tv [untitled] March 3, 2017 7:18pm-8:01pm EST
and atlantic council, thank you all for coming to this fascinating presentation with ambassador mcfaul at washington university. , again soon. -- come again soon. mr. mcfaul: thank you very much. [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2017] [captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit ncicap.org] >> c-span's washington journal live every day with news and policy issues that impact you. coming up saturday morning, the american civil liberties union discusses the decision to obamae course on an
decision to phase out private prisons. we will discuss the trump administration's moved to roll move.nd obama era how employers are using big data and the relationship between workers and technology is changing? c-span'so watch washington journal beginning live at 7:00 a.m. eastern saturday morning. join the discussion. night on afterwards, the latest book reclaiming our founders vision for united america. she is interviewed by michael steele, former chair of the rnc. >> winds unity come into play and how does this book provides prescriptions for turning that important corner to recognize
how important unity is? >> this book as a refresher of civics, but i wrote it in a way that we need help. andica is a great country, are confused by who we are and what we want, and that is what we are wrestling with. this unity piece, we have to break it down because the problem you saw in the last election is that half the country literally feels one way, and another half goes another. >> senate and 9:00 eastern on "afterwards." minutes, andxt 40 american history exclusive, our city's tour visits fresno, california to learn more about it unique history. we have traveled to cities across the u.s. to exploit their literary and historic sites. you can watch more of our visits /citiestour.n.org
♪ while fares go back to the early to late 1800s depending on what part of california you are in and it starts with grandmother -- it starts with my grandmother's pies are better than your grandmother's pies. out withhat it started his competition and people getting together after harvest in this area. we sat in the number one ag county in the world. our fairs have always been after the harvest time. once we gathered everyone together and talked about what was going on after harvest time, people started talking about i did something different this year. i fertilized different or i started things quicker this year than last year. into the education process and when you gather these people together, you try
to educate them at the same time. >> we are in our big fresno fair museum that we started four years ago, and we have probably 4000 pieces of memorabilia in this building alone. and a lot of those pieces are held together by glue. was an historian that took millions of pictures of the san joaquin valley. it tells the story of agriculture and this valley. we were very fortunate and blessed to have a close association with the foundation. we have had an opportunity to get a lot of his original pictures. we were able to acquire the first-ever video of the big fresno fair in 1930.
he has played a big part of telling our story, which is very important. >> horse racing at the big fresno fair is big and has always been big. even in 1904. were racinghorses against each other. in 1884.ing started now we have hopefully a to 10 horses per race and we make a great race out of it, but that is how it started back in that time. fresno, the auto racing industry has been huge going back to the early 1900s. in the late 1920's, fresno fair was known to have the fastest track in the world, and the unique thing about the track is it was made out of wood. from the ground to the top of turn two and turn two and three
and four, the was a lot of bank on the track. those cars back in the early 120's were doing 113 to miles per hour, and the track was not very safe because of the high speeds. they could go off the track. we lost a number of racers at this track. it caught fire in the late 1920's. and the fair board looked at the cost that it would take to rebuild that facility, and the decision was made to take it down and recyclable would and make a lot of the original buildings. mid-1920's, thanks to one of our major sponsors, on a monthly basis -- barney would be the equivalent of having one of the earth hearts here every month. it drew big crowds and tremendous racing. had the besthey
shoes in the country racing because of the reputation of having the fastest track in the world and it was all wood. as far as the education of our visitors, even though we were they number one producing ag county in the world, it was imperative that the younger generation understand where their food comes from. the concept of all of the school kids that have come through here on an annual basis is that all of the food comes from the local many market. that is where they envisioned that things come from. we tried to tell the story that no, it doesn't come from the minimart. it starts back on the farm and ranch. it starts with alfalfa and grain , cows, milk, beef, and chicken and explained to them what the processes. i have had the opportunity to travel throughout the united states and look at a lot of ag buildings. none of them comes close to our
ag building. that sitsave a fair in the middle of the number one ag county in the world and the breadbasket of the world, the ag building better be pretty good. premiums3,000 worth of in the building every year and people come in to compete every year to make sure that ag building is number one, but it should be because that is a reflection upon us. ♪ >> commander general of the defense command determined that all japanese within the coastal areas should move inland. all persons of japanese descent were required to register. >> we have to put themselves -- had to put ourselves in their shoes in 1942 and not look through the lens of 2017. what we are trying to do is
humanize experience and explain to people environment that people were in so they could understand how people indoors that period. we are at the special collection research center at california state university fresno. we are talking about the 75th anniversary of executive order that president franklin 19th,elt signed on figure 1942. after the bombing of pearl harbor in 1941, the president cited that japanese-americans needed to be evacuated from all because the west coast they may be seen as a kind of threat, so they rounded up all of the japanese-americans, including children and elderly people and sent them to these camps. the executive order was the
order that authorized the removal of all japanese-americans from the west coast. people wonder why didn't they say something at the time? they did. many people did not know about it. one went to the supreme court. it was denied and he lost that case. it wasn't until the 1980's that the decision was overturned by a federal court. fresno in the san joaquin valley has always had a very large japanese-american valley because of agriculture. that is what they are known for. when all the japanese-americans were 4% to -- or were sent to camps, there were 10 camps in the nation out of the west coast area. there were in california except for man's in our -- there were no camps in california.
a lot of our japanese-americans were affected. this is why we have this collection and we focus on it. we've had this collection for a long time. it comes from different donors , but recently, we have gotten more material and there has been more focused on it. we have been fortunate to meet up with a number of families, not just japanese-american families, but other families, like the man who ran the fresno assembly center. his family gave us a number of items that are important. ourscomes a major focus of . i think remembering the 75th anniversary of executive order 9906 is important because we have to remember that the people put in these camps, two thirds
were american citizens. theirtalked about in point of view, and that is my main focus, to talk about how they felt about it because for decades, nobody talked aboutit. one of the goals of the exhibition is to expose people what they felt themselves. in the collection is a number of photographs, but they illustrate what people -- what's the theronment was like before japanese-americans were sent to camp, and these are just examples of their racism and rampant athat was the time. people did not this between japanese-americans and japanese nationals who we were at war with after pearl harbor was attacked.
so we would show these to remind people the environment that the japanese-americans were in. these photographs illustrate what they had a few days to get rid of their property, their farms, everything had to go. they were only allowed to carry a certain amount. only what they could carry is what they would say. if you cannot carry it, you could not bring it to camp. they did not and where they were going, but they needed a few days to dispose of everything. these photographs showed them see ag up, so you will variety of duffel bags as well as suitcases. they were taken either by bus or train, and as i understand, the government did not want people to know they were transporting japanese-americans, so they had to be out of sight, so they had to put the shades down on the train.
they do not want anyone to know this was happening. this is a shot of a family, and you see they all have these tags on them. d.ery family was issued an i. number and they were told to wear the tags when they were transported so they could be identified. they did not use their names. they just used the numbers which is part of the shame and dehumanization. how the japanese have been americans were evacuated. they are color-coded by where they were sent. the first one talks about exclusionary's. it is all the state of california, it went all the way up to washington state, and oregon was excluded. this map shows each where -- each of where the assembly centers are. you were sent to a different
assembly center, and this explains where the centers were. there was one in pinedale and fairgrounds.esno the assembly center was a temporary location, so people lived in the horse stalls, and there are accounts about that, how hot it was in the summer, no air-conditioning. it dawned on me that "hitting the hay" was appropriate, hayuse they set on mattresses. we used the word internment knowing that officially the word internment is meant for prisoners of war and military prisoners. obviously, these people were never blamed for anything. he did nothing wrong, so they technically were not prisoners. they had no choice about going. while some were in the caps on equal did not know they did there run newspapers, and this
is the one from fresno, called the fresno "great line." even though they were there six months, they took the time to create a newspaper for themselves. they wrote about happenings in the camp. they were trying to create a sense of normalcy for themselves as well as to share information. they did not know for how long they were going to be there, and this is a way to communicate with each other and create a sense of community while they were in the sm presenters and then later in the assembly centers and then later in the cap. grapes, they did the vignette. they did this all themselves. the residents wrote, produced, you can see how they mimeographed it. i did not have printing presses,
but they did the best they could. people might be surprised to see they have yearbooks, and this is froma real yearbook, 1943-1944 in manzanar the only camp in california. they had high school classes, and these people graduated while they were in the camp. this was their yearbook. i just wanted to point out there were a lot of japanese-americans who enlisted in war. while their parents were in the camps, some of them chose to sign up to join the war. they were made up of only japanese-americans in the 442nd injury injury -- infantry. but when they came home on leave, they would come to the camps and visit with their parents and other family members. is the go highlights ,or broke national association
will be doing an exhibition in the space to talk about that military aspects of the world war ii and how the japanese-americans helped win that war. and it was not just them fighting. also helped the military with intelligence, so there is a section called military intelligence service, and anyone who could read or sometimesnese were sent to japan. some of the items that are borrowed, on loan to us, and we are looking at items that will be on the exhibition. these are items on loan to us. the first one is a trunk from a family. there is actually a blanket that was issued to them in the camp, and this is their family i.d.
number, 40421. this is what they could carry, so whatever they could print in the top and bottom, this is what they were able to bring to camp. and a family they us this army blanket because a lot of the camps were very cold. they were hot in the summer and cold in the winter. a lot of that did not bring appropriate winter clothing. so they were issued army blankets or give an old army coats. this is an example of one of those. piece of luggage, a duffel bag, and this is from another family. 6.u see their number is 4089 sanger.family were from what is interesting is they had to make their own duffel bag. sack, andtually a --
this company was a local company in fresno. fromve a wood carving another camp that was being lent to us. we do not know who made this. it is not signed. but it is quite beautiful. you see the guard tower. a lot of the intricate details. people had a lot of time in camp. they were allowed to work later on off camp. .ome of them had jobs in camp but a lot of the older people had nothing to do, so a lot took did a lotd crafts and of little craft work. this is a little sculpture, and i have the translation. someone carved in japanese, it forward, which means
an ethic that the japanese-americans have, and they call it -- which means en just make thedu best of things, and go on. re, and that is one of the elements of the exhibition we want to understand is they went through this whole experience, but over the generations they have hopefully come to terms with it, and many families have gone on to prosper and incorporate this history into their family histories. there is a lot of history that people do not realize, and it is pertinent today. talk about how clips groups are being targeted, and i know the japanese-americans have taken up the banner to fight against any forl liberties violations, example, with muslim-americans. they do not want this to happen again to anybody. and that is why i think history is important.
i would like people to understand this is something far is not that far along, away. it happened 75 years ago, but in the span of history, it is not that long ago. it could happen again, which is a reason for doing this exhibition. the kearneycated in mansion museum. this was the manager's residence. mr. kearney did not intend to live here permanently. he at plans for a grander chateau to be built on the property.
he's lived here for years until he died. mr. kearney was really a self-made man. he was not born here in california. he was born in liverpool, england. his family emigrated. they settled in a suburb of boston. and he went to commercial college, learned how to be a businessman. and he worked for a manufacturing company there. he started as a clerk, and before he knew it, he was a manager of the business there in boston. sometime in a kasich yunnan, he decided to come out here to california. it was a perfect time because the transcontinental railroad was coming through. and they decided this was the perfect opportunity to grow crops in this region. so, mr. kearney was hired by mr. william chapman, who bought a lot of the property out here through agricultural scrip. he hired mr. kearney to develop the colony farms out here. they started the first colony farm, central colony, out here in this area. so mr. kearney -- that is really where he made his money.
he was just a great land promoter. he enticed people to the central valley and settle here. the thing that really brought people out here was irrigation. the canals that were formed here would bring to the colonies their own irrigation water. also vineyards were planted for them and other fruit trees and so on. so it really was a great opportunity to settle in this region. the first crop they realized was successful was wheat. the result wonderful wheat field that was growing here. once they realize they could bring water from the river to irrigate it, it was ideal. eventually fruit crops -- raisins was a big part of what was grown out here and what we are known as today. we also have the regular grapevines out here. today we still have this. from trees, orange trees,
almonds. they discovered this was a perfect area for that. he wanted to get together a co-op of raisin growers to structure the pricing, control quality of raisins, and so he started the california raisin growers association and became the president. everyone thought that is a wonderful idea. he was known as the raisin king of fresno. he was looked on as the savior of the raisin industry. however, there were problems with people not getting along, not everybody agreeing with the ideas he had. eventually that went by the wayside. but the managerial ideas he had where later formed in another company, the sunmaid raisin company. so he is a big component of that corporation, which exists today.
this is the kearney's estate office. even though the kearney mansion was his home, this is where the business was conducted. a lot of people would come through the back door. this was the main entrance to the office door. the rail you see out there was the original rail. many years of people riding on the rail still show. you can see it in the wood. maybe people who wanted to buy property, perhaps people who worked here on the ranch, maybe the workers would pick up their paycheck, fill out forms -- you can see many years of people using that particular area as they came in. so the estate office changed over the years, but it's very similar to how it was when mr. kearney was here. in the back of the mansion, at one time, was a full town at one time. this is the kearney mansion.
at the same time, the house had been constructed and there was a very large water tower. someone stood on the water tower and took this wonderful photo. they had everything in here that anyone really could use. it really was a full working farm. in the 1940's and 1950's, it was torn down. we do still have some structures remaining like the carriage house is still here today. but we do not have these buildings in the back. we have this wonderful picture to refer to. here in the estate office, a lot of people enjoy seeing the different things of what he had here in the office. here is the safe. it was a walk-in safe. you will see "kearney vineyard syndicate" on the top. that is, of course, were mr. kearney would store his important papers, money, anything he needed safely stored away was in that safe. we have a filing cabinet here
that was here during mr. kearney's time. the labels were added later. this shows you what was here on the ranch. all of the things that were grown. peaches, prunes, alfalfa, grapes, of course, raisins were obviously a big crop out here. today when you come into kearney park, you see the big fields. that's where the alfalfa was grown. going over here in the corner, we see this wonderful broadside poster. this is in original poster. 1889. this is when mr. kearney was selling the land here on the fruitvale estate. it was very similar to his colony farm systems. these were 20-acre farms. very affordable for most people. and you can see on the top what the vision of one of those farms would look like. you see the canal. again, we have those today all over the city to bring water to the crops. below was a picture of the
chateau. that was going to be named chateau fresno, and it was modeled after a chateau in france. this is what kearney envisioned to be out here in kearney park, and that would be where he would live. unfortunately, however, the chateau was not built. mr. kearney died in 1906. in april of 1906, was actually in the san francisco earthquake at that time. he was not in the best of health. then he suffered probably a mild heart attack during that time. he came back here to fresno to recuperate, and he was going to go to his yearly trip abroad. he would usually do that to seek investors for his fruitvale estates project or socialize. unfortunately, onboard ship, he died of another heart attack. they had started a foundation at the park, but as soon as there
was word he died, that stopped. he was not married. he did not have any children. his will left everything to the university of california-berkeley, so they could build an agricultural college out here. they chose not to complete the chateau, and still continue to use it as a ranch. it would have been beautiful to have that, but unfortunately, it did never happen and we did not have a chateau fresno here in fresno. this is mr. kearney's private office. this is very similar to how it looked when mr. kearney lived here. as we walked through the house, we have pictures of what the house looked like when mr. kearney lived here. this is what it looked like in 1903. it is very similar to how it was when mr. kearney lived here.
we have a little hole in the wall here to show people what the structure is made out of, and that is adobe brick. it was very good insulation to keep the house warm in the winter and cool in the summer before we had air-conditioning or heating. when they started to excavate the land, it really was a sandy plain. not much out here. there was some vegetation, maybe some trees, but you can really get a sense of what it looked like when they did the groundbreaking. this picture shows chateau park -- that's what it was called. it was not called kearney park then -- in february 1892. this is the first day of the groundbreaking of the park. mr. kearney is in the front there with the long duster jacket. and right behind in the photo there is a building, and really it was the first manager's residence. the kearney mansion was the second manager's residence. that was the first built. that building exists today. we call it these servants quarters and is the head quarters for the fresno historical society today.
on the property, mr. kearney did have this wonderful general store that his employees could shop in and they would give out little coins to the employees and they could use those in the general store and exchange them for goods. kind of kept everything in the business, obviously, but it also helped the employees who did not have to go into town so much. or i guess there was another store in town that did accept the tokens as well. instead of using paper money, they would just use the tokens to purchase what they needed. also, there is a postcard of the original chateau in france, and i'm sure he visited there and that's where he got the idea of having his own chateau here in fresno. unfortunately, the chateau did not get built. we at least have this house today to bring people in. this is how they would about agriculture, learn about mr. kearney. we are so lucky that the kearney
mansion still exists today. >> when i was a kid, the public to the consigned you children's room in the basement of the library, and the only nonfiction books they had were books on the american west. since i have always been a nonfiction person, i read everything that i could there. primarily on native americans. over the years, the 1950's, when i was growing up, whereas a time when you had the movies at the were saturated with the american west. i fell in love with it. in 1993, i began traveling through the west, and i fell in love with its. and i quickly became to -- came toand
understand that it was just more than cowboy and indian fights, it was the artistry of the landscape, the culture, the history, and the really deep history, a history that involves so many different groups that it was a quite different west dan i have learned in hollywood all those years. nativern that there were americans and anglo-americans, but there were asian-americans, hispanic-americans, all contributing to the culture, and that the west was far more therse in many ways than places east of the mississippi where her. first of all, i will talk about books i had purchased on african-americans in the west. and then i will talk about the hispanic west.
and finally talk about some of the books on native american culture. that african-americans who were in the west were brought to the west as slaves, first in texas, and to the indian territory, that the five civilized tribes when they moved to oklahoma took their slaves with them. and so african-americans have always then in the west. they did not just show up suddenly. after the civil war, more southn-americans left the to form communities in the west. they are referred to exo-duxers, from the book and -- 50 recently i bought a book that was just published on the town of nicodemus in kansas, and this is now a state park in kansas. this is one of the many
all-black communities that reformed as they tried to find a new life of freedom and a place in the american west. the cowboy movies or if you watch the cowboy , almost 100% of ngles.wboys are a over 30% of the cowboys in the west were either african-american, hispanic-american, and even native american. out here in east fresno, joining the community of clovis, on a ranch, they hired many native americans to run their sheep and cattle. this is something you do not see in the cowboy movies. but there were black cowboys, and this will, "black cowboys of
the old west," covers that period. and when you see many of these -- dressedey look like, worked like, did everything that their white counterparts did. but not only were they cowboys, but they were marshals and law men. of a personography who was a fairy -- very famous marshall in the indian territory under the famous judge parker in fort smith, arkansas. and he is noted as an outstanding law man of his time. this is a picture of him. he was tough. sparingot worry about himself in catching outlaws, and
he caught many an outlaw that was brought to justice at judge parker's infamous court. we talked about native americans . even though i have purchased iterial on indian wars, thought it was important to buy books on native american culture, especially material culture. called -- you can see the various art of the native peoples. >> what kind of art are we seeing? themis is basically sketching in notebooks or pieces of paper they would find. they were describing -- because they did not have a written language -- they were actually describing battle scene there would be set symbols for what actually was going on.
even before the reservation wered, if native americans to find a notebook or something where they could write on, they would do ledger art. and from much of native american history, we this art either in their winter counts or in these notebooks. for example, for the battle of the little before, there are quite a few -- we have quite a few major actually describe the ledger books that actually describe the battle. these are two of my favorite books on native american culture. "americanis entitled mask," and you can see the dark mask that they put on their horses.
here is an example of a more modern horse mask, but in here in this oak you can find more traditional course masks and the native american period for reservation. each was a specific course. they painted each course in a specific of way -- specific way depend on their medicine. this last book, "bridles of the americas," and this covers indian silver. and this is just an example of the various types of native american silver that was used. americans had quite extensive trade routes between each other. you would find items that are made on the washington post thousand 1 -- washington coast a thousand miles inland. there were extensive trading
routes, which we sort of dismissed because we sort of reduced native americans to warring indians, which unfortunately -- -- which fortunately was not always the case. the history of east is to be more white, or protestant in its store. a history of the west is reflected because the beginning it is more multicultural in all its dimensions. and that is an important thing for americans to realize, and that everybody, hispanics, african-americans, native americans, asian-americans, they all contributed to the history and development of the west and shaped the west. our visit to fresno is an american history tv elusive, and we showed it today to introduce
you to the c-span cities tour. we have traveled to cities across the u.s. to explore their literary and historic sites. can watch more of our visits at /citiestour.rg we'll hear from nancy pelosiy. and a look at u.s.-russia relations and where it stands now under the trump administration and supreme court argument that questions whether sex offenders should have access to social media. >> vice president was in janesville, wisconsin to talk about economy and jobs. he spoke to reporters at a local restaurant where he was asked of his