tv C-SPAN Cities Tour in Hyde Park New York Part 2 CSPAN July 21, 2017 6:50pm-8:00pm EDT
humanly possible. and will always work to operate at the highest level and, certainly, with the most amount of integrity as you can. with that, i think that's a great place to end today. and the president will be having an event here shortly. hanks so much, guys. >> earlier today as you just heard, current press secretary sean spicer resigned and it was announced that sarah huckabee sanders will take his place and become president trump's second press secretary. this past april c-span interviewed ms. huckabee sanders about why she originally joined the trump for president campaign. and how she approached her current job as deputy press secretary. she is the daughter of former presidential candidate and arkansas governor mike
huckabee. see that conversation tonight at 8:00 p.m. eastern on c-span. xxx >> join us on c-span3 sunday for an american history tv live special. the 19 ch 67 detroit riots. 50th anniversary. at noon eastern, pulitzer prize winning historian heather ann thompson of the university of michigan and detroit free press editorial page editor steven henderson. at 1:15 p.m. eastern former detroit police chief isaiah, ike mckinnon and former detroit free press journalist tim kiska. an american history tv special. the 1967 detroit riots. 50th anniversary, live, sunday t noon eastern on c-span3. >> for the next hour, an american history tv exclusive. our cities tour visits hyde park, new york, to learn more about its unique history. for six years now, we've
traveled the cities across the u.s. to explore their literary and historic sites. you can watch more of our visits at c-span.org/cities tour. >> this was home. this was where his heart always was. he once said to his friends and neighbors, my heart has always been here. it always will be. and it was. this is where he always drew strength and happiness throughout his entire life. franklin delano roosevelt, the 32nd president of the the united states, was born and raised in this house. he was buried right here on the estate, as well. >> originally had a different estate, a little bit down the road from this property. the house burned to ground in 1865. then f.d.r.'s father, mr. james roosevelt, purchased this
property to be their new home in the hudson valley. f.d.r.'s parents were james and sarah delano roosevelt. and mr. james roosevelt had a wife before sarah. her name was rebecca howland. she passed away in 1876. four years later, in 1880, mr. james married sarah delano. mr. james roosevelt when he married sarah was 52 years old. she was only 26. she was half his age. james and sarah only had the one child, franklin delano roosevelt. >> when mr. james roosevelt, f.d.r.'s father, bought this property in 1867, it was a 17-room farm house. it was about 110 acres of land, several out buildings, for which he paid the huge sum of $40,000, which today is the price of an expensive car but back in those days it was a nice amount of money.
the house, however, was enlarged by f.d.r. in 1915, because by then he had a growing family and he had decided as early as 1907, 25 years before he achieved it, that he was going to become president of the united states one day. and so he wanted a grander home for a future president. once f.d.r. became active in politics, quite often events would be held here like when he announced his intention to run for vice president of the united states. it was that big announcement was held right here. quite often he would bring, once he was president, visiting foreign dignitaries to his house especially during the war years. he felt it was a place where they could get away from the pressures of the war time in europe. so he loved doing that. he was very proud of this house once he had enlarged it in 1915. and many times his political associates would come here and they talked about political
strategy and so forth. so it was, many times, the enter of his political life. so let's show you the beautiful library living room, which i call the heart of the house, that f.d.r. added when the house was enlarged. this was set up so that there's a glass flar here so people can see the -- a glass floor so people can see the actual ramp f.d.r., himself, used to go down these few steps into the library living room. this is the original ramp he would use every time he was here to be able to get into one of his favorite rooms in the house. the library living room was a room that f.d.r. dreamed about adding on to this home when he enlarged it in 1915. as a young man he had gone on a trip to europe, had been in a house like this in england, and had seen a room like this, which he admired greatly. he decided that one day if he
did change the house here, that he would have a room like the one he admired so much. well, this room was used for entertaining. so when the king and queen of great britain were to come here in june of 1939, f.d.r. wanted to serve before dinner drinks in this room. his mother said that was ok except she didn't think before dinner cocktails were the appropriate drink to serve the king and queen. she said tea was the proper british drink. of course they'd want a nice, hot cup of tea when they arrived. when they got here, f.d.r. said to the king, well my mother said the proper british drink for me to serve you would be tea, but we also have cocktails available. the king replied, well my mother would have said the exact same thing but i think i will have a cocktail. and that's what he had. so in this room, you'll notice a couple of governors' chairs. f.d.r. was governor of new york state from 1928 to 1930 and from 1930 to 1932. back then it was a two-year
term. as he left the governorship, these two chairs were given to him as gifts. according to his wife, eleanor, when they visited here he would always sit on the chair on the left. his mother used the one on the right and she sat wherever. because this was, as i mentioned earlier, sarah roosevelt's home. very much so. over the mantle is a portrait of f.d.r.'s great-great grandfather isaac roosevelt, who was the man who started the family fortune in the sugar refinery business in new york city. but he was also a member of the profeention congress that ratified the -- the provencial congress that ratified the constitution of the united states. very early in this country's history there was a roosevelt in public service. of course it was very inspiring to f.d.r. growing up. you'll notice his wheelchair here as well. the wheelchair was something he designed himself. kitchen chair legs cut off, wheels put on it. he loved this wheelchair
because when he sat in it, put a blanket over his legs, you could pairly tell it was a wheelchair. he never used to sit in that wheelchair for any long periods of time. it was basically used to get from room to room. so when he would come into this room, for example, he would get off of that chair and on to that chair right next to the desk and that's where he would spend his time. so f.d.r. contracted polio at the age of 39 in the year 1921. they think he picked up the polio virus at a boy scout camp he was speaking at that summer at bear mountain state park, which is just south of us here. they think that because several children who had attended that boy scout camp high school came down with polio. so he was speaking to the boys there. he spent a little time at the camp. and then he went to campo bella island which was the roosevelt summer home off the coast of maine. and a few days after arriving
at the island he didn't feel well. he was achey and tired. thought he was coming down with a minor bug. he decided to go to bed early. he walked up the steps to the second floor. that was the last time he would ever walk unaided again. when he woke up the next morning he could barely stand. within a couple days he couldn't stand at all. you can imagine how devastating that must have been for him. he didn't know what he had. didn't know if it was a permanent condition. for the first time in his life, f.d.r. knew what fear and despair were. he knew what loss was. he'd lost the use of his legs. up until that time, f.d.r. really had the charmed life. he had a wonderful home, wonderful family. he had a comfortable lifestyle. after that, he would understand what people during the great depression were feeling when they had lost everything -- their homes, their jobs, their life's savings. he would understand those feelings of loss and despair.
in fact, eleanor roosevelt, his wife, was once asked did the polio affect your husband mentally? she said, yes, it did, because it is only when someone has gone through the kind of suffering that my husband has that they can understand and relate to the problems of mankind. after the polio, f.d.r. certainly could understand that. he came back here to his home after spending a lot of time in the hospital in the city hoping that if he did enough physical therapy here he perhaps could get back the use of his legs. one of the ways that he tried to exercise his legs if he possibly could was to walk using the braces on his legs, which weighed about seven pounds each, and crutches from here down to the entrance road right down to route 9, which was quite a walk. he never made it all the way never made it all the way down. he was dragging 14 pounds of
steel as he was trying to go down the roadway. he found a place in warm springs, georgia, that perhaps would help him with his legs. so he tried the water treatment. for a number of years, he used to go regularly to warm springs and spent quite a bit of time there. hoped that would perhaps eventually help him. it he was native are able to walk again after the polio. -- he was never able to walk again after the polio. he was always trying to find a fdr was polio, and president when the march of dimes started, when money was get research to going for polio, and that is actually why today you have the fdr face on the dime, because
that was the way they were try toto raise funds to find the cure to end this horrible illness. down the hallway leading into the north wing of the house, just off that hallway is the study that fdr used in this house. this is a really interesting room. there is a of history here, because this is where fdr would meet with heads of state that came to visit here. and it is really i would say the most historic room in the house, anduse this is where fdr prime minister winston churchill initialed the document called the hyde park aid memoir, which talked about the atomic bomb, future uses of the atomic mom, possible use against the japanese, and also keeping the
development of the atomic bomb secret from the russians. but it was also a fun room because this is where fdr loved to have cocktails, normally, before dinner. he loved to call the cocktail hour the children's hour, based on the henry wadsworth longfellow poem, where he could bring people together to relax and have fun and talk about the andyed telling, his tales, where he would mix the cocktails himself. another thing he could do independently, which he loved, and it was a time when he could relax and be fdr, the person, not necessarily the president of the united states. so after the polio, certainly this house posed a bit of a challenge ford franklin roosevelt -- for friends and
resurrect, because there were a lot of steps. talk about the ramp going to the library living room, that there was a big set of stairs here. to get up these stairs would have been difficult unless he was crawling up the steps on a regular basis. but there was actually a lift here, and it had been put in prior to fdr's contracting polio, with a trunk elevator that was used for steamer trunks, because the roosevelt, people in their social class would normally do, they would go and theyips to europe would have the big steamer trunks filled with clothes. it was difficult to move them up and down, said that his writing style left. it was a hand-operated list. a dumbwaiter type of thing. contracted polio, it would have been a great way for him to get from floor to floor. the suggestion was perhaps he should have it motorized rather
than use it as it was, but fdr did not want to have it motorized was the man who said there is nothing to fear and fear itself had a real fear of fire, and he was worried that if liftswas ever motorized putting here and there was a fire in the house, he could die trying to escape. so he felt this would be a much safer way to operate, and he loved it, he does gave him a feeling of independence. of fire came on early on in his life because when he was a little boy, about 2 1/2 years old, he and his mother had mother'sgone to his estate for a party. while they were there, his aunt lara was getting ready for the party, and she was using a curling iron that was heated
over and alcohol lamp. she knocked it over, the flames caught her close on fire, she ran screaming out of the house, and she died the fire on her clothes. so he remembered that growing up. and also as a little boy, and one point was a small fire here in this house which he and his dad put out in the dining room area. so it was something that remained with him throughout his life, this fear that there was going to be an awful fire in here. he and his mother were very close. actually was close to his dad as well, his father died when franklin was only 18. so his mother became the main person in his life. eleanor and sarah roosevelt had an interesting relationship over time. first veryd fdr were from eleanor roosevelt looks upon sarah as a mother that she i wouldever had, and so
say they were pretty close in the beginning. and sarah kind of helped eleanor with the running of the household because eleanor roosevelt had no idea to run a household or even raise children, and sarah was very good at that. so she kind of took over, and when eleanor roosevelt came more independence, she wanted to take over the running of her own twoehold, and so there were strong women here trying to take control. some glitches in the relationship, and you have your member that eleanor roosevelt was living in her mother-in-law's home. it was not her home. eleanor roosevelt had a very loving relationship with her father, elliott, who was theodore roosevelt's younger brother. but she did not have such a good relationship with her mother.
her mother was a very beautiful felt that eleanor roosevelt was not pretty enough as a little girl. she made fun of her. wasso eleanor roosevelt pretty much alienated from her mother. with her parents by the time eleanor roosevelt was 10. so she did not have a good somple of being a good mom, that is why when she had her own children, it was difficult for her to adjust the mother heard. i have actually -- they actually had children. sometimes it is mentioned they only had five is one child died.ned -- one child eleanor elevated -- child lost a job and was devastating for her. on the second floor, and on the right-side are the guestrooms and left-hand side family rooms.
when this house was enlarged, he had to put in extra long hallway because they added this weighing, over the library living room of the house, and this wing that we will be looking like -- at momentarily was meant to be a suite of rooms for franklin and eleanor to use, but at one point his mother sarah moved into that section with them. we are in the bedroom of franklin and eleanor roosevelt. once fdr contracted polio, according to eleanor roosevelt, she moved into the room next originally kind of like a dressing room, sitting room for this section of the house, for her. once hedid this because had polio, he needed a manservant to get him out of bed, dressed, address, and so forth, so for her for privacy reasons she said you needed to
move next door. historians speculate that eleanor roosevelt moved into the next room after she discovered that fdr had a relationship with her social secretary, lucy mercer, and she felt that she did not want to be in the same room with him, so she moved next door. next to that bed there are a couple of funds. on the little table next to the bed, and there is one on the wall. the one on the wall is really an important phone because that was the direct line to the white house. so fdr could pick up that phone and he would get the white house whenever heerator needed to, so it was in reach for him, which was great. in this room there was a little famoushat his little scottie dog to sleep on.
that was his special little spot in this big room. it was a room where in the mornings fdr quite often would meet with his staff. he used to spend some time in bed looking at the paper's first, andpers that he would have a quick meeting with his staff that he needed to, so it was convenient for him, that is why there are some chairs in here so they could talk to the president right here. this room has a wonderful view of the hudson river, and that was important. he loved the hudson river. it was one of the best things about the hudson valley for him, this beautiful river that ran behind his house, where he learned to sail a boat as a little boy. by the time he was 8, he could sail a boat on the hudson repair. the time spent on boats or ships was wonderful to him. he used to say that his favorite job next to being the president of the united states was when he
was assistant secretary of the navy under president wilson because it gave him a love of opportunity to spend time on ships. hefact, even in this room has something that is naval related is up above the doorway is the commission made him assistance secretary of the navy -- assistant secretary of the naval sign -- navy signed by wilson. there's a doorway that led into roosevelt -- eleanor's room. we move into eleanor's room. there is not much in here because eleanor roosevelt eventually had her little retreat, which was on the eastern end of the roosevelt estate. it was a place that fdr built for her on land he owned. and after that point in her life, which happened around
1926, she began to use that more and more often. whenever she came to hyde park without fdr, she would spend the days and nights there. if she came to hyde park with fdr, she would spend days there, night i'd be spent back here, but to her that was finally her own home in hyde park. and she really never felt at home in this house. this was her mother-in-law's house. she say for 40 years she was just a visitor here. so she loved that little stone cottage, which she basically shared with a couple of four -- her political mentors, and later on she had a building that she had built as a furniture factory converted into retreat for herself. so that was really the place that she loved to be more than any other place here in hard part. -- hyde park. at the end this hallway is a
cute painting of fdr as a little boy. he had long hair until he was 5, and his mother loved his long hair on him, and they say she cried when they cut his hair short. but it is the cutest little thing that a lot of visitors see and they wonder who that little girl is. not a little girl. it was fdr as a little boy. in this wing of the house, there is franklin roosevelt's bedroom, sarah'ss bedroom, and bedroom, so they are all bylected -- connected premises they could move around just by opening a door. when sarah roosevelt built a townhouse for franklin and eleanor roosevelt as a christmas gift, she had it built in 1906 in new york city, that place had connecting doors from one
apartment to the next, because sarah roosevelt built that building as a duplex. she would live in half of it and franklin and eleanor roosevelt lived in the other half. and there was connecting doors on various levels so that there could pop into their section whenever she wanted to unannounced, which made eleanor roosevelt not happy. townhouse,bout this and you could kind of read between the lines, where she just mentioned that it was not a great thing where sarah was living right next to them and she decorated their part of the townhouse and so forth. and i would imagine that she was of happy to be in a wing this house where sarah could also opened a doorway from her bedroom into eleanor roosevelt's bedroom or early on, franklin and eleanor shared bedroom,
whenever she wanted to. when she moved into the section of the house, she moved all the richer out of the room -- all the furniture out of the room that franklin roosevelt was born into this room. the first room was used as a guestroom. this then became the master bedroom to the house. and then after sarah died, she had left a note that she wanted furnituree birth room put back into the room where fdr was born because she knew fdr had planned to turn this place over to the national park service and have it open to the public, and she wanted the room to appear as when he was born in it. a guestthen became bedroom after that point. sarah roosevelt passed away in and they say1941, right after she died, a giant oak tree fell over on the property.
it is almost a symbolism of she is gone, and, boom, that is the end of a very important part of the story of this'estate, sarahs life here. after sarah died, it was hard for fdr to come back here because his mom would always be at the front door on the front porch reading him when he came up the steps. it was devastating for him. he was so close to his mother that for him something really important went out of his life. as much as he loved this house, when he quebec here, he felt that loss, the emptiness of this when -- when he came back here, he felt the loss, the emptiness of his presence. and sarahied in 1945, died in 1941. she was around for most of his life. it was a terrific loss when she passed away.
home from the time he was born here until the time he died. he loved it so much that he wanted the american people and people throughout the world to come here and understand what it meant for him to be born and raised here and what influenced up andn he was growing how it perhaps translated into some of the things he did as president of the united states. . he gave this house to the american public. amy arranges while he was president to have this given to the national park service eventually, so it was his hope and dream that people would come here and learn about him as a person and as president of the united states. -- fdr used this place has a place to bring these world
leaders up, but have them let their guard down and focus on some of the major issues that they are here to talk about. springwood is really the same way. when you walk into these buildings from you did not come in as king or king -- queen, prime minister. whatever your title was, you came into a friend. coming into somebody's home as a friend is different than walking into their place of business as a colleague. so going into the white house with fdr and talking about major world events would be much different than coming up to this where thered porch were no bank of photographers waiting to take a picture of that handshake. it was a place where he could be open with his guests and showing him sitting in his wheelchair laid it all out there. is there showing off the fact that i am not hiding anything think his guests received that in such a way that
they were willing to open up and not hiding anything from him, and the way that they used this place really facilitated some anderful conversation, they were able to delve into some of the major issues, and come up with some very incredible solutions that may not been possible at the white house or more formal places. ins building was constructed 1938. fdr brings an architect to the site by the name of henry toombs from the state of georgia who is no stranger to fdr. they work together on several projects in the past, including the hyde park town library, the stone cottage, as well as a couple buildings down in warm springs in georgia. he knew what fdr wanted, but he was not brought up to design this building himself. fdr had every intention of doing that. he was going to design the building, toombs was going to make sure that everything was
going to work. but he designed not only to meet his personal interests in the dutch influence of this, but his physical needs. he was in the wheelchair, so he designed this in such a way that he can use this place. on towas an earthen ramp the porch which he would've been helped up on, but once he got to the you would enter through a sliding door, which for somebody in a wheelchair was important, because sliding doors, it did not matter which door -- side you were on. most modern sliding doors at the track on the bottom. this door the track was recessed. when you entered into the building, the hallways were a little wider. it was one flat service all the way through. -- no thresholds, no obstacles. going into the kitchen, is a double swung door, so it does
not enter which side you were on, you push the doorway from you. he got to use this building more than he could use springwood himself. so he got to be the host of here. he cost to -- he got to boost his guests, she took pride in. he loved to show this place. he loved to be able to serve his guests, and pictures of him up here, always smiling, and join him self -- himself. he would have a teacher set up where he could make guests tea and toast. he buttered it himself with the first of -- the flourish of his wrists. my afternoons, he would've offered you a martini. and you would have been very smart to say, no, thank you, mr. president, because i all caps his martinis were dreadful, mixed with entirely too much for most, which is exactly how fdr loved them. it was a place to escape the
mob, the throngs of people who would come to visit or try to visit springwood while he was president. it was a much different period that and when the public would come to the president's house, chengdu meet, greet, ask questions, voice opinions, and this was a place that was removed far enough away from springwood that he could get away from all the activity going on down below. we have a record number of visits of 95. those of the ones we can document by photographs, diary interests -- entries. where there's others that were documented?d? -- probably. - mackenzieck -- a, queening george vi, elizabeth, the queen mum. winston churchill was on this
porch four different times, averill harriman, among others. when they arrived here, they are in need of help or assistance. to sit they were willing in a place probably far removed from their comfort zone, and i think it may have been refreshing for them to get away from everything happening low as well, and to see fdr for the man he really was rather than the fact he was the president. probably the one most people are familiar with is the infamous topic, -- hot dog picnic. the visit was a very historic visit, as it was the first time that a seated british monarch had been to the united experience that visit was tapped off with a picnic on the porch here at top cottage, that hotdog picnic. when this place opened up to the
public in 2001, the queen mum was still alive, and set remarks to be read at the opening, and nothing to do with the hot dogs top cottage as a building, that you talk about fdr's driving. the roads we mentioned earlier, the bumpy roads, she said, i was holding on for your life. she said, i thought for sure i was going to die. fdr drove own words, like a bat out of hell. they arrived for that today, she quickly exited the car. it is a very steep last section, and was happy to make it appear in one piece, but she exited the car, he had their picnic, and it came time to leave, and fdr said, why don't you get back in the car and we will go back down the hill, and she said, no. fairly having wrist her life one day -- once that they, she was not willing to do it a second time.
i am sure fdr had a wonderful story to tell from that and embellished it over the years as the day the queen would not right with him. while they were out here, the roosevelt's treated the royals -- roosevelts treated the americans to a picnic -- treated the royals to a picnic. they had virginia ham, smoke turkey, mixed green salad, strawberry shortcake for dessert, but it was the hot dogs that stole the show. and they were swift premium hot dogs. i do not believe the queen had never seen a hot tub before, because she asked what they were. fdr said it was a hot dog. she said, how to eat such a thing? he said, you take one in your hand, put it in your mouth, and you push, and you chew. which was a descriptive way to teach somebody how to eat a hot dog, but she did not have one. and the king went back and
enjoyed his and went back for seconds, with queen did not have one. this visit by many in the press was deemed a social visit. but the visit was much more important than that. you are looking at the middle of june of 1939. befores 2 1/2 months september 1 and the invasion of poland, the beginning of world war ii, and neighbors said over by neville chamberlain to secure the french of the nations, to make sure that the united states would continue to be allies of the british. and was an important visit, i think meant itself to some of the earliest involvement of the united war effort at that time. [applause] winston churchill was here for different times, but on -- four different times, but june 20, 1942, was the most important. we know earlier in the day that he and fdr, averill harriman,
and harry hopkins are down in the study at springwood, and they are talking about the british atomic program. laced inwas taking london, which was difficult at the time with the constant on parting of the city. so they were not making the progress that they were hoping to, and word was coming down that the germans were rather close to developing an atomic weapon. churchill is asking fdr to bring the program and the scientists over the to the united states, and fdr agrees to that. and within two months time, the program is gone. and manhattan project was born out of that. we know they are discussing this down at springwood from churchill's memoirs come into diaries of that day, she sets the move up here
at top cottage. while she does not spell out the words that were said, she talks about the visit which occurred at about 4:00 that afternoon acts -- at top cottage, and she they seemed very distracted, like they had the weight of the world on their shoulders. we all waited for them to speak. the exacter know words that were set appear, but if there was any case have a conversation of that 92, this was the place to do it. the press was not allowed appear. he was no telephone. there was no outside communication whatsoever. was a place to keep a secret. this was a place where you are dealing with the stresses of the presidency and everything that is going on in washington. the only president has to this two who has gone through major events, the great
depression and world war ii, and the stresses of the presidency were pretty hard on him, and i think sitting up your is quiet -- as quite and as peaceful as let him recharge his batteries. >> library was created in 1941. it was the first presidential library created by the national archives and records administration. the library was established by franklin roosevelt. he was looking for a way to preserve the papers of his administration and his personal papers. and so he created a library on the grounds of his estate in hyde park, new york. he basically, what he decided to do was raise private money to build the library and then he gave it to the government to be operated by the national archives.
followed byas subsequent presidents, so this is the first of the presidential libraries that was created and operated either national archives. about 10 years ago, library embarked on an ambitious plan to look at the entire museum and bring it up to date. the completely new galleries opened in 2013, and basically everything you see at the museum 2013ates from that reopening. it is all brand-new, a fresh look at both the lives of franklin and eleanor roosevelt and of the result presidency. 1932,hibition begins in the year franklin roosevelt was elected. 1932 was a year of tremendous crisis for the nation and world. the country was in the third year of the great depression. in 1929, when the depression began, unemployment was at 3.2%. by the time roosevelt is running for president in 1932, it is
almost 25%. election inof the 1932 was out of a nation in a state of disarray and fear. this gallery really points that out. he have dramatic photography which shows you the state of affairs nationally. this photograph in particular is poignant. this is a photograph of new york's central park in 1932, and in the foreground a shantytown, one of many like this that had sprouted up across the nation. many of them were nicknamed hoover villes. people areular one, living in the shantytown in the shadow of the metropolitan museum of arts. it is a very poignant reminder of the scale of human suffering in the year 1932 when roosevelt is running for president. the 1932 democratic convention was held in chicago, and when
roosevelt was nominated, he received word of the nomination in albany, and he did something unprecedented in american politics and quite dramatic. convention to the accept the nomination in person. up to that point, when american presidential candidates received the nomination of their party, they would receive a delegation formally at their home or a political site in their home state, but they did not go to the convention and did not deliver the speech at the convention. roosevelt broke with that convention in a radically. he is delivering his acceptance speech to the convention. it is an electrifying moment in american political history, and it is this speech where he first uses the expression "a new deal." fdr: high pledge myself to a new deal for the american people. that new expression becomes
highly associated with the presidency, but it appears first when he delivers his acceptance speech. roosevelt was elected in a landslide. in those days, after the election, there was a long period between when the election took place and when the president took the oath of office. 1933, fdr takes the oath of office as president, and he takes the oath on this and norma's and historic family bible. this is a dutch family bible that had been in his family for generations. it had come over in the 70 century when the family came over to america. it's a unique level in many regards. most importantly, it is the only bible used by a president for four different inaugurals.
was auently, there constitutional amendment passed which limits all president's two two terms. to two terms. 1933 inaugural is famous for many reasons, the most enduring line from his speech is something we are mentor. -- remember. assert my firm belief that the only thing we have to fear is fair itself. >> says that at a time when the nation really is a state of fear. it is the low point of the great depression. people are frightened. l thee's trying to stee nerves of the nation. there's a lot of speculation about where it came from. we have on display here the first pages from several drafts of the speech. first is in roosevelt's
handwriting, written in february 1933, and the first draft you do not see that line at all. it appears on page 1 of the final draft, which was put together on march 1, 1933, and that is the first time we see it in the speech. there's a lot of discussion where this line comes from. chiefw that fdr's political adviser is a person put the line in speech, but we do not know where howe got the line from. there are theories about this. the most plausible one is that henry david thoreau a century earlier had once written nothing is so much to be feared as fear. that is a line that is awfully close to the one that howe inserted in the speech for roosevelt delivered. we may have thoreau to thank for
that. -- isst rest is that 1 used.ne that roosevelt you see a little line at the top that roosevelt has added, and he wrote that in pencil while he was waiting in the capital building to go out -- capitol building. says, this is a day of national consecration. up until the age of 39, franklin roosevelt had a charmed life, including a political career that was on an upward trajectory. in 1920, he had been the candidate forty's vice president, and he was widely seen as a likely candidate for president in 1924 and 1928. at this point in his life, tragedy struck. in 1921, is not contracted polio. it left him paralyzed
permanently from the waist down. he with jew from politics completely -- he withdrew from politics completely. it was a time when he disappeared from politics. focused on period, china to find a cure for his condition, although he was never able to walk again unassisted. but he also worked on building of his body, trying to figure out a way how to be able to reenter political life, and so he built up his upper body and he is looking for ways to be able to stand in public and to be able to at least approximate some sort of ability to walk in public. in order to do that, he had to heavy steel braces. these are example from her collection. these weight about 10 pounds. they locked at the knees. it is only by the use of braces like theset fdr --
that fdr was able to stand. in order to make make the ability to walk, he needed to do cane said he would take a and he would often lock arms with a very strong companion, and then supporting himself on those two sources, he would pitch his body forward and have a slow, jerky kind of walking could do over short distances. this took tremendous physical strength, and he had to build his upper body over time to do that, and also took a great deal of concentration. the interesting thing is over time he is able to master that to the point where he can be acting and nodding and as if he does not have a care in the world, when he is focusing on the able to walk that short distance. these kinds of techniques gave him the ability to go back into and reenter politics.
it took a long time for them to get to that point. it is not until monday 28 they runs again for political office, but he runs in that year for governor of new york, he is elected narrowly, and reelected in a landslide in 1930. is what sets him up for -- that is what sets him off for becoming the democratic candidate for president in 1930. after the inaugural, fdr springs into action during what became known as his first hundred days. during his first hundred days in office, he passes a whole series of legislation and other acts that really just galvanize the nation's attention and really he is pushing reforms and a righty of areas, trying to arrest the decline of the nation and turn the tide of depression. arguably the most important achievement of fdr's first term and when he was most proud of was this a social security act,
passed in 1935. you provided for old-age pensions for american and unemployment insurance. proudestrobably fdr's achievement of the new deal and a high point of his first term. one of the things that we wanted to be sure visitors to the museum understood was the continuing reality of fdr's disability. this is a man is paralyzed from the waist down. what is interesting is to see what the public perception of that was. one of the things that we point out the visitors here is that we fdr,130,000 photographs of but we only have four that show him in a wheelchair. that is because there was an unspoken rule that was observed by the press and media at the time that you do not photograph the president sitting in a wheelchair. you do not photograph him in ways that when it revealed -- that would reveal the extent of
his disability. the public knew that he had some form of disability, but what was not understood was how great a disability was great this incredible photograph of fdr is taken right in front of the home here in hyde park on election night in 1936, and he is leaning because he has just won a tremendous victory. this is a huge landslide. he wins every state in the nation except maine and vermont. his mother is then to the left of him. two of his sons, and on the far right eleanor roosevelt. this victory was so immense that fdr really felt confident going into his second term that he was going to be able to expand the new deal. he had all kinds of ambitious plans for what he wanted to do on the domestic front. but as a lot of presidents find out as they go into their second term, events can sometime take
surprising turns, and in fact his second term turns out to be a lot different than what he thought it might be. very early in the second term, fdr gets involved in a big conflict with congress. he becomes concerned that the supreme court striking down a lot of new deal legislation, and he becomes concerned in particular that there is a court case involving the social security act might end with the court striking down that as unconstitutional. he comes up with a reform plan, but his opponents called a court-packing plan. it was a plan to put additional members on to the supreme court, presumably he would then get a majority that would support his legislation. this becomes a contentious issue, and despite the large credit majorities in the house and the senate, his plan for the reform of the court or the court packing fails, and it is a major
political defeat for him. on top of that, the country goes into a recession. the unemployment rate had been going down throughout his first term. so-called938, the roosevelt recession comes in and unemployment begins go back up. him also weakens politically at a critical moment. despite the importance of all of these departments, i think the most you have an important element that occurs during roosevelt's second term and one that takes the whole focus of his presidency in a different direction are the rise of threats overseas that occur during the mid-and late 1930's. this large map of both europe and also of asia begins to illustrate that story. you have overseas threats arising with japan, in asia, with germany and italy, in
europe, and north africa. and these threats, these rising overseas threats occupy more and more of roosevelt's time and attention. and ultimately, they lead to his decision to run for an unprecedented third term as president. the 1940 election was very controversial for two reasons. one, fdr was running for an unprecedented third term as president. no previous president had ever served more than two terms. the other big issue was the war. world war ii broke out in europe in 1939, and in the subsequent year, there were were committed advances by germany in europe. to roosevelt was concerned provide aid to great britain, which was struggling hard to hold out against the nazi onslaught. but american public opinion is very isolationist at the time.
people had sympathy for the victims of hitter's aggression, hitler'ser -- aggression. there were some fear if roosevelt was elected was going to pull the nation into world war ii. that issue was a key one during the 1940 campaign. in the end, roosevelt was reelected to a third term. he lost some support in the midwest, but he still wins by a fairly comfortable margin, 54.8% of the voice to 44.8% for his opponent, wendell wilkie. of december 7,n 1941, fdr was in his private study in the white house residence. it was a sunday afternoon, so most of the white house staff was not in the building. roosevelt was alone except for his advisor, harry hopkins.
roosevelt was working with this debt collection when suddenly the phone on his desk rings, and it is the secretary of the navy telling him that the pearl harbor navy base in hawaii is under attack from japan. roosevelt immediately calls in his advisers. all the staff comes back to the white house, and they go to crisis mode. the late afternoon, rose about one point asks all the staff members to leave his study in the residence except for his private secretary. and at that point, it's down with her and he dictates himself the first draft of one of the most heinous speeches of his presidency -- yesterday, december 7, 9041 -- 1941, a date that will live in infamy -- >> this is the first draft of that speech. it to hisdictated
secretary, and then she in turn typed it up. and then what you see on these pages is in pencil fdr personally editing his speech. there are a lot of fascinating edits, but the most famous one is that what he does to the first sentence. it and changes the word simultaneously to suddenly. that way he transforms that sense of yesterday, december 7, 1941, a date that will live with -- in infamy, united states was suddenly and literally attacked by naval and air forces of the empire of japan. a line that has come down through the decades to us today as one of the most memorable lines of his presidency. the whole speech is a memorable one, and a very short one. only about six minutes when he delivers if the following day to a joint session of congress.
globe wasous actually in the oval office during world war ii. fdr received this as a gift from general george marshall, who was chief of staff of the army during the war. marshal had a number of these large globes made under a special order from a company in chicago, and he gave it to fdr as a christmas in 1942. roosevelt kept it by his oval office desk. this globe is balanced on finely tuned rollers, so if i was to touch it with a light touch, i could move it in any way. this sort of thing was handy for a disabled president to have at his secret tips when he is planning an involved in a global war. and roosevelt obviously made a lot of use of this during world war ii. one of the things we look at in this portion of the expedition is fdr's attendance at key wartime conferences.
he went to a number of conferences during the war, most importantwo were the tim ryan in 1943 -- that tehran conference in 1943 in the yalta conference 1945. long before the end of the war, fdr is thinking about post war period. in november of 1940 when he journeys to tehran, has several important things on the agenda. on of them is trying to ensure that his partners in the allied coalition will sign on to the idea of a postwar organization, what becomes the united nations, that he hopes will prevent the outbreak of a third world war. and one of the interesting documents we have on display here is actually a little sketch that fdr made at the tehran conference in 1942.
this is in his handwriting. an aide saved this sketch. you can see in fdr's writing a thoughtetch of what he the united nations might be. it starts on the left here with a little circle marked 40 u.n. represents the 40 nations that were fighting the access powers. this represents the idea what becomes the un's general 70. in the center, you have something marked executive committee, and this is the full-time staff of what would become the united nations, the secretariat. and the last circle, which is marked 4 police, is conception of what became the security council of the united nations. ce roosevelt had in mind were the united eight, great britain, the soviet union,
and the fourth country was going to be china, which he felt was an up-and-coming power and deserving of being among the police and or security council of the united nations. there in broad strokes, the idea that is kicking around in his mind for the postwar organization. it is telling that roosevelt is the king's overhead. this is 1943. he is already thinking beyond rising, -- beyond the horizon. in 1944 in the midst of the war, presidentour and a fourth term as president. , and you see in this photograph that the president by this time is in hill health. he is suffering from heart disease, and he is slowing down. the public is not quite aware of he is.w ill roosevelt runs in 1944, and at e commission, there is a big fight and who is going to be
his running mate. his sitting vice president was henry wallace, a liberal figure within the democratic party, and the remainders of the party who were more conservative who did not want wallace in that position. they were looking for a more conservative vice president. as often happens, there's a compromise. the conservatives and liberals agree on a candidate for vice president, and that man is harry truman. this photograph we are looking at is at the 1945 inaugural. it, fdr is not in good health, and in fact he dies three months after this photograph is taken in april of 1945, and he is succeeded by harry truman them who is standing to his left in the photograph. shortly after the inaugural, fdr departed on a 7000 mile journey lta,ou all the -- to ya which is the final of the great
comforts as he attends with the big three, stalin, churchill, roosevelt. after the conference, fdr returned the united, and he appears before congress in march of 1945 to deliver an address reporting on what he had done at the yalta conference. what is extremely about this speech to a joint session is roosevelt delivered a speech from a seated position. he did that because he was exhausted. speech, hese of that directly acknowledges his disability for the only time in his presidency. ir: members of the congress, am in the unusual posture of sitting down. lotpe you realize it is a in not caring 10
pounds of steel at the bottom of my legs and also because i just completed a 14,000-mile trip. [applause] >> this was an extra ordinary moment at the end of his life, the end of his presidency, the one and only time during his presidency where he knowledges his disability. shortly after delivering his speech to the joint session about the conference, fdr traveled down to warm springs, georgia, where he had kept a retreat for many years. it was the site of the rehabilitation center he set up at the 1920's for the treatment of polio patients himself. he was down there in warm 1945, whenapril 12, he was stricken by a massive cerebral hemorrhage and died that afternoon. this was a profound shock for the country. inner within fdr's circle, his family, advisers, understood the president was very ill.
but the general public to not know that. so when the announcement came on -- 1945, there was grief throughout the nation. what you need to understand about this is that the countries at war, he has been president for over 12 years, and the --ple especially had no known no other president. if you are sailor, 18, 19, you would've been very young, five or six when he was first inaugurated. so this hits with real power across the nation, and we see it reflected in the film and photography of the public urning that occurs in the days and weeks after his death on april 12. ♪
gallerynd of the dealing with the presence, we theent what is probably most important artifact in our entire collection. that is the actual oval office desk and chair that the president used throughout presidency. what happened was in the aftermath of the death and all the public mourning, his successor, harry truman, did not feel right keeping the desk and chair used by fdr, so he gave them both to eleanor, and she donated them to the roosevelt library. iny were put on display 1945, and have remained on public display ever since. in addition to the actual desk and chair, we have many of the items that the president had on the desk at the time of his death. almost as arranged close as we can get it to the way it looked in march of 1945, the last time he sat here. he is obviously a wide variety of things, and serious items, a
lot of whimsical items. fdr had a since of humor. he enjoyed having ceramic figures and stuff animals, toys, and things on the desk. also against the many serious items, and that he was using. on the left side of the desk, you see a portfolio that has the portraits of his four sons who all served in america's military during world war ii. all parents whose children are serving in the military can wanted to have a photo of the nearby, in this case, on his working desk. you also see on the right side of the desk his daily schedule. would have been a schedule tucked into that holder every day, eating a list of the appointments and what he was supposed to be doing at different times. we have it arranged for the last day that he was at the desk in march of 1945. one last thing i will point out about the chair, if you look carefully at the armrests of the
chair, you see it is worn down. oft is from over 12 years the president using it and being disabled. he is putting a lot of pressure on their as he is getting in and out of the chair and it is worn down really heavily come as you see, on the left and right sides. france and roosevelt is certainly one of the most consequential presidents in our -- franklin roosevelt is certainly one of the most consequential residents and our history. he advocated reforms that have a continuing impact on our lives today. and he had a worldwide impact his advocacy for the united nations and other international organizations, which he hoped would ensure greater international cooperation and ultimately greater ease among nations. ♪ >> our visit to hyde park new york is a part of american history tv exclusive.
we showed it to you today to introduce you to c-span cities tour. we have traveled to cities across the u.s. to explore their literary and historic sites. you can much more of her visits on -- watch more of our visits on c-span.org/citiestour. >> there were some changes made at the white house today regarding the president's communications team. white house secretary sean spicer announced he is stepping down. spicer, who has been with the trump administration since january, said it was an honor and privilege to serve the president and that he will remain at the white house through august. in another move it was revealed that sarah huckabee sanders would take over for sean spicer. announcement came directly from mr. scaramucci when he