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-- this very ideological standpoint? let's keep america healthy and reduce the deficit, and grow the economy as we protect the american people, globally, in the homeland, and in our neighborhood. let's do it in a way that respects the voices of everyone. we will resist when they try to show us -- to shut us down. thank you all very much. >> tomorrow, al sharpton remembers martin luther king jr. with the march and rally washington, d.c. he claims together issues around
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voting rights, criminal justice, health care, and economic justice. you can watch that on eastern at c-span. tv bringsekend, book you 2 days of nonfiction books and authors. saturday at 7:30 p.m. eastern, urban radio network's april ryan moderates a discussion on race relations in america. at 10:00 p.m. eastern on "afterwards," a new york magazine columnist looks at the presidential record of barack obama in his book "audacity: how barack obama defied his critics and created a legacy that will prevail." he is interviewed by jim costa from cnn. >> this is about embracing this in a model and defending it going forward the way we do with
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lincoln and roosevelt. while not on that scale, is the closest thing we've got in american history to the kind of successful president, and should be defended by americans from the center to the left. a from townhall seattle, radio host on the role that religion has played in american history in his latest book "the american miracle: divine providence in the rise of the republic." go to book tv.org for the complete we can schedule. ♪ [applause] inaugurationential of donald is friday, january 20th. coverage ofhave all the ceremonies. watch on c-span and c-span.org,
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and listen live on the free c-span radio app. ♪ >> for the next 40 minutes, in american history tv exclusive. our cities tour visits scottsdale, arizona to learn more about its unique history. for five years, we have traveled across cities in the u.s. to explore their literary and historic sites. you can see more on c-span.org/citiestour. here,ot of people around when you live in scottsdale a long time, they think of an army chaplain and a fiery preacher and all of that. what people don't know is that he was a fierce warrior in the union army as a young man, either born in michigan, but grew up in western new york. he just graduated from seminary
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school and had been assigned to a church when the civil war broke out in lincoln called volunteers. he went back to his hometown in new york and started recruiting and raising his own company of soldiers. i think he recruited about 33 of his own cousins, and his bible study class. [laughter] he even recruited the town band. they went on to stay with him in the army and would be one of the most celebrated our events during the war. -- celebrated army bands during the war. he took part in the battle of gettysburg, spotsylvania, and wilderness. he was in all of those, and excited for bravery -- and cited for bravery. he was shot five times in total.
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been spotsylvania, he was shot in the chest. he had a bible in his coat pocket. that sort of spent the bullet. hit inn he took a bad the leg. they left in the four dead. he took up his rifle and aimed at the incident -- and aimed it at them and said, get me to a hospital. >> they took him to a field hospital. his wife found out about it. she was refused permission to come to the battlefield. she wanted to take him home. the officers refused. she went to president lincoln and got a private meeting. imagine doing that today. he wrote her a pass. she went out to where the
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fighting was and took her husband home. he was through with war. he had been shot up pretty bad, a lifetime of pain and such. he started establishing churches across the western states. a few years later, he decided that he must the army. he could not be a fighting man, so he rejoined as a chaplain. arizona.ioned ihim to he came up in 1888 with the army. he immediately thought, this is the place that i want to be. it reminded him of the river nile country. at heart, i think he was a former. -- was a farmer. he saw the opportunities here. mule.e horseback on this
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he rode that mule over the valley looking for just the right place. communityto start a that was more religious. he thought, this would be a great place to grow citrus. some real estate in 1888. he bought a section of land for two dollars and $.50 per acre. first real him the estate guide to turn a profit here in this part of arizona. he became well known. he would tell them about the wonders. he had a reputation of integrity. these people would move in from the midwest.
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they were right. the crops came in. it was a very good place to live. the weather was good. at the time, the area did not grow much. they did not have stoplights here until 1959. it was a slow-growing place. they were mostly farmers. we in scottsdale used to be in the center of town. this was the first school house in scottsdale, built in the early 1900s. this area where i am standing plaza, thiscivic was a barrio. merchants decided around 1947, the town was really small with a population of
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around 400. it would grow 2000 by 1950. ii.cially after world war they were trying to decide what they could do. the first mayor of the town said, let's be western. mostined the phrase, the western town. they decided all of the storefronts and to look like a movie set. for a long time when i was a kid, they did. there was no place in the valley like scottsdale with that frontier. at that time they did not have stoplights or anything, just if you stop signs. -- just a few stop signs. this is a picture of the founder winfield scott and his wife helen and his army mule. i think because he was such a
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remarkable person, he should not be forgotten. i like telling the story of winfield scott. he was a man of character, but i tell you, i would not want him pointing at me with a rifle. [laughter] he was one bad boy on the battlefield. >> this is an example of how to live in the desert southwest. it was a building that frank lloyd wright used as a , working to create a new kind of affected capture -- new kind of architecture for america. he died in 1959. greated through an era of development and change. when he was born, there was a very young nation -- america was a very young nation. create anto
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architecture that was open and free. hugo this h -- he shows how this is an example of new architecture for america. how this architecture can relate to the landscape. down with aght came bout of pneumonia. living in wisconsin, the winters were hard on him. he was 70 years old. his doctors said, if you can escape the wisconsin winters, maybe you can increase your life by 20 years. having worked in arizona in the 20's, he remembers the wonderful climate and starts to look for property where he can build his winter camp, as he referred to it. he purchases the land at the foot of the mountains and
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scottsdale and begins to construct his winter camp. the welding into the landscape. it is a wonderful example of how to make architecture blend with its environment. this is a cluster of different building units together to make one large home studio for frank lloyd wright and his apprentices. onh about 80,000 square feet 494 acres in the sonora desert. it is a complex of living .uarters, working space i think the guggenheim museum in new york city was worked on. it is a place where wright and his band of 30 or so apprentices could live and play.
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this was his living room, or garden room. this is where he and his wife could retreat and have a little peace and quiet. this space is very intimate to wright. here andht first came started constructing, he wanted to take it vantage of the sun. he constructed built up beams and set canvas panels in between the beams. these panels filtered the harsh desert light. klm for wonderful day late fores -- they allowed wonderful daylit spaces during the day. it was a wonderful place for him to connect to the environment. this idea of connecting the building the place, creating
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this wonderful daylit space. wright's style was inspired by japanese architecture. something that he borrows is the idea of the borrows landscape. he works to blend the interior space of the building with the exterior space. if you sit in the garden room, there is a lovely window wall that opens up to the garden. garden right into the space. was affected by the depression. he did not have a lot of work on his drafting boards. it was a time when his wife said, if we cannot create architecture, why don't we create architects? wright was against the traditional method of teaching architects by going into a traditional school and instructing. he felt that architects should
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be trained by the way of learning by doing, by getting out and learning traction -- and learning construction. so that you can take that into the drafting studio and create proper construction. his fellowship, school wheredoing he trains the next generation of architects. >> this is>> his drafting studio. apprenticesis worked on some of their projects, like the guggenheim museum in new york city. this is where all of the work was completed. mostg one of wright's prolific periods in his life. space baseding this
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on the work you are doing here. when you walk into this space, you see the drafting tables, you see the roof, which creates this beautiful filtered light. not revealed is until you sit down at your drafting table, and the landscap e comes in through the windows. he will use low roofs to frame views, and really choreograph your experience. after his passing in 1959, the apprentices here continued his created an associated architects firm, which continued to work through the 60's through ehe 1990's, and continued th
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learn-by-doing model. of theests take a tour , we want people to think of this idea of thinking outside of the locks, creating a risk that will enhance your life. ight came out here at a time when he was 70 years old. he started something completely new. one of the things we like to say is that wright persevered in everything that he did. he worked to move architecture and society forward. when people look at taliesin west, they can maybe get an understanding of that in their own life.
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♪ welcome to the salt river american indian community. pima, the as the people that live towards the water, or the maricopa. we are primarily farmers. they lived along the verdict rivers and traveled with the seasons. the pima believe they are descendents that don't an interconnect -- that built an intricate canal system. we are bordered by the cities of scottsdale and fountain hills. the western quarter is our commercial corridor. that is the legislated for
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economic development. we have a residential space where our community members reside. we have 19,000 acres held in natural preserves. that is land that will never be touched. this showcases the mcdowell mountains on the northern border. you have approximately 10,000 enrolled members. 4000 of those live in community boundaries today. the community was established 1879 by president rutherford b. hayes. we were given approximately 500,000 acres to the west valley. that was met with resistance from our community members. our leadership gathered together and went to visit the president himself, and had conversations with explaining our ties to the land, explaining who we are as a importantd why it was to have access to that land. we were reestablished with the 52,000 acres, instead of being
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pushed out altogether. our tribal leadership negotiated the freeway that runs along the western corridor of our community. that has brought sustainable economic development. development brings not only jobs to our community, but a diversified tax base. that allows us to be sustainable as a community. i providest for our police, fire, health care, and education, but also our cultural revitalization efforts. we believe the best way to preserve our culture is to share our story. we do so in the way of architecture, architectural displays. native american dance showcases. we have a monthly bingo. we teach not only our young ones, but people like myself the native tongue. we have a community garden that
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is active in your round. -- active year round. we have families that can cultivate that plot as well. we have a lot of revitalization because of economic development. pet friendly establishment has allowed us to create what we call the talking stick entertainment destination area. it allows us to put all of her entertainment amenities in one location. it is not only convenient for our guests, but also our members. it is not encroaching on residential space. theave 2 golf courses, first spring training facility on tribal lands. anything you want to see or do, we have it here this area. we have gaming within our boundaries.
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we use our gaming revenue to provide goods and services for our people, health care, education, fire, and police. we do allow are used to go to college on scholarships. to afford them that opportunity to grow and the future leaders for our community. it is not without issues as well. we have drug abuse. we have domestic violence. we have poverty here as well. we also have a lot of successes. we have people going to college and getting degrees and wanting to be leaders making changes. we struggle just like everyone else, but have leaders working diligently to make things better for all of our people. visit, i hope that they gain a better understanding of who we are as a people. we are not one of the most
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prevalent trends in the state. when someone says i visited the trt river, the pima-maricopa i does not come to mindbe. tribe thatly a hopi comes to mind. we have been here for thousands of years. we are strong, proud, and i'm not going anywhere. we are happy to share a story with anyone that comes to visit us. >> we are at the arizona heritage center. this exhibit is the whole world war ii exhibit and how arizona played a role in. roles duringot of world war ii. we are in the prisoner of war section, one of the largest prisoner of war camps right here.
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campswere several pow scattered around arizona. if you escaped, it was much more difficult to get away. this particular camp had about .000 german prisoners in about 1944, they started moving in the german prisoners. they had about 4000 prisoners. many of them were hard-core german naval personnel. we always think, and is probably true, but the government was probably getting them as far away from water as they could. instruments were trying to figure out how to get back. they knew the mexican border was not too far south. they saw a map. lines whereblue rivers are supposed to be.
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eca blueline in germany, that there.there is a river you see a blue line here, it means, they're used to be a river but there might not be water there now. from the colorado river, they could head south into mexico and hook up with german intelligence. this was the plan. they had to figure out how to get out of this place. it was pretty secure. underneath, we liken it to concrete. military thought, they can't dig a tunnel out of here. they underestimated their determination. they had to find a place to displace the dirt. aey said they wanted to build
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volleyball court. the authorities thought, that is a good idea. if they played vulnerable, that will keep them -- play volleyball, that will keep them busy. they give them permission. they had to have dirt for the volleyball court. that is where they were going to displace that dirt from the tunnel. digging with everything they could. they would put the dirt in their shorts, play volleyball, and shake thedirt. that sounds tedious. it took a little time. they dug about 14 feet down. from there, they dug 180 feet over to a canal.
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the captain in 1984 when they came over for a reunion. if there was anyone that looks like he came out of central casting in hollywood, it was him. he was senior commander of the prisoners. 25 were selected to go. 44, theyer 23 of june threw a christmas party. a real loud raucous christmas party so there would not be any noise. down the tunnel they went,a nd got into the canal. boatthe guys carried a which was to be preassembled at the river. it was in three parts. they all went out together. they started walking towards phoenix.
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it was just about christmas eve. they only knew a couple of words in english. everywhere they went, they were saying, merry christmas! nobody thought anything was strange about 3 guys carrying a prefab boat. river.nt out to the gila it had been raining. the river was up and flowing. let's get a little sleep. they went out into the middle of the river on an island and put the boat together and took a nap. they will go to the next morning and the river drived up. they had no choice but to start walking. it was only 200 miles to yuma.
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they were walking across the desert following the river. they stopped for some reason to wash their underwear. they hung it up in a tree. a cowboy came by and saw underwear, and by now were not gotten out there have been a outive -- word had gotten that there have been a massive escape. watch out, these guys were really bad. these guys were just kids. when they interviewed later, they said, we were wet and cold and scared. they were more scared than we were. i spent 40 years teaching at the college level. those are the stories people remember.
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when i teach history, these are the ones i grabbed them with. these are things that can relate to. you pull them in with stories of just human, or beings being human beings. the faces that you see on dollar bills. -- not the faces that you see on dollar bills. these are faces that they can relate to. >> an incredible collection of indian art collected by the friend harvey company. our story is about the people that made the artwork, those that worked for the fred harvey company, and helped that business become a success. the thing that the fred harvey company brought to this was the
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concept that native peoples tailored, native art could be purchased. they were presented as the exotic "other." their photos and drawings were used on promotional literature, brochures, booklets, packets, as well as the work they created. fred harvey in the grand canyon and southwest. the current division has a collection of more than 4000 objects that the fred harvey collected between 1901 and early 1940's. it focuses on the bigger story butt the harvey company, also their work with native american art, their work with the santa fe railway, and
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particularly the work that they did at the grand canyon and other parts of the state. fred harvey came to the u.s. from england in the 1850's as a teenager. he began working in restaurants as a dishwasher and a plus point, -- and bus boy. he had some failed businesses. in the 1870's, he formed a partnership with the santa fe railway to provide food service at the railway stop. from all accounts, the food was pretty bad. fred harvey brought a bit of elegance to dining along santa fe. china, crystal, and fresh food. this really changed railroad travel. fred harvey's health began to fail in the late 1800s,
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harvey tookford over the business. many credit fred harvey's daughter for using the concept of american indian art to promote trade and travel. and the establishment of the american indian art is this. theis credited with hiring design as the first leg native art display at the alvarado hotel in albuquerque. we talk about arizona and the fred harvey activities. mary culture is key to that story. she began working for the harvey company on a contract basis in 1902. she went on to do a number of designs.
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exterior, thend number of buildings, particularly the grand canyon. the first she designed was hopi house at the grand canyon, which opened in 1905. lookoutshe designed the . she designed the watchtower in 1933. although many of the hotels don't remain, this one is still standing. per design book details every item in every room. it shows fabric samples and gives insight into her design and technique. a number of talented native american artist worked for the harvey company at different times.
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painterhave a talented who studied at the santa fe indian school. in 1933, mary culture hired him to paint a mural at the south rim of the canyon. that was an opportunity to feature his great paintings. she heard him to paint murals at the launch. they depended native peoples --depicted native peoples live. they also depicted tourists driving to the canyon. the also -- they could also work as greeters or dance performers. came up with the hopi feather a
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headdress. he came up with this concept into thinking that that would be the only way that this was what recognize him as an american indian. he was at the canyon for a number of years as a greeter. the southed dances on rim. roosevelthen theodore was visiting albuquerque, the fred harvey company planned to have a textile woven for him. the harvey company had a weaver. the textile in red, white, and blue. it had his name, date, and commemorated her visits. she would go on to work for
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harvey company for about 20 years. with photography as it was, we see her in front of the alvarado hotel when douglas fairbanks came to town, when mary pickford came to town. she was an ambassador of sorts for the fred harvey company. one thing that curators like to do when they have a collection as extensive as this, like the photograph behind us, we like to see if we can find objects that are in the collection today that appear in those historic photographs. the basket that we are standing this photograph. we have seen it in a few other photographs. this time period, artists were pretty much anonymous.
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we tried to go back and connect artwork with the native artist who created them. case, it was work with were skilleds that in basketry, to look at the sign and make an attribution to mary benson. we think she was working on this at the time she was at the alvarado hotel. we think that because the basket is left unfinished. you can see the fibers. these would have been trimmed off. the harvey company liked to show work in progress. they like to show the steps of things they have made. they may have left this unfinished for that reason. one of the things we want to reinforce is that made -- is
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that native american art has continued throughout the century. the native arts are really driving. -- really thriving. we are standing in front of a depiction of the grand canyon that was commissioned. although there are transformations in native american art, all of the art forms and continued to thrive. you see that in the shops at heard museum, the and other museums in arizona. >> our visit to scottsdale, arizona is in american history exclusive. w showed ite to you to introduce you to this he spends cities tour. we have traveled across cities
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in the u.s. to travel their literary and historic sites. you can see more on c-span.org/citiestour. ♪ >> c-span's "washington journal," live and policy issues that impact you. huffington post's senior political correspondent and the national journal managing editor will discuss events from the past week, including investigation into the comey fbi predilection activities, trump's 's conference and confirmation hearings, and president obama's farewell address. injured f about the vs. douglas county school case that was heard earlier this week. a discussion on a recent piece in national affairs magazine, log

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