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tv   Washington Journal Randy Capps Discusses the Increase in Low- Skilled...  CSPAN  July 21, 2017 9:02am-9:33am EDT

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people in illinois who had known him in years earlier, who were deeply disappointed with the trajectory obama presidency and disappointed in two ways. disappointed that barack forgot the people many of of the people, ho were essential to his political rise. >> sunday night 8 eastern on c-span's q&a. >> if you look across the park it's d in this community, hard to believe this was once a thriving and booming business district, but it was. there were stores owned by black, white, you name it, a lot here.ople did business they didn't have to leave the community. before you knew it, a rock was a glass was broken, looting the curb, fire started, wasn't just black folks, one of the most integrated events has happened in detroit. >> 50th anniversary of the 1967
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riots live sunday noon eastern on american history t.v. on c-span 3. >> "washington journal" continues. host: joining us now is randy capps, u.s. program director of research at the migration policy institute. he's here to discuss the department of homeland security the ncement monday that number of h2-visas for second 2017 is increasing by 15,000. nice to see you. you : good morning, thank for having me on. host: remind everyone what the is.ation institute policy guest: we're nonpartisan think tank in washington, d.c., we trends and policies in migration worldwide. host: okay. et's talk about that announcement this week by secretary kelly. visas, first h2v visa is ande
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how much it is increasing with the new announcement? guest: the h2b program is for sectors ed workers in other than visa is agriculture,f hem are in tourism, work in hotels and theme parks, for instance, some in the fisheries, along the gulf coast, rabbing in maryland, and generally used seasonal low for a short period of time, more so n the summer, because that is when tourism peaks. there is a cap set by congress 66,000 annually and what happened this year, that cap was there were arch and a lot of employers saying they couldn't get enough people to in the hotels and fisherys and such things and congress to orized administration raise the total and they raised it by 15,000, taking the cap 66,000 to 81,000. migration policy
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institute has a handy chart that h2 -- sorry, this is visa, but to give us the trend of how the h2b the am has changed over past several years? guest: we could talk about just showed rt you just viewers, h2a agriculture ow-skill worker program is not capped and gone up consistently over the last several years, ctually the last several decades because of persistent nd growing agricultural worker shortages n. contrast, h2b, onagricultural low-skilled worker program is cyclical. when the economy is stronger and abor market is tighter, there is more demand, like right now. if you went back five years ago, in the wake of the last recession, the demand was such getting 40 to 50,000 visas issued as opposed to now
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000.east 80, host: how do you explain the of course, h2b, the program by the administration, the numbern to boost of visas allowed? guest: well, bear in mind, 15,000 is not a huge boost. this subject, administration and members of congress are subject to pressure constituents who have severe labor shortages. specific industries and locations where it is hard o get u.s. workers, people who want to be on a shrimp boat for a couple months in the gulf of instance or maybe a salmon factory in alaska or maybe a hotel in the upper peninsula of michigan, often very remote places, locations hard to recruit u.s. workers. capps, alking with randy u.s. program director of research for the migration policy institute.
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talking about the announcement of the increase in number of h2b visas and number of immigration issues. democrats, call 202-748-8000. republicans, 202-748-8001. 202-748-8002.nts, we encourage you, if you are of one working under one these visas, we would love to hear from you, particularly, as well, in this discussion. talk about employers who are asking for more of these types seasonal workers, especially in certain locations, one of locations is in florida florida are mara for more h2b asked white house launched made in america initiative earlier this week to romote american jobs and products, president donald trump's business taken steps to hire more foreign workers.
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trump's mar-a-lago club filed bring additional foreign workers under the h2b visa program, which allow foreigners to fill temporary nonagricultural jobs in the supposedly s, that cannot be filled by u.s. workers. mara maralago is seeking workers and is looking, what is your reaction to that? guest: the trump businesses are in tourism, they have seasonal surges in business in summer of other businesses. you mention those are small add up of workers, fu across other properties, not owned by trump, but other people in the tourism industry, you can see fair amount of demand and of is specific to the kind workers we're talking about. nd so i just think that his businesses are probably typical of the industry and there is a lot of political pressure from a
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lot of different business owners to expand the program. employer make an the claim of irrepairable harm callifiy for this program? guest: they have to show severe labor shortage. they're not able in the first place, able to recruit u.s. workers, they have to advertise, people don't apply for the job and they can't fill it, they have to show they don't have in that position, that is really going to contract will lose ess, they enough revenue, they might risk going out of business, certainly the trump business' case, right? but, definitely there will be harm, significant harm that could affect the local economy. probably true in remote tourist locations, if they can't keep businesses open, that will local economy. host: michael calling from sacramento, california, on line, good morning. caller: good morning.
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hi, randy. out here in california in lieutenant and our governor has a research fellow in his office, they are handing tourism. and the tourism trade here is anywhere else. we've got the better climate. it's mediterranean climate and who come here come here to the environment in the climate. y friend in our military conversion process, wanted me to go to beijing at the olympics, he was hooked up with the government people, who were to who wanted to be able to look at the city and the city and e in there is always -- who are doing these large numbers of employees i've been speaking like bill gates and donald had bill gates with a nine people in silicon valley and a gentleman to apple with $250 billion
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repatriate and elon musk walked away. can dictate business without having to deal with somebody who doesn't know about markets, doesn't know about all these industries that trillion industries and i day ups genius the other in -- waiting for the public up and that didn't show they have all these problems with overbuilt things with things, this guy told me he's going to turn these $10 industries into $1 trillion industries because things s people can do for 10 cents on the dollar. ost: michael, give randy a chance to respond to you. guest: i think some of what the caller is talking about is also fair number of temporary workers in high-skilled u.s., as well,he and issues in all the programs wages that the
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people may be paid, they are oing jobs they were actually applying for and the level of the programs is not as great as it could be. and r as overcapacity infrastructure in the community is concerned, i mean, in the is concerned, that is related to this. if employers can't hire workers to hire for certain jobs, then some of that in capacity, particularly the hospitality sector may go unused. host: let's talk about the between h1b and h2b. to our president trump, it says president donald trump said he's going to set on the h1b program allowing technology workers into the u.s. each year, contrast the h2b ing the increase in program, says the department of
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willand security yesterday allow additional 15,000 workers typically used by industries like tourism, construction, what is the h1b, and h2b,tween nd explain the difference in these approaches. guest: as we discussed, h2b is low-skilled workers, as you just mentioned, hospitality, onstruction, those types of industries. h1b for high-skilled workers, ou have to have basically at least a college degree to be in education, ram, healthcare, professional kind of jobs. capped at 85,000 for private employers, nonprofit employers like universities can get people above and beyond that cap. who have had a prior h1b can reapply and stay on it, jobs or change jobs if they were in h1b without the cap.
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85,000, but numbers are quite a bit above it. it's subject, h1b and employer,process is an specific employer has to petition for specific worker job description nder h2b and h1b, and the issue, controversy surrounding both programs, what happens after the worker takes that job, they doing the job, are they being paid the wage, in the case h2b? is it true they couldn't find a working er and had conditions? host: is there a difference in thereofof demand or lack for different kinds of -- h1b go with 2b and the economy, right? h1b appears more so. recessionaftermath of 2009-2010 or 2011, they were not
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caps, there wasn't enough demand in the economy, the economy was sluggish. accelerated quickly after that, h1b, more lag for h2b low-skilled sector took nower to rebound and demand is such h1b program, a matter of days they reach the cap. lottery system there and many people apply and few people it.ally get host: robert calling on the republican line, hi, robert. kimberly, od morning, thanks to you and your staff for putting on this fine program. capps, one simple question, do you know or does the hard and fast a number, how many immigrants are the united states of america? that's a very good question. number,s a hard and fast based on the census bureau product, american community
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survey done acs, cps monthly b42 million. but we as demographers believe that hard and fast number is a think is , which i probably part of the intent of your question and then because get immigrants don't counted in surveys, they don't speak english, hard to reach, in remote locations, like migrant workers, we believe that be as high as two or three million people, so be 45.number might host: talking about immigrants illegally?try guest: no, all immigrants, 42 million is official, maybe as as 45 to 46 unofficially. the country illegally are less likely to be counted. best estimate are between 11 and million and that is including the idea that probably up to 15 20% of them are missed by
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the government does. it is not an exact science, but demographers and the labor force statistics, number of people working in the triangulate with insus bureau data and people immigrant communities and asked them to respond to census and up with they come undercount that can run as high as 20% for undocumented. host: so talk about the issue of verstaying any of these types of visas. how big of an issue is that, especially with temporary worker visas? guest: so department of homeland security has estimates they just publish them last year, i think 700,000that maybe 600 to people overstayed visa by the end of the year. them, they count somebody came in any time during the fiscal year and were still of it.ying at the end if you think about it, that could mean they overstayed by a
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overstayed by a -- the reality actual number of who overstay for a long time and become part of the arger population is probably smaller than that. a lot of them are overstaying them t season, a lot of are overstaying basic visas like overstaying ay be like h1b. the issue is that a lot of these skilled workers under heart attack1b, they come in and want card and or a green are with an employer who would like to keep them on helping them apply for a green card, but only so many slots are available. up s possible they'll wind overstaying the visa because a card.'t get access to host: leroy from shreveport, hi, leroy. caller: how you doing? host: good, you're on with randy capps. caller: okay. randy, i was wondering about who
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that make the business on whether can find employees? i've had friends and relatives that have went and looked for called they were never back for a follow-up interview wondering, for companies about not being able to find people? i don't think the people i come contact with are lying to me with having problem companies hiring them? host: randy. guest: excellent question. at the heart of several program, done on the the u.s. government accountability office has done a on that, it is part of the application package, the employers themselves show they job, they tised the weren't able to
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find anybody. it is a procedural thing. americansdy interview who applied for jobs to see if they were called up? no. that is a real weakness in haprogram. say it does depend on the job and the job market, there are some jobs that require people to move a long distance really a job that pays a low wage that is not dprat working conditions and some americans would probably do that and some probably wouldn't. issue we don't have a good process in this country and he federal government doesn't with the h2b program for labor ng sxup verifying shortages exist. we take the employer's word for it. that has been one of the big of the program. but if you think about it, it is a hard thing to solve. wouldn't really require more closely monitoring
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mployers to look at hiring practices. again, there's been plenty of about employee preferences for immigrants over workers in certain industries and i think that is too. of the problem, host: let's shift to the daca program under the obama administration that protected children, some came heref people who illegally. yesterday the dream act, legislation,ece of was introduced, according to "washington post," says hoping off legal challenge to young that has 800,000 immigrants from deportation. appealed to president trump to support legislation that would put those thousands of others on a path to u.s. citizenship. that rule is being challenged by states and the senators want to see, lindsey graham,
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at what he said about it. >> so president trump, you going to make a decision, the ign is over, to republican party, who are we? we believe? the moment of reckoning is coming. they write the history of these times, i'm going to be kids.hese to my good friend, john mccain, doing, d me how he's he's called me three times this morning. lindsey, oa is me, he's yelling at me to buck up. up.i'm going to buck how did i get started in immigration reform? state of south carolina, the good news for me, i do well with hispanics, the bad news for me, you can fit them all in a room,
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hispanic population. i got involved because when john an for president in 2000, he wanted to fix the broken immigration system because he is from arizona and he sees the of illegal immigration, where criminals abuse ross, he sees the of coyotes, women living in the rights and have no are being exploited and on and on and on. because john asked with ve been doing this senator mccain and others now since 2005 and 2006. have come to believe that comprehensive immigration reform, whether done in iecemeal fashion or done comprehensively is essential for our national security. absolutely essential for our and i want tolity stop the third wave and never do this again.
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to have a practical solution to the 11 million. host: what is likelihood of this bill bipartisan sponsored bill view and talk a little bit about the impact of ohn mccain on the debate over immigration. guest: senator mccain has been a force, certainly part of the gang of eight in 2013, when senate. passed the he was a leader, along with senator graham. in the house. and where we are now is much where we ized than were in 2013, both sides are more entrenched than where they before. the fight over daca is at the center of it. theobama administration put daca program in because the congress failed to pass the failed to legislate that program. now we have almost 800,000 people, mostly very highly educated, very productive
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eople, some still in school, some in professional jobs who are at risk of losing their work uthorization and no longer being able to contribute to the economy because of the gridlock congress. now the bill being proposed on i shouldn't say the other side of the aisle, this is bipartisan approach, to some other bills being proposed in congress are just agents,enforcement, more more border agents, more fficers, more in detention and i think it is a really difficult reconciling, two different approaches are very difficult. very,said, you can see the intentions of senator graham, who has been at this for a long time, like this comes in and from the heart and with the president in the statements, there are some people who are hugely contributing to the economy in
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at risk.who are but you have to weigh that gainst this really strong approach by this administration and this congress and recently unfortunately, the republican pro in general do enforcement approach. i think that is what is going to reconcile.t to host: mark on the independent from fort lauderdale. hi, mark. caller: good morning. for c-span. to be quite candid, my main my thunder.ne stole the hostess there mentioned the president trump hypocritically is applying for mara lago in the inst of him proclaiming made america and another gentleman just called a short while ago the panelist there about the fact there is so
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much abuse of the programs. rather than a question about since you have answered already, maybe a little by thent, i'm fascinated immigration controversies. retired, i before i contracting tech company, we're around the y2k thing. hundreds of h2b visas to get tech workers from and contract them out and there were, let me tell ou just about everything was approved and we did not check anything as far as where they -- workers. retired from that company before here, the people made it so i'll say when i found out how hey were doing business, that led to my retirement. 12 years e past 10 or living in palm beach county.
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a country club community and belonged to a country club. the country club i belonged to, they filled up the dining room there with h2bns workers. host: all right, mark, i want to chance to talk about the issue of enforce sxment how difficult or not it is to meet requirements that are set in place to protect american workers. guest: one thing to clarify to start out with and this has been a criticism for the program. h1b actually does not require u.s. worker can't be hired, they don't have to advertise for those. caller mentioned is quite typical in that program that, is one reform being considered. they will pay prevailing age, establish what the job description is, but again, there is no oversight for that or very oversight. more in the h1b than in the h2b,
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h2b is one where they are supposed to check that workers unavailable and eality is these are poorly regulated industries and workers right, the great wages are low and the rights aren't very good. one thing i should say, you know, as poorly regulated as the programs are, in recent years, been to hireve has unauthorized workers under the table. took the m is, if you programs away and still had unmet demand, you'd be creating more illegal migration. that is why bills like graham and mccain's comprehensive reform, there was actually -- there were visa ions of temporary programs under the theory that than -- so it is
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complicated. regulating an economy as large as the united states is very do better.but we can i think everybody agrees, we can do better, we think reforms are necessary, moreoversight is necessary and if they get they should abide by the conditions of the programs they have applied for. few seconds a left. linda from knoxville, tennessee. linda. caller: hi. thanks for the few seconds. okay, the reason they can't get is because they are not illing to offer jobs under the terms and conditions and pay ast an american would demand a matter of self-respect. i actually had one of these jobs 1976, a long time ago. i had a job as a thoroughbred groom on the backside of hollywood park racetrack in angeles, that big green you used to see when you were coming in on approach.
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of my co-workers, three old -- and ple, i ple from south america, don't know whether they were legal or not, one does not ask. terms t me tell you the of my employment, they were couple days off, hours off in middle of the day, get off around 5 in no days off seven ays a week, no days off ever, ever. host: okay. seems like these are not easy --s to have, linda is making guest: i think this last caller really hit the nail on the head. is the problem with in of the u.s. nd abor mark sxet specific jobs
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based on -- it could be even worse if you are talking about boat and on a shrimp you are on the boat for a period of days or weeks, the work wages, ns, not just the it's the work conditions, the ours, the way the jobs are organized. regulation on certain industries in the u.s. and entertainment is, you know, the worst of them, they are exempted from minimum wage in amusement parks, for instance, until that is resolved, it will be difficult workers to take those jobs for good reason. who would want them? from another country where working conditions are worse will take them, but the united in states. and i think that is a really resolve, thing to we're in an era, more regulation we're on the table, talking about deregulation, that is

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