as a u.s. member of congress said, "wars are a disaster." that the afghan government is corrupt and the u.s. troops could die in greater numbers. on the other hand, an increase in number of u.s. members of congress, although they are
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still a minority, but a minority that is honest about their own roles and themselves, a group of them, 52 out of 114 stated the wars in iraq and afghanistan have cost the u.s. more than $1 trillion in direct costs and more than $3 trillion in total. at one point where our national debt according to the statement exceeds $13 trillion, we cannot allow for any more of these wars to take place. it is time for congress to reject any funding that is not focused on returning our men home.
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the message is that wars lead to adverse situations. if the -- aren't there moral, ethical and political considerations to oppose war? in this context it would appear that war does not concern as much, that it has generated crimes, created corruption, that the economy has gone from bad to worse. that bankruptcies have taken place. unemployment levels have increased. people have lost their homes. we see a diminishing of the middle class. and young americans have been lost. would it be different if the war were "successful," if it were not a disaster and that casualties were light and only
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in combat? that there were no corruption by any parties, that the economy were prosperous, that the middle class remains stable and found, -- sound? successful, with the a justification to continue with wars? when we oppose wars, as was done from the very beginning by barbara lee from california? the u.s. has lost these wars within their own boundaries. what they need to do is withdraw from these territories of countries that have been attacked. we forget that wars of aggression per se are crimes against people, where more civilians always die than combatants. especially those most vulnerable.
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it is true that the possibilities that fidel castro in his comments of august 3 indicated the world could be free of nuclear and conventional weapons. the worst of all would be the possibility of a nuclear war, with virtually could be unavoidable. today we remember that we think of the launching of two atomic bombs in the history of mankind. we should remember the words of president franklin delano roosevelt on january 6, 1941, when he gave his address to congress about the state of the union where he explained he understood that by being free
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from fear, free from fear which translated in global terms meant a reduction of weapons to the point and to such a specific level that no nation should have the capability of launching acts of aggression against neighboring countries. no matter where on the planet. the americans should read more their history. to be more aware of the recommendations made by their own past leaders. we need to avoid wars. that is only possible through total disarmament. we need to conquer wars and
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that can only be done by practicing peace. if this does not happen, we will not be standing on the hill to be able to see the new dawn of mankind. thank you very much. [applause] >> thank you. before i offer the floor to other representatives who asked to speak -- can you hear me? i am going to offer the floor to the rest to have asked to speak. let's try to be as concise as possible. i think i gave an example of how
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this could be done. >> i just wanted to say -- let me clarify. obama would not issue the order if we persuade him. that effort to persuade the president of the united states is something we are hoping to serve as a contribution to that persuasive effort. today, for example, we are doing something that is never done. we are broadcasting this assembly meeting through cubavision.
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we are broadcasting this event through all of our media. it's not just the cuban media. we have invited the most renowned journalists, tv journalists from venezuela. we have walter. they are broadcasting this event simultaneously. [applause] >> mario is also here.
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he is also broadcasting this live through venezuelan television. we have alesa, who is broadcasting live the proceedings here. the first half hour was even being broadcast by cnn. the major news networks, the ones who want to listen to this are broadcasting this. i can give you a quick calculation. i would say if we were to -- this broadcast would probably cost $100 million a minute if we had to pay for it. we are aware of that. we could continue speaking here so we can ensure that our words will have these repercussions, these impacts.
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[applause] >> kan yachlt serrano has the floor. >> commander in chief, one thing i don't want to lose sight of as we'd like to first of all wish you a happy birthday. we know that you continue to be younger and younger and all of our young people are supporting you and that our -- we are their heart and soul, supporting you in this struggle. you asked if we had questions. i did want to ask one. commander, based on the experience, the flow of exchange
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from group that come from the united states that show solidarity with cuba, we would like to say that we agree that within that society there are significant human values. we believe that this is one of the reasons why we agree with your comments, this message that you have conveyed, that this is the time for persuasion and president obama should hear us. in u.s. society, commander, we continue to hear people from different political and ideological groups, and they all agree ultimately, although they express themselves differently, but they agree that there needs to be a new perspective vis-a-vis the rest of the world. today you said that even president obama, he has in his own makeup as a citizen, he represents two different cultures. don't you think that this is the time where we need to intensify the dialogue between
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civilizations, delve further into this and therefore find solutions for many of the challenges that the world is facing today? thank you, commander. >> let me just re respond by saying we have very little time for dialogue, although i consider them to be indispensable. but they need to be brief, without wasting a moment. i tried to explain in my message that everybody should work in that direction. i have no doubt that the chinese are also moving in that direction. because they are very aware about the current international situation. i have no doubt that the russians are also moving in that direction. i see it.
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i perceive it. i feel it. and so i'm talking about two major powers. in addition, in the case of the ussr, they are currently facing a major disaster as a result of climate change. the same thing we stated when we addressed the documentary home produced by the french filmmaker, where he worked with everybody's cooperation. we have another example that real disaster, in fact, i have more detailed information here looking at, we have now temperatures of 40 degrees centigrade in that country. they are suffering the consequences of this. this is seen worldwide.
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if the world could, and we need to make sure that the world moves forward. and we have made some progress along these lines. and that is our duty. it's not something that should be praising us for this, this is our responsibility. we need to move forward. and that is what we are trying to do. the dialogue between civilizations is wonderful, but that's a dialogue over four years. but we're talking about a dialogue that is -- must be addressed in just a few weeks. at least that's my opinion. and it's not going to be done right away, and it's not just these problems that need to be addressed with this new scenario. the number of problems are
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infinite, but i hope that the most outstanding, most intelligent human beings do what they can, and at least make those first steps a reality and not grope in the dark. otherwise, what is going to happen? because do we see the end of the empire? the empire that has sustained through the use of force and wars? and wars are no longer instruments for sustaining the empire. they would have to, the advantage with obama is he's not a nixon. that country has had presidents, many of them were cynical. others were ignorant. reagan was a total ignoramus. roosevelt and the two atom bombs
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would not have been launched over hiroshima and nagasaki. they would not have been dropped. it was done by truman. truman who is ignorant and irresponsible. there was no need to drop these bombs. the japanese were already defeat ed. the emperor already made a decision to put an end to that war before nuclear weapons were dropped. one was dropped, then a second one. do you know the power that nuclear weapons possess, that are accumulated worldwide? for example, just comparing the destructive capacity of those first two bombs and those that are today stockpiled by mankind
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and the two most powerful nations, the u.s. and russia, the explosive power of the weapons accumulated worldwide are equivalent to 450,000 times greater power than the two weapons that destroyed hiroshima and nagasaki. it may appear -- it doesn't seem very meager. it is so destructive. what's left after that destructive power? nothing. thank you. >> comrade yolanda gomes. >> yolanda gomes, dear commander fidel, comrade, we feel enormous
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satisfaction to be here once again seeing you after all the time that has elapsed since your recovery. we've always been thinking of you, we've always had you with us day by day. throughout this time, you have been our open reference that we can consult. you have maintained us up to date about the world. you have kept us informed about the evil causes and effects of current capitalism. you have warned us of the dangers that the human species faces with the deterioration of the environment and in recent days you have also reflected upon the real possibility of the unleashing of a large scale conflict that we still can't imagine its ultimate consequences. as we are all aware in this very complex world of contradictions and a
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convulsive one, commander, we have placed all of our hopes in latin america and the caribbean. and that is why we would like you to discuss your perspectives about the political scenario for latin america over the next few years that in some countries we will see elections coming up. presidential elections. thank you very much. >> well, comrade, i at the outset thought that a war would be unleashed and on the basis of that i thought it would be unavoidable. and i tried to imagine who would be spared this. who would be spared the immediate total destruction. and i realized that there was one region in the world that
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does not possess nuclear weapons, doesn't threaten anyone. and there wasn't any reason to launch any bombs against this region. i'm referring to latin america and the caribbean. stretching from the u.s. border all the way down to padagonia, i don't think the fallklands will merit being hit by bombs, but i don't know. we know that we have our medical brigades deploying in, near australia, in east timor, there we have deployed physicians, we hope that they will not be affected. but today we discuss what is,
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what are the effects of the spread of radioactive emissions? we know that in the desert in the united states, in arizona, nevada, throughout that region, the americans conducted many atmospheric tests without telling anyone. and that there were damages, but they weren't destructive. i remember once when khrushchev, he exploded a 20 megaton bomb, which is 100 times more destructive than the bombs over hiroshima and nagasaki. it was launched and there were radioactive emissions over many areas. but how many of those kinds of tests have taken place? i don't know.
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when i spoke with economists from the center for global economy, they were asking what can be done given a situation like that? a very challenging situation. because this just wasn't discussed. and all of a sudden one of my colleagues said, what do you think of this scenario? it seemed like a science fiction scenario. what if everything were destroyed? but what if the latin american countries were spared this? if you're in a situation like that as an economist, as a scientist, what would you recommend given this kind of scenario? that was the question i posed to these economists. and then i continued to reflect and reflect further on this. and i reached this conclusion. and i have absolutely no doubt that when you asked me a question about with this
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scenario that i've assumed and i met with this center, this was about a month ago, and i've been reading constantly the news coming from other areas, and today the objectives have to be even greater and more lofty because if there is a nuclear war and if we are able to preserve our scientific knowledge, a lot of what is today in existence, never have we seen a similar situation in history. there has never been another instance where we've seen any other species like human beings. human beings were the first that
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only date back a few thousand years as we see it today. and we know that we also had the big bang theory, and all of these scientific advances have for the theologists, we know marisol isn't familiar with it, the religious theologians know this, the theory is harder and harder to sustain. because they have to reinterpret their teachings. and i pointed this out in an article who talked about the evolution of man and it's been 18,000 years of evolution. well, evolution just doesn't go back 18,000 years. 18,000 years ago there was just
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fire and matter. evolution began on the planet with the first microorganisms and that does not diminish a theologian's interpretation, but regarding the notion of time, what is the notion of time? time is something invented by men. man invented time. and how do we explain the beginning of time? well, that's what science has tried to -- contributed to through its body of knowledge. and we know that the sun is not eternal. even the angels talk about the
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final extinction of the sun. of course that would end our sources of energy. that's where we get our energy from. therefore, if we're going to situate ourselves properly, some of these previous concepts that were mentioned don't contribute to a solution to the problems. we all hope that we are realistic in the way we view the problem. let's not try to focus our solutions, our approaches with old ideas. we need to look at the real nature of these threats and we need to find new approaches to the problems.
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>> representative alexis has the floor. >> thank you. commander, i just wanted to say that i, just as everyone else who have come here to listen to you, to learn from you and frequently you've said that if hitler had had a people like the cuban people, he would never have done what he did. i think that only with -- through your examples, through your teachings, through your inspiration and with a highly educated people you can overcome the most malicious threat, which is u.s. imperialism. i want to continue to listen to your comments. >> well, thank you. you're welcome.
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you reminded me yesterday when you sent me a picture with your children and i want to thank you for that and i heard you at the monument to jose martin, you spoke there. and you have picked up on these new ideas. that's the issue. you have your ideas, but all i'm saying -- i'm warning that we need to make sure we make the most of our time. sometimes we talk and talk and we're ad the midnight hour and we still haven't addressed the. true challenges. i never thought i would have to reiterate this so often.
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and that's why i would like to offer the floor to the next speaker. >> it's not -- commander in chief, president raul castro, esteemed colleagues, i'm going to be very brief. we have over the last few days been reviewing some historic documents, and i found the biography of alfred noble. i just want to read two lines from his writings in his will and testament. he said, "what is left of my fortune will be distributed the
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following way. the capital will be invested in stocks and this will serve as a fund whose interests will be distributed every year through prizes. and that during the -- the prizes will be for those in the previous year have been responsible for providing the greatest benefit to mankind. another part of his last will and testament, after he talked about literature, he said part of my will be given to those who have worked most arduously and diligently in strengthening brotherhood and for reducing or eliminating existing armies and celebrating and promoting peace processes.
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and now we find a nobel peace prize that mankind is facing right now. we have perez, and in our own country we're facing the situation in costa rica where we also have a nobel laureate and we know again many challenges are being faced in terms of weapons of destruction. you, comrade fidel, without being a nobel laureate, you are working and struggling to spare mankind from these threats and i also ask, what is the role of
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all of the nobel laureates in this struggle that you are so involved in? and what would the nobel foundation say? i also think that walter, who is with us, we heard his program and he says that our only and -- i think that walter is going to have to add to his report the, this is my opinion, commander. >> translator: well, thank you. i think that's very interesting. i just wanted to say that, let me just be specific on this point. a specific point that i think we need to analyze.
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and i'm being very straightforward. i have 3 questions. that i would like to pose to you. and these i think everything hinges on these three questions. the first one, this is a question for all of you who are present here. the representatives, those who are -- represent the press, just to consider. and although i know they can't comment openly, but this is a question for everyone. those of you who are here in the plenary, you can respond.
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and now just jot this down. that the powerful empire, if it were to withdraw its demand that iranian merchant ships be inspected, that's a question. my next question, for all of the cubans that are at this meeting, not for everyone, not everyone that's here, venezuelans, et cetera, but for -- does anyone think that the iranians, a thousand-year-old culture, which
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is much more closely associated with the concept of death than we are, do you think that they would not show the courage that we have shown to oppose the demands of the united states? let me reiterate. does anyone think that the iranians, a thousand-year-old culture, which is more closely related to the concept of death than we are, do you think that they will not show the same courage that we have shown in opposing the demands of the united states? and next, a third question.
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would be for everyone. that is present here. is there any, are there any solutions to this contradiction? and i would add, well, i'm not going to say exactly what i added, but i'd like to have you try to answer these questions. because i think everything hinges on these. >> juan miguel gonzales has the floor.
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>> commander, my family, my son and i, we feel totally committed to our people, to the world and to the american people. i would like on behalf of my family as well, just to convey to the american people and to the president of the united states if they could hear me, you could hear me or my son, and they ensure that families throughout the world and families of families of our 5 heroes hopefully will be able to come back and enjoy their families as we do. thank you. [applause]
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>> i'd like to offer the floor to representative ophelia suarez. >> commander in chief, fidel castro ruse, president of the council state, raul castro, representatives, special guests, friends, you, commander, have discussed the need to persuade barack obama. and you have given us the inspiration we need for effecting this change. what you've said this morning, you've provided us with a change
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for renewing our hopes to ensure that things can change. i would like to just briefly refer to what happened during the previous people's assembly meeting where comrade alarcon called upon us to mobilize urgently for elargo, and we did that. we received in our e-mails very quickly almost an immediate call to action. we received the document that was passed by the congress in english, french and spanish. and we were able to distribute that to many organizations worldwide. these messages were quickly disseminated. it was a very rapid mobilization. and the results were obvious.
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you, commander, are calling upon us to mobilize in order to prevent this nuclear war. that is the call to action. and we need to ask ourselves what needs to be done. i think those three questions you posed are very clear. currently the world council of churches and the secretary-general, the basis of what you mentioned in hiroshima and nauggasaki have issued a declaration against war and the community on international affairs has also addressed these issues very directly. year the evangelical women's conference sent a letter to barack obama because on thanksgiving, the u.s. president can issue a release for our five heroes. and we thought november, the release would take place.
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that news would be forthcoming. but we're going to reiterate because we have the next thanksgiving coming up this year. and we're going to once again ask that our five heroes be released from prison over the next few weeks. therefore, i would say that what i don't know if the international commission on affairs, if a special commission could guide us in terms of the mobilization efforts conducted immediately after this assembly, with all of our resources. what specific actions need to be implemented, that includes answering the questions you already posed, that refer to the resistance by the iranian people? and those people will resist
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the way we did. we need to focus on new commissions. on our affairs as cubans, all of the efforts that we need to move forward with after your inspiring words this morning, where you call upon us almost with the same urgency as the efforts for combating illiteracy that cuba was involvedin. yes we can. we can mobilize many forces today to prevent nuclear war, to join ranks with those countries that are on the verge of war, and to do what we need to do. i would like to hear you, to hear your words, and perhaps guide us on the kind of initiatives we could undertake today as members of the assembly, as members of the
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party, or as citizens of this country. thank you. [applause] pres. castro: you responded very well. i am very satisfied with the answer. you have pointed out what needs to be done. and that is, we need to continue with the maximum amount of energy following what you said, spreading the word with as many people as possible to convey that message. you also talk about specific dates. you were hoping for example that the comrades would have been released by that date. i thought that one week is too little time.
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december is too long. [applause] there, colleagues from the council of ministers. the president of the assembly. representatives, guest. i wanted to take the floor and
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speak on the half of the cuban university students who are very joyful to see our commander here once again. suchng our people in complex challenges. i speak on behalf of the athletes that represented our recent university competition. international competition. they were crowned champions. in the international year of youth, students and progressives throughout the world are waiting to celebrate the 16th anniversary of the students for peace and solidarity. social transformation. we will overcome. we will develop, in particular, the african continent, events devoted to important figures in
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history. -- mandela anda fidel castro. what message would you impart on the thousands of young people and students that will be in that continent? >> it would be the same message more or less that i conveyed to , that in youth leaders conveyed when i spoke with them. about, where are you? >> here i am in the last row.
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>> well, you asked for the floor, i am here. did you ask for the floor? i am just reflecting on your three questions and i will respond. suarez has the floor. >> i am the president of the
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people's council of managua. castro, specifically, very specific. what do you think could be the role of the european union to prevent the conflict? opinion ofet your the importance of russia and china, after having not vetoed the security council resolution, how significant is that? eventsn't want to judge that took place, whether they were done correctly or not. what is important is what is going to happen now. decisively they are carrying out efforts to prevent war. i think that is very positive.
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i think that answers your question. >> luis men wellman ramirez -- manuel ramirez. commander-in-chief, i have taken a lot of notes from your comments. there is one thing that you said. analyst andbe an not look at things with traditional ideas you have to new approaches. there were a couple of things that made me reflect.
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i am the president of the teachers association. establishle to relations with u.s. teachers. we received a large delegation of teachers from the u.s. in our province. santiago they cuba. havana. and other provinces. and i is part of the leadership, i was able to establish contact communication's have broken off. perhaps i need to make an effort to restore many of these contacts and friends. i have realized in the political and


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