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tv   [untitled]    March 31, 2017 6:50pm-8:02pm EDT

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morning. guest: thank you for having gettysburg was a battle that took place over 90 days. there are hundreds of corpses on the battlefield, all of those corpses are smelling and rotting. you think about the stench. then you think about the field hospital. there is an incredible amount of blood, there is a pretty perfect smell. you can get infections, it
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smells awful. they had to deal with some pretty her read this sights and sounds. things that they were not accustomed to. they also had to deal with the fact that thedid not want to be there. book deals with the civil war south. the confederacy was very disorganized compared to the not have aney did overarching medical system and to the end of 1862. there is a gap in medical care there. that created this opportunity for an incredibly well organized really ambitious women to step in and create and establish their own hospitals. early in the morning these women were running hospitals and they were volunteer efforts, that was because the confederacy had that really organize the medical system at that point. they september of 1860
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created a hospital. these early women had such low mortality rates, such lower mortality rates the general hospitals, there was a commission on much later the study this. these females had mortality rates of about 5% where general hospitals had a mortality rate of about 10%. they realized women were doing something positive for medical care. positionted a new called matron. were women being in charge of laundry and they were exposed to be in charge of dietitians. they were handling food for soldiers, it was not really written into this. -- what they actually did was patient care, when you are running the laundry, that many of them ran the laundry. they were in the kitchen.
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you are cooking for soldiers, early the next step is to get involved in patient care. consider the union nurses who are going to do wound dressing. they had more experiences, many more women stepped into those roles. were providing emotional care and a lot of ways. there is this trope of the female nurse watch it -- washing someone's brow. it seems trivial but those were tremendously important, they produced mortality because they made it meant feel better about themselves. cooking food that men could eat was something that women had more experience with, they had more experience with food. when you have these sick wounded men being able to cook things
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they could eat would save lives. they were hands-on patient care. there was not a tremendous amount of wounded dressing happening. thereas really not primary motivation. they wanted to support their side. the people who were more dedicated seem to be more accepted in the confederacy. not all of these women were slaveholders but a large percentage of them were. they got into this middle-class wealthy women, there was these working-class women who nursed greater they had a tendency to do it because they needed money. where as the women who are truly dedicated in the south tended to pro-confederate raider they were deep into the cause. them had a tough time with hospital care.
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there was a very famous woman who was a volunteer at a wayside hospital. were created at train depots to take care of men who are moving that conflict between the home front and the war. they were really important to medical institutions a lot of need tolt a patriotic donate their time and volunteer their time at these institutions. these women are not going to be seeing major wounds cannot they had a really difficult time with it. she had bad dreams when she came home, it was that something she liked seeing, it was not an easy thing to see. she was guilt stricken in effect that this was difficult. she felt like it was her heriotic duty to donate
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time. for some women they had a negative reaction. women just jumped into it. they were doing just about anything. they had very different reactions. struggledrelate because they were pro-confederate, they wanted their side to win. as their side was doing worse, it worse and was emotionally difficult for them. they are dealing with the fact that they have sick men who are alsodent on them, they have their material resources declining because the confederacy is not doing well. with thatlso dealing they are going to lose the war. they have all sorts of emotional issues to deal with.
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had been nurses throughout the war, the people who stuck with the confederacy tended to shift their role. to go into memorial activity. you have on the home front a lot of nurses societies. there are a lot of the societies where they are part of the aid society. witharted off manufacturing supplies, they would manufacture this in the hospitals. they would buy cloth and farm it out. of these societies shifted into hospital societies. many high-traffic routes would establish a wayside hospital where the women would contribute to the labor of that hospital. after the war a lot of the societies do not disband, they shifted and became what is called a ladies memorial foundation.
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they really retain the same membership, but they focused on was memory. it was not an esoteric kind of idea, it is important. they focused on raising monuments. they focused on burials. one of the things the societies do is try to find all of the bodies and try to create a cemetery. of what is fenced and has some kind of monument in the center, those were financed and built by women. they do not always to the direct labor, throughout the south if you travel pretty much every town has some kind of memorial that they would call martyrs. a lot of that work was , theytely done by women
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were heavily invested in this project of memory. they called them martyrs. workis highly political and at one of the ways they can get away with this is in the reconstruction. this would have been seen as traitorous. if men do these things. because of mask it as a kind of female morning, it seems more appropriate. they get away with what is that menlitical work would have seen as treasonous. i argue in my book that these women make a very critical contribution to what we call the lost cause of memory the physical memory of the civil war.
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was a benign institution, they had nothing to do with the cause of the war. overwhelmed by greater numbers, they had not conceded. all of these women are really active participants in disseminating this information. one of the ways in which they're most heavily politically involved is through the united daughters of the confederacy. because after the war, teaching a one of the things that respectable woman can do. they become heavily involved in education. because of the united daughters of confederacy are so important in terms of choosing textbook -- they choose textbooks. and they ok certain textbooks and they will mix others. ey have a critical effect on
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re-establishing white supremacy. and they have a critical effect of establishing this southern memory of the civil war. people what was the civil war they said the south went to war because of civil rights. i think because these women -- men were involved too. but i think because these women did a really, really good job of establishing this mythical memory of the lost cause. memory is political. memory preferences some people and it o mitts other people. when you create this very distorted memory of the war, you are leaving out emancipation. you are leaving out african americans. and you are making this all about white people. but that's what they want. that's ultimately what's important to them is re-establishing the racial order that's been destroyed by emancipation. i would hope that people would come away from my book and learn
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from my book just how critical women were during the civil war, just how much the civil war really changed gender roles and it did that differently in the north and the south in the union, nurses were heavily involved in the suffrage movement. southern women weren't. it's much more hidden. they were politically active in white supremacy. i think that's a really important lesson to take from all of this. >> the name of the book is the sheens of love and grace, the quest for common ground between humans and row boston -- robots. i got into this book -- i guess .here's a specific reason i was reporting for the "new york times." and it just became a hot, hot topic.
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the whole world became interested in robotics and a.i. the field had always failed until it didn't fail and it began to succeed. and then specifically, i had written an earlier book called what the door mouse set which is the history of the personal computer, stuff that happened right around stanford between 1965 and 1975 that led to the rise of the personal computer industry. and right as i was doing that right at the dawn of 1962, there were two labs that were created, equal distance from stanford. one was started by john mccarthy. he was a well known computer scientist. and he coined the term article intelligence in 1956. he created the stanford artificial laboratory in 1962. his goal was to create a technology that could replace a human. and he actually got money from
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the pentagon from this think tank called the defense advance research project agency which was the blue sky think tank for doing advanced military research. and in his first sort of proposal he said he thought he could create a thinking machine. it would take a decade to create strong a.i. on the other side of the cap pus there was another laboratory started by the man named engelbart. his laboratory was the laboratory research center. he named it intelligence augmentation. he wanted to extend the human. so on one side of the campus you had a.i. and the other side of the campus you had i.a. it's an interesting dichotomy but it was also a paradox. if you extend a human you're
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more human. i'm actually sitting in front of an early pioneering -- they're called platforms and it's name is shaky. it was probably the world -- it was the world's first truly autonomous robot. it was built to allow a new group of researchers to do basic research in a.i. and out of it came a whole host of the technologies that almost everybody uses today. for example, you can draw a line from shaky to the original research done beginning in the 1960's to navigation systems of the kind of stuff you use on your smartphone to navigate with and speech recognition, some of the first speech recognition was done on shaky as a control mechanism. at the time it didn't do much. it would move a little bit and then it would have to look at the world then it would move some more. but that's where it all started. so the two fields artificial
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intelligence and intelligence augmentation have gone their separate ways. i think it's basically the reason they haven't talked to each other is they have different values. the engineering groups, you know, the a.i. guys, they're in love with robots. they're in love with these systems. they're not thinking deeply about the consequences. they want to perfect these systems and use them in powerful ways and in some cases make money for them. but they want to push the technology as much as they can and don't think as much about the consequences. on't -- i don't think the i.a. developers don't think about the ethics of these systems and what the role are people is. i think that's the reason why there haven't been a lot of communication. they have entirely different values. now, i think -- i give the field a fair amount of credit because as the machines have gotten more powerful, even these guys have realized that something is
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happening here that can really change society. they're starting to think about it. and many of them are basically realizing we have to make ethical choices. they're making the right ethical choices. let me give you an example. the c.e.o. of microsoft has called his company an i.a., an intelligence augmentation company. he wants to use a.i. technology to extend humans rather than replace them. what's interesting about how a.i. has accelerated into our lives is that it comes in a consumer price points now and we don't even notice it. going back to 2010, 2011, steve jobs put siri at the heart of the iphone and now hundreds of millions of people use siri. hundreds of people use google home, hundreds of millions of people use cortan and amazon echo. it slipped in there.
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that's one example. a.i. is underneath the fact that machines can listen to us and understand. there's software that google offers for thee called google translate which allows you to give it a document in any number of languages. microsoft has a very similar service. it will give you back a pretty good translation. not perfect but good enough which is really quite remarkable. if you get in a modern car, you know, i have a 2-year-old volvo and it has a camera in it that has a.i. technologies in it. it's able to follow land. it's able to make intelligent decisions. cars like the tesla have more a.i. software. there's a company called mobile i which supplies a.i. technology to many carmakers. and over the next five to 10 years cars will increasingly do
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things that will perhaps protect us from our mistakes making cars safer. now, that would be an example of an i.a. use of a.i. technologies rather than to replace us. and, you know, there's a.i. technologies in modern cameras that basically sort of correct and improve your -- the photograph you take without you even knowing about it. so everywhere. even in modern weapons increasingly a.i. technology is being deployed. there's a sort of growing debate in society over weather a.i. systems should make killing decisions but increasingly they're going to be able to. so the entire range of human behavior is now being used by these new type of devices. going back as far back as 1951 computers came on the scene about every decade and a half.
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as a society we start to get anxious about our relationship with machines and it's usually about whether they'll take our jobs. and clearly up until now most of that automation has happened in blue collar jobs. over a long period of time going machines an the buggy have replaced human labor. machines are beginning to replace intellectual labor. and so people have seen this. over the pace of three or or four years it's become an intense debate in our society about the rate of change. and some people have made the case. some computer scientists believe that technology is moving quickly enough that people put the date of 2045 that there will be machines that they will do all human jobs. i think that's wildly optimistic. there are lots and lots of points at which you can say machines are starring to have an impact on society. but -- and the economy and on
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jobs but you have to remember, there's well known economist whose name was john maynard cannes who in the 1930's wrote about animation. tellnologies replace jobs. it doesn't -- technologies replace jobs. it doesn't replace work. some people say it will. i think that has to be proven. one of the things that get overlooked right now in america there are 145 million people working. that's more people at work than have ever been at work in america and history. so we've had 30 years of personal computers and all kinds of technology into society and there are still more jobs. i say that. people come back and say yes, but the labor participation rate is climbing. the size of the working population and a number of people at work. and i've looked at that very
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clearly. and it's true. it's not at a historic low but it is low. but when you start to pickett apart and say whoa is this happen -- why is this happening? it's not about technology. like my generation, the baby boomers are starting to retire. it turns out that technology is way down in the stat. if you look around the rest of the workforce that's basically what's happening. taskss are being taken -- are being taken over. they won't go away. the question whether we'll be transformed as a species by a.i. is one we need to start thinking about right now. alan kay is a computer scientist who is is one of the pioneers of personal come -- computers and he has a good way of how we will .e shaped or will be shaped he talks about the fact living with these conversational
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assists that talk to us and we ave to make a decision whether they're going to be our masters or whether we're going to be partners. i actually think that's a human decision. but increasingly we're going to be talking to to these machines and takes advice from them. one of the things i worry about how humanity may be changed and relatively near-term. i come from a generation that didn't want to take instruction from anyone. and now if you're downtown in san francisco, half of the people are looking at their palm of their hand that can't be the end of progress. right now, that's the way we interface with these machines. you know threerks generation of young people that take life and instruction from the palm of their hand which is which korean food to order or who to marry. and i think that that is potentially an insidious change.
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right now for example, there's a kind of robotics called cloud robotics. one of the amazing things about internet connected robots, if you teach something to one robot, they can all know it instantly. and humans don't learn that way. getting information from one human to another takes a while. but if we're all interconnected, i mean, think about the obamaed a -- the obama administration started the obama goal brain initiative is no read from a million neurons in the human brain but it's to be able to write to a million neurons in the human brain and that raises the possibility -- it's been totally science fiction but people are starting basically to touch on the idea of control. maybe it's passing information. but think about us or being connected as a species much like
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a robot. this has been totally in the realm of science fiction. and now we have to think about it. you know, the terms sigh borg. a sigh borg is part human and part machine. t was a term coined by nasa in 1961. you probably saw "star trek." resistance is futile. you will be assimilated. i think you have to be careful about the way you connect this technology to us. if we're going to offer them prosthesis. if we're all interconnected it might be some deader thing but not about humanity. i got into this book thinking about the question about what's our relationship going to be with these machine as decade from now and how can we make it a good one and not a destructive one? i came away from the book thinking it's not an open and
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shut case. the reason to be optimistic is it's a human choice how we decide these machines. i think we can go in two different directions. we can make machines that are incredibly destructive. we can make machines that surveil us, take away our privacy, kill us, or we can make machines that care for aging humans, help surgeons do a better job, help lawyers make better decisions. so there are two directions. the reason i'm optimistic, sit -- is it comes down to a better choice. i think may will make society much better. >> for swunl who hasn't visited silicon valley, they would be driving around and it wouldn't look a whole lot different from a whole lot of urban areas. but then you would start noticing logo. you might see people on the
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google bike or the apple bike. you see the company low go on them and that would give you a clue that you're in the certain of all things tech. silicon valley used to be orchards. ucolic region. and then the tech industry came in and now it's essentially the world hub for the technology industry. so you have almost all the major technology players headquartered here. you have google, facebook, twitter, abnb, uber. it's taken over the entire region. most of the tech companies are fairly close to each other. they're probably a 15-minute drive most of them one from another. you go to the hills where tesla is. across the bay you have the factory. apple and cupertino.
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in any direction, you throw a rock, you're going to hit a big tech company. they play an extremely important role in the local economy. they generate billions and billions of dollars in annual revenue and employ hundreds of thousands of people if you put them alling to. they're a massive driver of the economy and they're sen torble the culture here because, you know, just about every person you look at is going to be tech working for a company or is in a business that makes money off of having these people heerm getting paid well for doing their work in the tech world. when i set out to write about tech tourism, i was surprised by the level of it that i discovered. but i talked to a professor of education right near here who described this visit to google,
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facebook, apple, everywhere as a pilgrim image. it -- pilgrim adge. they've become so central that people want to visit them as if they're some kind of holy grail. is it just -- as if being in their presence has value. and that's the driving reason for it. it's also very interesting to me because you have a lot of people that are involved in tech in other countries. of course, this is the epicenter here in silicon valley of technology. it's world famous for that. so you have techies from all over the world. just to sort of absorb the energy and witness these places. the size of the role that the tech industry plays in silicon valley brings positives and negatives. d they're both profound on
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either side of that. they support lots and lots of small businesses and large businesses. on the flip side of that, you have all these people making a lot of money for coming here and driving up the rent and increasing the competition for apartment, increasing the competition for real estate. it's become one of the most expensive places in the world to live. for people who don't work in the tech sector, the pay is not necessarily going to be anything close to what the techies are make. if you're trying to make ends meet here, you're going to have a lot of really high costs that derive directly from the preference of tech. the real estate prices and rental prices have caused a lot of discord in the community because it's unaffordable for many people who don't work in tech. you values the issue of the citys that have these companies low vacancy have
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rates for renting and buying. so the satellite communities, their prices are going up. but the people living there also having to compute ridiculous distances and spend hours in their cars every day just to get to and from work. it's been welcome publicized that facebook has been trying to get housing built both for employees and also for nonemployees because nimrod park is one of those areas that have very little housing compared to the people that work there. one thing that the company does that's controversial but is a boom for reduesing traffic is they bus their workers to and from work and. you know, they work on boor. so you're getting a lot of people on to, you know, something that imitates public transportation and therefore reduces congestion on the road. and so at the same time though,
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those people are living in places where they've gentrified regions of san francisco and those buses have become a flash point for protests. they've had things thrown at them. there's a lot of anger about the rising prices that are driving lowernng people from these communities and sort of decimating artistic communities and other communities. the other huge issue that falls here and affecting the tech company is imgalatian. they rely on the h 16rbingsc which is a lottery system attempted to bring workers who are moderately to well paid. but there have been a number of abuses of that program in which you know, out sourcing companies from india have brought in workers and the american workers have ended up having to train those incoming workers before
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losing their own jobs. as people look a this program which is is essential to the tech firms for getting the best overseas, that's made people angry about how the program is used. you don't always see the nuances of the the way that program system applied and there is also some criticism that the -- that the work -- that america should be training our own check workers to occupied highly paid. highly skilled jobs if you're bringing in this from overseas, you're inhibiting what should happen that's best for america in that view. e has the good fortune and ill--fortune, now part of silicon valuey. now silicon valley has spread in every direction. you have san jose --
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essentiallyly part of the silicon valley land scasme it's the center is where the most people go for work. so san jose see as lot of the benefits. that have a lot of people that are sending money that are absorbed in cultural activities in supporting local ars and culture, restaurants, bars, all this sort of spinoff businesses economy. ming what struck me about tourists coming to facebook and am. rather than going to alcatraz or e golden gate bridge was how deeply we're all affected by what silicon valley does. our lives can be drastically simply fide by a new app. smartphone a new
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by a better e-mail system. we interact with interact valley every day. it reaches out and touches us hrough all these technological innovation. very where they used it all around the country and all around the world. >> so many people come to california because they see it as heaven. and television hasn't helped because ask anybody particularly east of the rockies and they think that all californians drive convertibles, go to the beach. have a big dog in the back of the car and sit all day drinking beer. and they're blondes. that's what california's all about. >> well, that's what commercials have been about for many, many years. but that's not what california's about. if you know anything about california and i'm a native boy in california. i've studied this state 50 years or more, you realize that this
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-- e is so topsyy topsy-turvy. it's like a rorle coaster gone bad. it can be a boom state one year. one year it can be in the hole, $30 billion. it can be a state that embraces immigrants as it has in the past at times. kit be a state that's absolutely done everything they could to make immigrants feel uncomfortable. >> it can be a state where there's nothing but -- you know, flowing water enabling everybody to grow and use for whatever purposes. and it can be another five or six years later where there's nothing to drink. i mean, there are so many x-fleems california. and just when we think we're going to go atop of things, we fall down. so that's why i said the rise and fall. it comes and goes.
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up and down. but at the end of the day it's the most exciting place to be. >> the rise has been up and down. it's not just one asen dance, you know? california had an incredible boom the gold rush. that's what started all. all these people came to california. of course, they basically stole the state. obviously some historians would put it more gently. ole it from the native americans. and because of the revolt from spain, and that's what they called about the bear revole. which wasn't much of a revolt. relatively few white men all who could come here and believe me it was heart to get here, stage a coup and it became an easy thing to do once mexico signed the treaty of california hidalgo
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in texas ending the mexican-american war. stage ofort of set the the bear revolt. and the state just boomed. they couldn't come here fast enough. and that's tls point in time where we saw the first great immigration wave, a chinese coming to california to help the next segment of that boom and that's the transcontinental radar. there was an awful lot of hustle and sbussle. hustle and lot more bustle. all these things happened in a very brief -- 30 years or so. you could argue that during that period, wow, we were going up. we were going way up. and then of course, things changed. not that we had to go immediately down. we had a period where california
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was rather tranquil. the gold rush ended, abruptly it seems. state. ame an agreryian all these people who worked rosy riveter types and there were plenty as. they all got v.a. loans. it was a great time. the men were going back to school. and california had a history of once it developed its higher education system of believe it or not making college free. it was free during the 1950's and 1960's. as the state put together it's higher state put together the higher education program, the universities and colleges and community colleges. it did not last long enough. whene mid-1960's, that is reagan and the board of regents began to install tuition for
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unc, csu followed and community colleges, not so much. but it was a golden period. 1950's, there was a lot of manufacturing. and all the parts that go with automobiles, and other manufacturing in california, a big manufacturing state. the 1970's and 1980's were more difficult. the pulse was not beating as hard and as fast, and not quite so loud. so the state began to go into a very serious period of discrimination. particularly against immigrants. people do not remember this, but during the 1980's and 1990's we passed some of the harshest and i immigrated -- anti-immigration legislation.
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them education. some of it was there not by the federal courts. in another proposition made english the state official language. another proposition the voters passed, it ended affirmative action. we were one of the first states to end it. people do not remember this, but during the late 1970's, 1980's and 1990's, this place went backward in terms of a number of the social issues people talk about today. so this is california, now it has turned around. in terms of immigration from the 1970's, he would not recognize things, because now it is one of the most pro-immigrant states in the country. non-hispanic lives, you have to look at, they are -- the numbers
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have moved up in the state legislature and local offices. so because of that incredible growth of these various minorities, the state has become much more sensitive. now of course, drivers licenses for the undocumented immigrants, now they can go to college and get state loans and to state aid. situate cities are popping up everywhere. -- sanctuary cities are popping up everywhere. and now the state is on the verge of making california the full first sanctuary state. so the things that go on, these are massive waves. only the waves do not always go in the same direction. way, theye thing, one better than the other way the next. it is part of the exhilaration of the state and for some it can be the heartbreak of the state. when you look at the central valley, 4000 miles long, the
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richest land he will find anywhere, the only thing it is missing is water. and there have been water wars, you know, chinatown, the way los angeles has stolen water from the valley. and it is larger than just that little area, because 80% of the owned, inumber one should say, it goes to agriculture. or agricultural activities. that means 20% for the rest of the state, including the people who like to drink it a couple times a day. the mistakeater comes from northern california, from the sierras, and the rain in northern california. thirds, excuse me, one third of the water is generated in southern california.
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but southern california has two thirds of the population, compared to northern california, by the way who are very generous. it starts in the north. do not tell that to the people in california, because as far as they are concerned -- but, the fact that most of the water is in northern california, most of the population is in southern california. that sets up a problem in itself. add to that agriculture uses 80% of the water, set up incredible competition and a fight really between farmers and environmentalists, coupled with urban users. here,u know, the battle they are in less -- endless. you are not going to find more water in california. if you are lucky, you will get a decent year. the snowpack alone accounts for
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a third of the water. knows snow, you are in trouble. you have to draw from the colorado aquifer. the aquifers in the central valley have been drained because of the drought. farmers are it was looking for water. environmentalists say the more that you take, especially from the delta and coming down from the rivers, you circumvent the delta and you pour it into agriculture, the more you are endangering the fish and other species. that is one of the headaches that we have had for the last 40 years. it is funny right now, because we talk about the president saber rattling and we talk about denying california money if the states do not cooperate. but the fact is california is a donor state. the state contributes billions of dollars more to the federal government than we get back.
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it is a donor state. one of the largest around. most of the states in the south, they are recipient states. many in the midwest, same thing. it is ironically, the poorest states that get the most from the federal government and the richest states contribute. it has been an off and on relationship. having somebody like nancy pelosi as the speaker come even a minority leader, has been helpful to this state. our two senators, dianne feinstein and barbara boxer, until recently, they were in the senate. it mattered. and we have 53 members of the house, the largest delegation by fall -- by far, but rarely do they vote together, but they can and when they do the vote count for a lot -- votes count for a lot. and we have the brains. that is not to say there are not
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brains other places climb there is such a concentration of talent here. such a concentration of so many smart people who do so many things, innovation, it is one of those things that happens all the time. it is not always work. but it does what it does. it changes everything. ,o to facebook, that company there are wacky things all over the place. i'm member walking through facebook and i thought a sign, fail first, ask for forgiveness later. that mentality is there. it does not fit so much in washington. washington is the way they have done and will always do it. washington is status quo. california is the wild west. there is a culture differential to begin with, because they are very different places. i think sometimes it causes tension. it depends on the administration. bill clinton and barack obama
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saw great benefits from california and they managed to get congress to funnel us money for mass transit, helping out with hb-1 programs and other federal funds for space exploration, things like that, because there is so much talent here. herge w. bush was benign, did not love it or hate it. i do not blame him. and he was not outward on all that stuff. and donald trump will be interesting. some people are already pulling their hair out because donald trump hates california, i'm not so sure he hates it, maybe he does, but remember we have the majority leader here, and we have some sharp people. we have republicans and democrats in congress, who will be able to exercise a lot of common sense and leverage.
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i'm not so sure that even somebody like president trump will be able to turn the state upside down. it is definitely going to be a different era, it has to play itself out. california matters because it is so often the first. it is not thef first, it is among the first. if you look at environmentalism, by the way, democrats and republicans, arnold schwarzenegger will go down in history for a lot of things, but in terms of his governance it will be ab-32, which was the bill that initiated california developing a larger percentage of its power from alternative energy, way ahead of everybody else. it was way ahead. and coming up with what we call use taxing companies that too much fuel. environmentalism is big here.
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the women's movement is big here. one third of our congress is women, is female. and you know, that is about double the national average. minority rights have become things here. one third of our congress is minority, which is also close to double the national average. in so many ways, has set the trend. not always in the right direction for some people, but it is trendsetting. you can view it as a country. sixth largest country in the world in terms of economic development. only five nations that are more powerful than us in terms of economy. we have used that leverage in lots of ways, to move ahead. and a lot of states have come to emulate us.
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some other states, they have come to loathe us. people would be that learn more about california. it is a very exciting place. it is a very fast-paced place, not like new york city, but fast-paced in the sense that so many things come and go and so many developments rise and fall and so many innovations arise and to change the world. i would like them to realize that the complexity of the state, the diversity of the state, is also the bounty of the state. there is so much we learn from each other in california. it is a state where everybody can somehow get the representation, depending on whatever group you belong to. and it is a state that brings conflict. there are competing values. there is a place for everybody. the far right had its emergence
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in california. and the left of course, as well. a state where there is so much action and activity, so much energy, i think for that reason it is exciting. it can be tiring, it can be exhausting, especially when he tried to figure out sacramento and what legislature is doing and where they are not doing and the tax collecting system is bananas, and there are all kinds of problems here. but problems or not, it is a state that looks to move. most of the time forward, sometimes not, but it is a state that looks to move and never rest on its laurels. you know? it is a pretty exciting place to be. here in the special collections in the santa clara university library on the campus of santa clara university. here in the special collections,
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we have not only the keepers of the university library rare books collection, but also the keepers of santa clara's collective memory as reflected in the records. we are particularly lucky in the department to actually have what we call the mission santa clara managed the collection, which are the records generated during the franciscan era of mission santa clara. 1777, when aeen mission santa clara was found to, through 1851 when the land and church grounds and mission buildings were handed over to the jesuits to founded the university. and they were founding the college to support the town of santa clara, there was no really public school in the area at the time. so there really was a need for education in this part of
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california, northern california in particular, adjacent to san jose and etc. missions had eclair with the eighth of the 21 omissions established in northern california between 1777-8023, early 1800s. and another interesting note is it was the first of four missions of the 21 missions -- of st. clair of sec. -- of assi si. and this church has continued to serve as the parish church, and 52 whennot until 18 santa clara was made its own entity. of --iversity and a ton santa clara content -- came of age together. it is hard to talk about the history of one without out about the history of the other. the jesuits over all would have
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been somewhat using, maybe not so much of the manuscript material, but in addition to the hand written material we have as part of the collection, they also inherited probably about 250 of the mission's library books. many were probably largely on theology, but some of them reflected also missions and travel of some of the religious orders, etc. havee library books would formed the core of the library collection for the college as it was at the time. one person that was key in terms of realizing what we had in the collection was father spearman, who was taught here in the history department on campus, and was also the archivist in about the '30's and '40's.
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i do not know the details about how he stumbled across the collection, but once he realized what we had in the materials, the significant point or time in the university's history, he to track downaign all of the materials which had kind of been dispersed in various offices on campus or in some cases they ended up at another college, which was the sort of jesuit college associated with the place were many jesuits got their educational training in conjunction with their religious life and activities. so some of the records we inherited at that point were really helpful in identifying the library books and the
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management materials part of the collection. what i have pulled today are the materials, the materials here missionrecords from the from the church itself. they would have included the baptism records, confirmation records, marriage records and burial records. basically from the time you are born until the time you die and key points in between are largely what is covered in the sacramental records. so in front of me i have the very first book of baptism, with the very first baptism having 1777,place in the year of the same year the mission was founded. yes. see the fairly good condition leather binding of the records.
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and then they seem a -- they've but a little wear and tear, are in good condition considering how old they are. here is the title page identifying this as the first book of baptism on record and it is what is signed by father sarah. date ily state his 17 -- s 1777. there is an index here of the names associated with the various baptisms. it continues for a couple of pages. preparatorynal material and then we see the signature of father sarah, who administrated most of the baptisms that were part of the mission system in northern california. then we move on to the first baptism, kind of hard to read because the ink is faded, but
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the first name is clara, named for saint claire. and these continue pretty throughout the volume with the notation here on one side, which number baptism it is, then the name of the person and other information about them. the other thing i want to talk about on the table is not part of the sacramental records that we have here, but it is a part of the manuscript material that we have. this volume is referred to as miscellaneous, because it has manuscripts,ds individual manuscripts if you will, covering a variety of topics that related to how one might go about running various aspects of the mission. including things like, how to
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manage the kitchen, recipes, there are medical information including inoculations or preparing for various elements, et -- ailments, etc. termsinformative of -- in of having a better sense of what daily life was like, from the perspective of the franciscans and also in terms of the individuals that were there. and as you go through the manuscript, you can see there are a number of sections of material bound together. as you continue from left, or from the front who -- front to the back, you see the handwriting change, indicating materialitten -- this was written down by in number of different people and attributed to, we attribute the binding to all this into one handbook. we really do get some good
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insight into what life was like pre-united states, pre-california as a state, pre-governance as we know it today,. in terms of the spanish and mexican colonizers and early settlers, many had traveled long distances, either by shift or across -- ship or across the country. and when you think about modern conveniences today, it was a very hard life, a rigorous journey for them. a lot of people, especially this is before the gold rush era in california, so before you have the influx of settlers from all over the world really, coming into the area, for santa clara especially in comparison to san francisco, i would guess that it
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was a much quieter, very pastoral life. it was simple, lots of farming, you know. one of the other things i brought today is the choir book from among the missions manuscript collection. as i mentioned, music in general was i think a pretty significant part of services and in the life of the mission. we have learned that santa clara in particular was known for the concerts they did here in the mission church, that drew nearby areas. the mission choir book we have is massive. it was i suspect probably designed so it would be hard to grow legs and walk away, among
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other things, but the sidelines itself to beds easily read by a small group of people standing around it. so the larger musical notation that we see would have been easy enough to read for a small group of musicians clustered around it. i have opened to "st. claire," because it is the namesake of mission santa clara. the volume itself is heavy. i actually has leather over wooden boards that are probably at least three quarters of an inch thick and then beautiful brass fittings on both the front and back. for being as old as it is, it has held up pretty well, for the most part. and i think it is due to the
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fact that it is made of really good, high-quality materials that led to themselves to long-term preservation. is parchment or animal skin. you can see the physical features like these holes along the edges that would've been used to help draw the lines, those are for the musical scores, and the lyrics to accompany the music as well. it is a thing of beauty, as you can see. and again, a really significant part of mission santa clara's history. so, some of the other materials that help us study and understand the mission a little bit better. we do have a number of maps, these are not from the so-called franciscan era. most were drawn up by
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likely i think primarily by the jesuits after inheriting the grounds over all. and the collection includes photographic material that gives us snapshots into what the buildings were like at the time that santa clara college was founded. and this is, we are lucky to have this because it is very much in the early period of photography in general, so it kind of is a graphic representation that we have, which would've otherwise been paintings or artwork prepared for the location. so what we have to rely on wood probably -- would probably have been drawn. for the next portion of material, we are starting to focus more on the early part of what we would think of as the university's modern history. that all starts with the
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significant turning point of when the jesuits were given administration of the mission church and grounds to found the college. we actually have a letter from joseph alamein he to the father and in the letter he is formally giving over the responsibility to the father, who founded the college. in addition to studying what would've been considered scientific or mathematic education at the time, the faculty were also very actively soliciting samples from the local mining industry, so this would have included both geographical samples of material to look for or look at gold-mining, silver mining, and quicksilver mining as well. theseition to being, instruments not only for the education of students, but when you follow the threads and their
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connection to the local community, we see it was connected to those local mining activities in the area. we are seeing not only this for students, the mission to provide education for the students who attended, but also to have very practical connections and applications to the local surrounding community, of which santa clara was a part and continues to be a part of. really richese are historical materials for getting a better understanding of what life was like. and i've always found personally having a good understanding of helps to form our opinions of our present and future. even if you're not an expert in the subject, there is always something valuable i think anyone can take away by looking at or engaging with these materials. amazings creates an
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experience for anybody, thatdless of the purpose are driving them to look at these materials. it really does. it sounds cliche, but it brings history and life in general to , that are justat really amazing. visit to san jose, california is a book tv exclusive. we showed it today to introduce you to c-span's cities tour. for five years, we have traveled to u.s. cities, bringing the book seen to the viewers. you can watch more of our visit at weekend, c-span cities tour with the help of our comcast partners will explore the literary scene and history california.
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we are told about the founder of life in the book, "the and writings of a pioneer." >> most important and long-lasting relationships of the federal government, starting with his days in congress, with his relationship with the department of agriculture. he was constantly being sent and corresponding with the officials in the usda. and was constantly receiving from them different crops they wanted tested out in california 's soil and climate. they really used rancho chico as one of their early experimental farms before they actually owned and ran their own. weon sunday at 2:00 p.m., visit the california state university farm. >> it is the number one industry
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in california and we're the number one state in the nation in terms of agriculture. canada there are 23 csu campuses. chico represents the northern part of the state, but we have products in people from all over california. >> we will go inside the chico museum to see the historic chinese altar from the 1880 chinese chico temple. saturday at noon eastern on book tv and a sunday afternoon at 2:00 p.m. on american history tv on c-span3. working with our cable affiliates and visiting cities across the country. tonight on c-span, hillary clinton talks about women leaders at an award ceremony in washington dc. that is followed by the president meeting with manufacturing representatives at the white house and issuing two new executive order is on trade.
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and then a look at trade deficits and the impact on the economy, with former officials from the clinton and george w. bush administrations. [applause] >> hillary clinton spoke at a ceremony presenting an award named in her honor at georgetown university. she talked about women's roles and honored for women that were involved in columbia in peace operations, leading to a ratified agreement. and a discussion of the award recipients. this is 1.5 hours. >> we honor for individuals who have demonstrated fearless leadership in an unwavering commitment to the common good, in their efforts to promote peace and protect human rights in columbia. their actions provided a model for each of us, seeking a more peaceful and just world. it is a privilege to have this opportunity today to thank them for their


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