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tv   NASA TV Coverage of the Total Solar Eclipse  CSPAN  August 21, 2017 12:00pm-4:01pm EDT

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>> and this is the nasa website first total or the eclipse across the u.s. in 99 years. is ebsite go live to nasa t.v. for it rage of the event as travels across 14 states from west coast to the east coast. reminder, do not look directly at the sun during he eclipse, should only be viewed with special solar eclipse glasses. >> starting on the west coast, tracking the eclipse as it moves to the east coast, we will the experience of 2017 eclipse across america. invite you to join us, for programming ipse from coast to coast across the country.
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>> welcome to nasa preshow coverage of total solar eclipse of 2017. are coming to you live from nasa at the college of charleston, in south carolina. hours, be xt four prepared for an amazing journey through the eyes of nasa. now, on to our preshow host, aren fox, and shawn potter, guys, take it away, it's sun time! [bell ringing] >> thanks. >> thank you, dwayne. we have a great show for you wait. i can't >> no, me either. >> can't wait. means it e bells, it is eclipse time. >> welcome to nasa t.v. solar eclipse,17 i'm karen fox, communications ead for what we call helio physics, the study of the sun and how it affects space. potter from the nasa office of communication, i'm
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certified meteorologist, today be tracking the eclipse weather for you. >> as you can see, we're at the charleston, in south carolina at nasa eclipse central. p.m., ere, starting at 1 we'll be tracking and covering eclipse ig events, 2017. >> today, millions of people across the united states will spectacular event, a total solar eclipse. >> as the moon crosses the face sun, we're going to be bringing you realtime breath-taking images in the country, ss nasa t.v. has cameras aircrafts , balloons, and spacecraft standing by to bring you views of the natural phenomenon. ready to look through the eyes of nasa. >> plus, on the 1 p.m. nasa expert standing the locations across country highlighting views of the eclipse and pointing out how using the eclipse to study the sun, the earth and the
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atmosphere. america will h experience a partial eclipse, where the moon blocks only part of the sun. total solar eclipse is going to sweep the nation along wide path from oregon to south carolina. this is called the path of totality. people along that path are going to experience the glorious sight eclipsed sun. >> first, i want to take a moment to remind you of tips.tant safety first of all, never of look is not at the sun, it safe for your eyes and could cause dfrj. -- damage. >> it is important. take a look. >> what we're going to do is image from the go 16 satellite, the latest and satellite nasa built and launched for our noaa, just last year, going to revolutionize weather forecast. detailed picture of cloud cover across the country and actually
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for the path of totality, it oregon, across midsection through nebraska and kentucky into parts of and tennessee and exiting the u.s. here in charleston, looks except mid-section of the country, maybe nebraska seeparts of missouri, might cloud cover. toward the coast, charleston, we we'll keep oon eye on that and have more later in the broadcast. > crossing fingers for weather here. an eclipse is something called a transit. it is when one celestial body moves across the face of another celestial body. today that is our moon, moving across the face of the sun. > it is almost time for that transit to begin. 9:05 p.m. eastern time pacific time marks the beginning of the eclipse over u.s. soil. > let's hopefully catch a glimpse, a large celebration is
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underway. carpenter from the aims research center is standing by. >> the corona is so hot, like if you were standing next to a fire place and you moved away, it got hotter, which is crazy, but we know it is from those dynamic seeing fields we're here. >> okay. we haven't ord that started. okay. okay. i guess we're going from the top. >> all right. aims. you to >> jesse, we begin our eclipse coverage. oming from oregon, this stunning image from a telescope madris. in the town of he exploratorium is available as a live stream. this makes spectacular views available to everyone. it is a public learning lab that
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explores the world through art and human perception. >> let's talk a little more bout that science and what it is that we're going to be learning today. a lot of people think that space empty, right? >> a lot of people. >> it is not quite true. extended the atmosphere of an active star. the helio physics is the study star, the sun, and its effects on earth. material helps drive constantly rising magnetic system throughout space. system surrounds earth and the planet and extends far out into the solar system. nasa is putting the system, not only to help us understand more universe,place in the but protects technology and astronauts in space. illinois, nasae, edge is standing by to tell us more. ctually, we'll stay here at eclipse central in charleston. karen, i'll send it back to you. is a good time to take a moment to talk about safety.
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irst and foremost, never look directly at the sun. it is not safe and can cause damage. ways to are lots of safely view the eclipse without looking directly at the sun., for and advice.truction >> you may have seen eclipse glasses. i've got my pair. >> they are designed with solar filter. not safery glasses are for looking at the sun. >> now even if you don't have glasses, you have options. you can share glasses, this eve event -- sure, yeah. >> this event lasts for hours. can make a pin hole projector. take a piece of paper and a and punch a hole in it, put the sun behind you, hold the paper down like this. you will be able to see an image of the eclipse on the ground or you project ll as it to the wall, really simple to
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watch the sun safely. options available no matter where you are, lots more information about how to watch that website address is only time, the only time that is safe to take the glasses eclipse, looking at the if you are in the path of totality during the brief few completely moon blocks the sun. watch this video to learn more.
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>> this eclipse is special, for
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the first time in almost 40 path of the moving shadow passes through the united states. everyone will see the moon at least partially block the sun. path of thin the totality shown in red, will solar eclipse. or them, the moon will cover the sun entirely and the sun will become twilight, the air will cool, the stars will appear and the black disk of the moon pale e surrounded by streaming halo of the corona. will last two minutes or a little more and be visible across the continent from oregon to south carolina. for some, it will be the spectacle of a lifetime.
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>> coming up during the 1 p.m. broadcast, live demonstration pin-hole viewer and more ways to safely view today's eclipse. bringing v. will be
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realtime breath-taking image necessary locations across the cameras and telescopes, balloons, aircrafts and spacecrafts standing by to bring views of this natural phenomena. learn about ute to one aircraft being used today, flight center operates aerodynamic research and mission support. oday their flight path is taking them over the pacific ocean to see the very first view eclipse that olar begins across the country. >> let's watch this video to learn more about the eclipse mission. >> nasa g-3 aircraft, out of armstrong flight research center will feed the world live video coverage of the eclipse in the of oregon as it begins the path across america. we hope to bring that view of nasa.he eyes we go out and modify aircraft can go out so we and do nasa science, it's what
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we do. case of is this aircraft, we've taken the normal ass passenger windows and replaced with optical grade telemetry lus put in to provide realtime video. the windows, it allows our photo and video teams to go out capture high resolution video at 35,000 feet to present this rare event. and using this event to go out nd educate people, i think is an exciting time. turn, almost from -- >> from a pilot's perspective, make sure we get to the right and there are limitations for what our photographers can do. >> roll out here. >> we push as far west as we can o, to get there as early as possible and as low in the horizon as possible. hat put us about lincoln city,
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oregon, which is the furthest west point on the west coast. pattern or holding racetrack pattern over lincoln city. of the exactly the width totality swath, we did mission planning again to make sure we the speeds are, slowest, safest speeds to fly, give us thehat will most time inside the totality region, slip the airplane, that give us more bank angle, letting the cameras see higher. things were what went into from a pilot standpoint this out. >> are you ready to turn for a partial? >> that makes us proud of what and we're able to share with everybody around the world in this case, due to the airplane.of it is what we do. >> great. i can't wait to see what that g-3 will show us today.
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incredible view, the first view amazing. incredible view, the first view of the solar eclipse as it is literally crossing into the united states. >> basically it is off the west coast right now. it is getting a view of the eclipse before we get a view from land. >> right. fleet of one of a and observation platforms that we and observati platforms that we have, we have got, we mentioned earlier, satellite, both ours and some agencies, r haracters, balloons we've got nd we'll be telling you of eclipse, not only looking
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from the ground, looking at it from the sky, of eclipse, not only looking from the ground, looking at it from the sky, looking even from space, get a preview to that. soon.eard, we got the salem, >> we can see what they are seeing live. the transit beginning as the eclipse eclipserting to the sun. that is incredible, karen. >> beautiful. is partial transit. partial transit can take -- partial eclipse can take up to three hours, a little longer in one location. the total eclipse is about a minute and a half to two minutes. >> a lot of people talk about totality lasting two minutes or o, sometimes people don't realize in terms of the entire eclipse from the beginning of when the moon starts to cross the sun's surface until the end longer. >> yep. >> okay. great. so let's talk about the eclipses. one cool i think is thing about total solar eclipses, we're the only planet that entire solar system can see them. >> the only one?
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>> the only planet where the the same as the sun. that is great cosmic coincidence. >> that is right. the sun is about 400 times the moon, but 400 times further away. when they ry means, are p just right, as they today, the moon blocks the sun's entire surface, creating a total solar eclipse. let's take a minute to learn geometry. >> a >> a solar eclipse occurs when the moon moves between the earth and the sun, blocks the sun's light and casts a shadow on the earth. when the move completely covers the breaks of the sun, that is total solar eclipse and it happens roughly every year and a half, somewhere on earth. partial solar eclipse is more common, happening at least twice year. a lunar eclipse, on the other hand, the moon moves behind the sun, it is the earth blocking the sun's light on the moon,
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a ating a shadow on it with red tint. the easy way to remember the difference is to remember what darker, with solar eclipse, the sun gets darker and during a eclipse, the moon does. a solar eclipse is a rare event to see becauseet relatively hadow is small. this limits the locations on earth that get to see it, you have to be on the sunny side of the planet and you have to be in of the moon's shadow. so, if you find your area in the one year, ality you've hit the jackpot, on average that same spot on earth a solar get to see eclipse every 375 years. during solar eclipse, moons cast umbrus and the conumbrus, part of the moon's shadow, where the sun is blocked by the moon. it is a cone extending from kilometers behind the
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hits the earth and we experience a total solar eclipse. most eclipse in the path will show a circle representing the shadow of the moon, but in hits experience a true shape is edges, ygon with curved because the moon is not a perfect circle, it has valleys surface, which affect sunlight shape of the shadow. and scientists now have greater of the shape of the moon's surface, thanks to reconnaissance orbiter, the level of the detail from the data sets and other allowed us to precisely pinpoint earth falling within the path of totality of solar eclipse. f you chance to the chance to witness a solar eclipse, always remember, our little moon plays a role that is quite large. >> wow, that was amazing.
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from have a live shot that g-3 aircraft looking out the window at the eclipse again. seeing the eclipse live from the g-3, 35,000 up in air. >> over the pacific ocean, as the eclipse begins, very see how they retrofit it with the special the best viewing possible and i'm sure it is an exciting moment up there, i can nly imagine what the folks inside the g-3 are feeling right now. great. coming up, live interviews with the g-3. >> live shot. >> we are looking at the eclipse salem, oregon. oregon, ople out in this is whatgreat. coming they are getting to see right now, that first little glimpse of the moon. almost likes like a bite out of a cookie. first glimpse of the moon passing in front of the sun. they are in the path of have a , they will chance to see the full eclipse.
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>> they have great weather and a good shot from the telescope looking at the eclipse. it is amazing. for folks, we can't say it and stress it enough, the safety aspect. in the path ywhere of totality or not, you have to have the glasses, even if you looking at partial eclipse, even if it is cloudy. >> when depicting eclipse, visuali represent the moon shadow as oval. eclipse, first -- we asa
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know the moon is not smooth. moon, we e edge of the have jagged peeks and valleys the sun eek to block and the valley to let the sun in a few seconds longer than we thought. combined effect of the valley is to create a shape that is not it is more like a polygon, it hasn't been seen exactly this late before, where we calculate the circumstances for every point on and draw that shape.
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totality is that two minutes -- 2-1/2 minutes with the moon completely covers the sun. the sudden darkness of totality is something a lot of people to anything >> i love the idea i'm giving this kind of map to other people and especially it is more detaild and more accurate for he people are actually in the right place. this eclipse provides an opportunity for researchers to innovation. scientists map -- [cheering] -- view of the atmosphere. outer >> this year, scientists look at special kind of camera, the team 120 seconds to complete an experiment that may -- change the
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design of spacecraft. >> learn how the team of nasa chasing the sun. >> the corona can be studied rom ground base during the eclipse. an eclipse happen, we make use try to test our ideas. e have only two minutes to do the experiment and we have been preparing for maybe more than a year. nothing can go wrong, cameras aren't shut down, you can't button, there is no time to change your mind will set up for the elescope and observe the total solar eclipse four different wavelengths and the images taken different r wavelengths will be used for the
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corona. >> polarization camera, it will plethora, i think, it is different for solar. once they move completely across the sun, they set it. make sure the image in the field of view. correct time, one person has and for eachommand filter, there is a different time. person has to -- time. combine six different hands. o one person can make any error. >> we do feel the pressure and eclipse, ment of the still we have to focus on our experiment. feeling, but i believe we will succeed. >> all right, we got another beautiful shot here of oregon. getting ready to start
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showing you imagery from around country. >> that's an amazing shot. right now, we're going to toss standing by, who is in carbondale, illinois. > tell us about this, do you perceive, do you have data points to respond to that? when i saw the eclipse before the eclipse i was like, i've partial r eclipses, eclipses, probably similar. an ooks like troy has been eclipse traveller. >> eclipse chaser. in turkey and the next ne was in micronasia, when the eclipse happened, it was 85% coverage, i could see with the projector and glasses at about that moment, i notice getting tarted noticeably dark. the temperature dropped 10 degrees. >> we could use it.
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>> we will totally love that. right as the dip of the moon overed the sun, it was phenomenal, you are overwhelmed with amazing feeling of being universe around you, your vision, you are seeing hings differently, the shadows are changing, the animals are acting differently. that. know about i want to take a quick moment to welcome our friends from nasa from charleston, hope they have clear skies there. e clearly are -- clearly are having clear weather here. >> we are having clear weather. >> a little clouds, easy to manage. great to have you guys joining us. like i said, you have time to to see these , sort of eclipse views. hat other strategies could you share with our fans to prepare for the eclipse? the st to basically when eclipse happens, spend your time with the different devices and projectors before and after totality. the biggest thing i would totality when
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happens, unless you have camera set on automatic, don't miss a event, make sure you are looking at the eclipse. ne of the things some people forget to take their eclipse glasses off during totality and thing, they think it is unsafe. ou are not looking at the sun during totality, it is the backside of the moon, which is the blackest darkness you have ever seen. at that moment, you will see the orona of the sun magically appear across the sky and you will see several stars today, i have and planets, we have potential to see four or ive, i believe, planets and stars. >> you have to be strategic at that point, that is during solar experience and you got to swing your telescope around, will you be naked eye? with the >> you can see them with the naked eye. i recommend you look with the during totality. when one bit of sunlight comes round, trust me tis super
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bright and immediately put on those glasses and use your pin hole projectors again. that is a great point. it is awesome, good science and prepare onal data to everyone for how they can experience the event. >> i have to tell you, we have a gallery, people are uploading pictures right now. e recommend and highly recommend you go to the eclipse site, you will see the flickr images. he beautiful images are images uploaded over the last several days. >> what is interesting, it is from previous eclipses, lots of artwork and creative work. >> look at this one. spectacular and a great part of what is going on. >> absolutely is. for this. ready >> fantastic. ell you what, troy, thanks for coming on. we come back later, you will share the results, right? >> that is right. >> we'll talk about that and get questions, great. >> we'll go inside the stadium kevin, who is with greg, from
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consortium a space and they're going to talk about the balloon launch they will away, for us, take it kevin. >> thank you very much. 30 re standing on about the yard line in saluki stadium, the filling up w. me is r. gregory goozic, introduce yourself, who are you with? >> my name is greg goozic physics at louisiana state university. director of the louisiana space consortium. consortium?hat who is it composed of and what is its mission? the nasa college and fellowship program, established y congress in 1987, the nationwide effort, every state in the union, plus puerto rico has a hington, d.c. consortium, for this project, team, collection of
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about 55 student teams placed from oregon to south carolina, going to fly similar to what we will fly here from saluki stadium. >> when i think weather image of a have an series of books the national launching a ce was monstrous balloon in my memory and it was like 100 feet long. yours are different. can you talk about the structure of these balloon? normal balloons that the weather service actually uses, hence the name weather balloon. they are made out of latex rubber, they are fully inflated, they are eight foot in diameter. stratosphere, e expand to 40 feet in diameter. >> okay. if i believe right now on your television screen, i think you are actually see something data the weather m balloons. earlier you told me you -- all right, thank you, nasa edge from
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carbondale, illinois. you are asking about -- cheering] -- has not done anything for he enthusiasm of the crowd building here. >> we have the aircraft we talked about earlier, it is ready. they are 35,000 feet up. exclusive feed as they fly over the pacific ocean. is standing by. kev kevin. >> hi, welcome aboard. g-3 on nasa armstrong aircraft above the pacific coast. and thanksohr, howdy everybody on the ground making this shot happen. out thea fantastic look window, circling above lincoln city, a little cloud cover down there. have a fantastic view of
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and should prove to w. me is rful day robert lightfoot, and drdr. dr. sabuken, head of science. we will cut to them and have a discussion, what are your impressions today, robert? >> thanks, kevin. what a great morning over the got ic ocean, we're -- we to see the first bites out of the sun from the moon, far.edible view so i really want to w. me is robert lightfoot, and drdr. dr. sabuken, head of science. we will thank the teams out there all over the country to get the science, most science we can get from here, really an inspirational day and inspire next generation of science and engineers and current generation, pretty inspirational. volunteers everywhere, we are excited about what is going on. got to turn over to my buddy, thomas, this is his field of study. what do you think so far? it is amazing. we are seeing it happening. why do you think this is important to nasa and the united states? >> for us, it is a great totality across the continent, we'll learn as much as we can.
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helio physics and astro physics, this is a great pportunity to learn even more and have every instrument available to us to try to understand what we're going to in 99 the first time years. very, very exciting to see what observations and we're going to get, can't wait to see the science come in and he different science we will get from here. everybody will learn something, what do you think you are going learn having studied for your whole career? >> the field of study is the sun. unique about this time is the opportunity to see the corona, the atmosphere of the sun, during the entire time fixed together for one and a half hours and the sun of course is important, most important star. everything we learn about other stars, we learn here first. it is also a source of weather radiation and actually aircraft, we have
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two instruments, one from thermos and one from space environment technology that make hose measurements of how this radiation affects us. >> yeah, i think it is important, the more we know weather, sun and space it will help us protect our own spacecraft in the future and astronauts, ct our as we send crew further and our ome planet in terms of what is going on. what are we going to see and learn today through this incredible event? of the most amazing parts of this is really to see the as magnetic star, what i'm showing here is actually the space of environment of the sun today by and by live ience physics lab. it basically shows magnetic are there and what is great today, we're able to test using observations from the ground that we normally this is e and so, really exciting for us. >> very good. we've got over 11 balloons going 50 up, airborne science like we're
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g-3.g here, on the can you explain what we expect spectregraph? the the colors and what we will see during the time of now, partial, we basically eclipse, the partial the radiation from the surface f the sun, photosphere, all colors there. in total eclipse, we see radiation from the atmosphere that up that radiation has two hot minant lines, one is iron and the other one is, you know, hot, it is a million because of the magnetic field. helios, thes helium, sun in greek, it is like it today. >> very cool. are, about 30 minutes away from totality, but you can me what you think
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from your opinion, what will you see there? >> for me, the amazing part to of is that we're able course see our star and beauty. i'm already emotional. i am touched even now. e're going to see how that eclipse, the lack of radiation that is perfect cloud, the moon and affects the earth turbulence and i'm going to see or feel it up there. >> very cool. thanks, thomas, thanks for sharing everybody out there. away, ya, 30 minutes we're going to measure as much as we can. i'm about to fight for a window seat. get on an airplane and look for window seats, get your glasses on, we'll look out here here from the g-3 and send it back to solar eclipse central. guys soon. >> wow! great. thank you to those on the g-3 fill us in on what you will see from there. of e are on the other side the country. here in charleston, south
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carolina, i want to give a shout college.e the students have been so incredibly great for us. going to have a chance to go back to salem, oregon and what they re about are seeing there. this y are talking about moon picture right here. >> right, we have a live picture oregon, we were showing earlier in the broadcast. as the moonibing it out of the sun. what continuing to happen, it looked like, karen, almost like the sun, what we see is moon. like a crescent it is not, the moon is the black portion in upper right hand that is being sun blocked out. e get closer and closer toward totali totality, as robert and thomas said in the g-3 aircraft, it is away for folks in oregon. >> okay. and we will go right madris, right here oregon.
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this is another view of the eclipse. of the great things about this particular eclipse, sean, will be over land for so long. we are about to start seeing it normally, most times in an eclipse, it happens over the ocean, right? the ocean see it. >> folks, especially in the united states, this is the first time from coast to coast that total solar eclipse since 1979, for a lot of folks this, it is a once in a lifetime opportunity. about 90 it takes minutes for the totality portion of the eclipse to cross the the continental united states. hey mentioned from g-3, 30 minutes from now to totality there. where we to get to are in charleston b. two hours, in totality here. >> we are now going to go to salem, oregon, jesse carpenter vial, a ng to nicky scientist from nasa.
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>> welcome back to salem, oregon. it is clear, but yes, it is breezy here today. >> it is windy. >> isn't it? yeah. joined by physicist ficoline vial. >> what is going on now that under way.deep >>the moon is crossing in front of the sun, it is looking like a bite out ofking the sun. a you have colanders, like strainer, you r, can see, if you let the sunlight come through and look at the shadow on the ground, you will be able to see the projected mage of the moon taking a bite out of the sun on the ground in front of you. >> that is cool. something from the kitchen and share that with everyone who is watching. great. >> now is the time to take our our pin-hole cameras, if you
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have those or safety eclipse glasses, now is the time to get look at the sun with these on. >> that is right. you want to be watching safely. about it, we king can't stress it enough. very important to be wearing the glasses. >> it is so amazing to see the the crossing in front of sun, you never get to see anything like this. some what -- are there basics you can share with us? we were trying to present that in the but are there things that maybe you could talk a little bit about the layers of the sun? yeah, yeah. there is three outer layers of photosphere, the part we are seeing now and the the solar atmosphere. now what is cool about today is that usually we get to see the photosphere, the visual surface of the sun. will during totality, we chro atmosphere, the
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chromeousfear. and cot roena. it takes something special, like solar eclipse to see them. >> that is amazing. see >> yeah, it is so cool. to i think what we're going be doing now is sending it back to nasa's eclipse central in charleston. take it away, guys. >> thanks. >> and welcome back to charleston. [cheering] >> the students are really us, i have to tell you, i had a chance to interview ago. of them a few days the students are excited and i wanted to find out what they eclipse.t the let's watch the video. [cheering] >> all right. right now we're looking at -- [bell ringing] > hello, i am karen fox, with
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nasa t.v. i'm here at the college of southston, in charleston, carolina. we are going to spend some time interviewing students to find know about the -- 2017.ipse of 2000 >> what is happening monday? >> the solar eclipse. >> monday? eclipse. >> that is the right answer, the eclipse, are you ready for the eclipse? >> i've pumped, we've been talking all summer. >> what is an eclipse? when the moon moves in front of the sun. passes in n the moon front of the sun, creating a shadow on earth. to hat is the closest star earth? >> the sun? >> the sun. >> the sun. >> the sun? the sun, very nice. >> will you demonstrate for me, putting these on? over the glasses. >> the music we associate with have you been at listening to? >> here comes the sun. eclipse of my
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>> doo, doo, do. >> like, the letter you wrote me. [bell ringing] impressed s really with how much the students knew. we had a great time here. can once again see the imagery we are pulling in of telescope of two eclipses happening as we speak. eclipses, ortial salem, oregon and madras, oregon. image, the moon continues to progress, transit the surface ofer the sun, getting closer and totality, again, this is an opportunity for us to remind folks regardless of watching in re oregon or anticipating the beginning of eclipse from nother location in the u.s. or across north america, wherever you are able to view from, it is important that you have to have safety glasses, we cannot stress that enough. we've been getting questions on people e-mailing,
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asking about that, you must have in the unless you are path of totality, during the brief moments of totality. the glasses, but you can also watch the sun ways, nickya lot of vial, just told us, you can pull colander, because of the pin holes in it. you can use a ritz cracker. the other thing, you might even filtering ipse image through the space between leaves on a tree. ways of wonderful catching imagery of it. but don'tow, be safe, think you have to have it. that is not your only option, about the science. >> i want to give a shout out to ur website, you are talking about great ways to indirectly view it. 2017,
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special do it yourself instructions. the have talked about partial eclipse, nicky vial, who you just heard talking, she studies the corona, the atmosphere around the sun. she was telling me the other day excited she is that she is going to be able to see that during the ed eye actual total eclipse, that is interesting. we can only see that normally with our space telescope. >> right, even with that, i was physicistsone of the at nasa headquarters in washington, d.c. recently about those artificial eclipses they create from the in na graph, they call, space, it doesn't give you the same viewing opportunities we like ith natural eclipse we are seeing now. there are a couple different lay sun's corona, the outer and inner corona, because graphs work, ona they do not allow a good image -corona, really
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close to the sun's surface, only during an actual natural total we're viewing today, scientists and physicists and the general public are able see the entire corona, giving them more information. scientists, no e matter where they are, they only have brief two minutes, maybe lucky, in the re center line of totality to see he entire corona and get those measurements. >> yeah. [crowd noise] >> again, karen, folks are looking at their screen right now. that double image, salem, oregon, on the left.
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madras, on the right, two different images with two different telescope using to the eclipse. still in the partial stages, getting closer and closer toward in a few minutes. >> and stick with us, we'll be across the eclipse country, not only does everybody in the country have a great have some views from the sky, don't we sean? >> that is right. ground is from the how most of us experience the eclipse. different wanted a sp perspective, to image the moon's shadow. in illinois and across the united states, teams use high a unique alloons for perspective. >> they are getting ready to a research balloon from carbondale, illinois. it is a realtime high definition video system. let's check in on the progress of that launch.
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>> suddenly experience it -- eclipse in 4-d, like being on the surface. understand the corona, it is important. we stars have the corona, need to understand why the energy is released in the way it is. >> we need to go inside the right now, they are about to launch the balloon for grant go to kevin standing by. >> you see the balloon, that that get safely down to the ground. >> all the instruments -- the pathe instruments, is low. >> great. >> can you hear me okay? >> yes. this is kevin, sorry about too enthralledas looking at this fantastic eather balloon that has just launched. you can probably see it behind me. pandemonium here, good
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pandemonium, one of the weather is oons has launched w. me one of the team members, introduce yourself to the entire world. pressure. >> hi, my name is colline, louisiana ager for space grant consortium based at lsu. scorecard for people if they are wondering, we talked about the program director, he is your boss? he is my boss. >> what exactly is your job entail with the consortium? i manage the program, i write grants and reports and organize them on track ep and do communications training. > sounds like you do a lot of outreach, as well. it is in my heart and thrills so many young ee people, you probably did not have to drag these young people screaming to do this help, did you? >> no, no, we brought four lsu is tions with us and the home team and so they were always coming, but we had a out which to figure other students we would bring.
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we brought a team of 46 people. >> okay. behind you now, i had forgotten, they are launching balloons, the first balloon, i think we have a video of the first balloon. on top of us here. a few more seconds. >> we are getting ready to second balloon. >> it launched already, that is another. >> okay. balloon, colline, that was launched, where is it right now? think?000 feet, you >> it is, they go up about a so a fewfeet a minute, thousand, probably been a couple minutes. goes, the other one has launched. a big yellow balloon filled with helium. next time we see this balloon will be down on the have wonderful data. can you tell us about what goes and the ying the winds weather reports, trying to alculate where this will land so you can quickly retrieve it
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and get your data. whole other science. >> yes, i'm not an expert on it, i can just tell you we do our predicts, we'll -- we started predicts months ago, doing them and the ry week or so last few weeks we've been doing predicts every single day, so we a good idea, we think 36 near ters, due east, marion. we will have several chase to go s staged and ready and i'm not sure if they decided to leave before or after we have local people helping make sure we have access hoping it is going to be an easy recovery. you actually be on the chase team yourself? >> no, i'm not on the chase team. here on do logistics the ground. i have been on a chase, it is very exciting. >> i'm sure. about it?ll me please get a specific as you can. of the most
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eventful ones? has the balloon ever come down -- >> in the river. >> how did you know? kidding?ot >> i'm not kidding. we had a landing in the ponchatrain river. it is better than landing in the afraid was we were going to happen. >> i would rather lay at the ponchatrain river could damage the instruments. are the expert. >> we would rather not interfere control. traffic >> that is true, landing in the ponchatrain river, thealigators meal out of your several thousand dollars worth of instruments. >> we didn't recover it. we have done water recovery, and kayak.d in an inflatable contact, seeing first we have people putting on their firsts, we are seeing the
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contact, about four minutes left, how many total solar seen, colline?ou >> this is my first. >> i assume you have your glasses. feel free to put your glasses on. >> you want a pair? >> yes, please. >> if you don't mind, i'm going -- >> make sure you look down as much as possible. >> right. okay. my glasses are -- are your glasses on, too? >> they are on. >> okay. and the sun, we are turning if i , would it be okay turn my back to the camera to see the sun? going to turn my back to the camera. my gosh. a small bite starting in the sun. >> that is gorgeous, isn't it? >> what are your comments? >> that is gorgeous, isn't it? fantastic. the total solar eclipse in dash carbondale, illinois, has
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bite taken out by the satellite, the moon. earlier they were telling people to talk about in one word, describe the eclipse. for me is majestic. a lot of times, i don't know take a u, if i want to break on my computer, i can take these off. solar ei think the dynamic observatory that the rotatingeos of sun. see that giant ball of gas rotating majestic is mind.ord that comes to my could you agree? >> i absolutely agree. t's amazing and i think we're fortunate to have this opportunity and to be in community with our students and staff from multiple siu.itutions here at it is extraordinary. >> it sure is. thank you for your time. keep up the great work. thank you for talking with us.
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that was colline, with the su -- >> thank you so much to carbondale. >> that was amazing. was great. i love looking at the images, you see different things in of the country. wonderful to share this with all of you. weville more from carbondale today. please stick with us. we have so much coming up. and from here and nasa eclipse central at the college of charleston.
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>> we await the first glimpse of a total solar eclipse, when the movement of our mode completely blocks -- when the movement of our moon completely blocks the view of the sun. we anticipate this awe-inspiring, celestial event. over the next three hours, we will track the solar eclipse as it moves across the entire united states from coast-to-coast. eventing this incredible through the eyes of nasa. ♪
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-- hello and welcome. over the next three hours, we will look through the eyes of nasa and experience today's total solar eclipse. [applause] i have a great team on stage. a space weather scientist. next her is alex young. over to my right is john the over to my right is john, who will be taking your questions. checking the weather conditions across the path of totality. we are coming to you at the college of charleston. trusted is the last stop of the total solar eclipse --charleston
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is the last stop of the total solar eclipse. we're tracking the eclipse across the entire country to be the best images with the most compelling stories come along science experts. from brownws telescopes, high-altitude balloons, airplanes, and from several nasa space crafts. and yes, and i want you to remember this, we even have live, live, no one else only here, the international space station. if you want to see the eclipse like never before, stay with us through the eyes of nasa. this is the place to be. hola. ok, this is a win-win situation for america. we of a partial eclipse in a total eclipse. explain the difference. >> today, the moon will come across the earth and the sun.
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americaerica, central them apart to south america are going to see a partial solar eclipse. which means that the moon is going to partially block the sun. it is going to look like the moon took a bite out of the sun. a total eclipse is going to happen in a very narrow path, 70 miles wide, coming from oregon and covering the entire united states and ending in south carolina. you will see the total solar eclipse, meaning the moon will totally block that mr. of the sun -- will totally block the sun. the stars of the planets will come out. this is the day that we had been waiting for it is here, eclipse central. >> this is the place to be. we nasa tv broadcasts i'm on the path of totality.
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people can experience it. information on how to experience it safely. alex? what is so unique about the solar eclipse? >> the last time we had a total solar eclipse in the continental 1918 going coast-to-coast, 99 years ago. we are having a total solar eclipse covering a huge portion of populated, acceptable land. this is giving us an unprecedented opportunity to study, to look at the impact on the earth. you can see the corona. and give a side effect likely never had before. the last time we have this kind of connection to where we are and who we are with the apollo
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eight for the ride. that gave us the perspective outside of just the earth. it showed us that we were a part of something bigger. and that is what this total solar eclipse brings to us. it allows us a window into the universe. and this is the most connected, most well observed even that we ever had in terms of a solar -- in terms of the total solar eclipse. experiences are going to be amazing. are witnessing a historical and monumental celestial event today. johnny, can you help me out? you never, never looked directly at the sun. you may have seen these eclipse glasses. they are designed with a special filter. ordinary sunglasses, even very dark ones, are not safer looking at the sun. now, if you are in the path of totality, there is a short timeframe you can take your
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glasses off. this is only when the moon completely blocks the sun during totality. let's watch this video to learn more. [video clip] ♪
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>> ok. so, i am fortunate that i have glasses and a lot of people have glasses, but a lot of people don't have glasses. so what are other options? let me start with you alex. alex: the simplest thing to remember is to use a pinhole viewer. there are a lot of ways to make it or you can take a simple piece of paper, polk a hole in it -- poke a hole in it.
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to project the circular sun on the ground and then you can see the moon move across the dairy -- you can see the moment across it. something aalso use little more sophisticated if you want. box.u can actually make a pokehope two holes -- just two holes inside of the box. you can project the sun inside the box. make sure the sun is behind you. it will be an amazing projector. >> i got to do this because we are on the college of charleston. make some noise! [cheers and applause] that is what i'm talking about. the social media world is going to break records. let me take -- let me talk to my man on the social front. >> there are millions of people
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watching the broadcast right now. we will be monitoring the conversation online, taking your russians as the total solar eclipse tracks across -- taking your questions as a total solar eclipse tracks across the united states. for updates, be sure to follow nasa facebook, twitter, tumbler, instagram, snapchat, and linkedin. we will be providing live coverage on facebook live and on nasa's facebook page. you can ask your questions and check out their streaming sites like nasa's periscope account, twitter, you stream and youtube. and of course, you can watch it online. feature on a special
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our facebook live page, we have a 360 view from south carolina. you can pan it around your computer and look up to the sky as the moon transits the sunderland eclipse. it will feel like you are right here with us in charleston, absent the heat. finally, share your images with the eclipse with us on our flickr page. share your images, and we will share them on social media during the broadcast. remember to ask your questions with the hashtag eclipse 2017. duane: social media will be breaking records. you got to know that one of the most important things here, or today, is the weather. so, sean, you know, i am looking at charleston skies. what is going on around the nation?
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sean: the weather is the key factor for viewing today's total solar eclipse. is 86st income it degrees, but with the humidity, it feels i-99. -- it is 86how you degrees, but with the humidity, it feels like 99. we want to show you this. you detailede imagery. things are looking really good for the early parts of totality like in oregon and idaho and wyoming. as you get into the middle section of the country, places like nebraska and kansas city, jefferson city, there is cloud cover there that may hinder your ability to view the eclipse. carbondale, the skies are still pretty good there. there's a storm system developing to the north and into parts of illinois. things are looking clear and to
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charleston. there is significant cloud cover, but we're keeping our fingers crossed. i do see pockets of blue in there. we will have more later in the broadcast. the moon is already moving across the face of the sun. we are minutes away. remember, the total solar eclipse start in the west coast in oregon. we will be bringing you live images as it occurs. researcher is standing by at the oregon state fairgrounds. report. ve us a status jesse: thanks, duane. totality is almost here. this is so exciting. just before we get to that, i want to introduce andrea. hey. tell us about this really fun
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and cool viewing event. andrea: we are here with almost 9000 people at the oregon state fairgrounds. we have heard from a nasa astronaut. we had a university professor. behind us, we at space science partners doing educational activities and interacting with the crowd we cannot wait for totality in a few minutes. jesse: thank you so much. i know you have to get going. joining us to talk to us about the sun and give us more information is nasa lead scientist --is a nasa lead scientist from the research center. it is almost here. it is almost here. how many eclipses have you seen? .> i have seen nine eclipses inclementthree had
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weather, so i ended up seeing six. jesse: what can you tell us about the sun that will have our audience understand better? >> i just want to start by saying that i am in awe at this moment right now. to close tod totality -- we are very close to totality. that dominates every cubic inch of space in our solar system. video, what you it can be allat engulfing. corona thatof the you see is black and a video is because the sun is so intense that it overwhelms the dim brightness of the corona.
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the can absorb, the inner part of the corona. the entire solar system, as you can see, lives with this dynamic star. conditions are set for a supersonic, and a super hot our outstanding questions in physics really. to understand the corona better, nasa is going to be launching a mission next year, or a year from now, how coincidental. going to gety close to the sun, closer than any aircraft has gotten to the sun. thatmple the very corona we will be seeing very soon. jesse: it is almost here.
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thank you, thank you for joining us. thank you for sharing that. now, we are going to take it center --sa eclipse essential in children. duane: just now, we have an exclusive look at the total solar eclipse. it is over the pacific ocean and about to reach oregon. this is the celestial event that we have been anticipating for years. we will be looking through the g-3 thenasa g-from aircraft. let's taken the views. -- let's take in the views. wow! and now we are looking at the of the total eclipse from the ground. let's see. that is still the g-3.
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there we go. we are taking our first look at the total eclipse on the ground. this is from salem, oregon. a total solar eclipse. let's take in the view. that's the g-3 there.
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duane: ok, so. as the moon has now moved, the sun sun is appearing again, we can see the dimon ring. it is fantastic. rede provinces, little pieces of corona from the lower atmosphere. this is amazing.
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that was pretty cool. >> it is breathtaking. even seen it right now through the tv, it is an amazing thing to see. i cannot imagine what we are going to feel in south carolina when we have our chance. duane: sean, get that whether looking good in charleston. weather get that looking good in charleston. is that from the g-3? i see spectra there. >> that is from salem. prismmera is causing a effect there. that is really beautiful. that is the edge of the diamond rain affect -- the diamond ring affect. that is when people should put their glasses back on. rin you see the diamond
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ng, that is the signal to put your glasses back on. >> that is amazing. being able to look at that with your own eyes is an amazing experience. you can only be seen when you have this kind of totality. duane: the corona is -- >> the solar atmosphere. duane: that is what solar scientist really look for, right? where space weather comes from. >> that is where the particles originate from. duane: can we see that popping up there? becauseuld see if there we have seen it in the past. i will show history later with images of people who drew these projections during the total eclipse. >> why is it so important to get this type of you from the
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corona? >> you mean, like in a total solar eclipse? madris.the it is important because we view these kind of eclipses artificially. the moon covers the sun and a perfect way that we see parts of the corona that we do not normally see. safety, too, alex? alex: when you see that flash of light, that is when you should put your glasses back on because it can damage your eyes. >> safety first, people, always. duane: salem, oregon. they got it good. alex: they got a perfect view, and they are seeing one of nature's most amazing spectacles. duane: i can only imagine the reaction from the ground of the folk there. alex: they are completely
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overwhelmed right now. completely overwhelmed. duane: i certainly hope it gets something like that. [laughter] on nasae got a here television through the eyes of nasa, the heavy international space station coming up with other images that only we can bring. >> that only nasa can bring, yeah. duane: is it completely darker coming out? alex: the filters are back on for the telescope. and now you see the crescent, which is the sun basically now being revealed after the eclipse. so, we are now back to the partial phase in the other direction. >> exactly. duane: how fast is this going? alex: this shadow is passing
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across the country and depending on where you are, anywhere from 1200 to 1800 miles per hour. it is moving incredibly fast because the moon itself in its orbit is moving at almost 3400 miles an hour. in combination with the rotation of the earth is what gives its that shadow moving that fast. duane: let's talk about space weather. this is so important. why is it so important? >> space weather are the conditions outside of the sun. we want to understand the conditions. if you look at the image now, solare going to see the conservatory, where the projections originate from.
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well, when we look at the images, we also have to look at artificial eclipses. these are the ones i was talking about, duane. you have to block the solar surface to be able to see the solar atmosphere, the outside corona. but you are going to see something like this today, and you saw it. but you are going to see a better because nature does it better than what we can do artificially. activity, it has not so much going on with the sun, but you can see corona mass projections from the sun. duane: that looks pretty intense. that does not look good. [laughter] >> well, you know, space weather, we can affect communications. we have the magnetic field on
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the earth to protect us. that is our shield. we can analyze that using real-time models like the one you are seeing on the screen. we can understand how the magnetic portion of your changes. and how it can -- and how it can affect medications and power grids. duane: we are going to toss to idaho. and i think we really got some good stuff here. are you there and idaho falls? i am absolutely here, duane brown. in fact, looking through the glasses right now, it is so weird. sun is thatescent of the crescent moon. ais, i think we have not had total eclipse here and idaho falls since 1889, 128 years ago. and things have certainly
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changed in idaho fall since then. there is a whole more people, especially with all of the visitors in town. we are just outside of the museum of idaho. we have partnered with the museum to make this an official viewing site for idaho. they have an exhibit on space, but we also sent in a team of experts. and for the past three days, we have had talks, demonstrations, we have shown visualizations such as eyes in the solar system, and we have shown them artwork. but really, the order of the day is the eclipse. too.asa has that covered, they have sent an army of volunteers that we call solar system ambassadors. they are all along the path of totality, and they are volunteers, these are people just telling people what they are seen, and helping them understand. we have one here right here.
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his name is richard. hey, richard. key has been manning this mobile observatory that he has been manning -- he has been manning this mobile observatory. we asked him what it is like being a solar system ambassador? we went with him to southern california. take a look. you ask we apologize. there is no audio on the video.
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it talks about the solar system ambassadors. they are 720 in the united states. they get special training from nasa. they learned about missions. they go out to public events around the country and teach them about nasa missions. inyou would be interested becoming a solar system ambassador yourself, you can. we have a website. solar system ambassadors. it is a nasa website. starting september 1 through the end of the month, you can sign up to be a solar system ambassador. check it out on the web. with me now is jim green. he is the head of sanitary science or nasa. all planetarye of missions and asteroids. this guy knows his stuff. let's talk about this. you see this in eclipse that
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does not happen. it happens once in a lifetime. you see it as an opportunity. >> absolutely. we are getting the eerie feeling right now, but when we watch the looms, and there will be 57 balloons, 30 of which will have a planetary experiment on them. >> just a few days ago, we had a crew and they did a test launch. imaginary onend for us to see it works. you have actual scientific experiments going on >> -- on. >> we do. we have a harmless bacteria. we have two areas where the bacteria will be sprayed. one is on the ground and one is a fixed to the balloon a. it will then all of 200,000 feet above the ozone. locked byiolet light
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the moon is just like mars. in addition to that, the temperature and pressure will be just like mars. when the burn goes -- balloon and goes up higher and bursts, we will retrieve the coupon off the balloon and match it with the one on the ground, and we will see how many survive. >> why is that information so critical for mars research? >> this bacteria is pretty much everywhere. it is very hearty. it has probably made its way to mars. i would like to know if that's environment is so harsh that it would eliminate that bacteria or not. >> i am being selfish. i have never seen a total eclipse dream i would love -- eclipse. i would like to take -- put my glasses on and look.
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it is just a little sliver of the sun right now. let's talk about this. ? why is this so rare? ? is tilted by five degrees. there is only two places where the moon and earth and sun are on that same line. that is why every 18 months or so we get an eclipse. >> one minute away. [applause] >> the crowd is getting excited. it just got dark. all around us. you can feel the temperature getting colder. >> the winds are really picking up. >> it is a tiny sliver right now.
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[applause] >> there he goes. it is getting smaller. [applause] >> oh my gosh. >> look at it. you can't get that on film. >> that is amazing. >> there is venus. >>wow, wow. look at that way the structure. is theare saying this only way you can see the atmosphere? >> the lower part of corona is even hard to see from space. wow.
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i need to spend a second looking around. >> have you noticed the streetlights are on? >> of course. who would have thought? we didn't plan that one. >> we should get ready for our classes again.
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-- glasses again. >>. goes. -- here it goes. >> oh my gosh. [applause] >> that is brilliant. wow. >> ok, glasses back on. >> we are going to have to wrap this up pretty soon, jim. that was incredible. >> way too brief.
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minute 50 seconds. why do some people get more? >> it has to do with the curvature and a shadow. you can go to a higher altitude and also get a great view. >> this is a real treat. had its totals eclipse. is coming in 2052. we won't be here, but we hope nasa will. back to you. gay, i am jealous. alex, explain again the diamonds. bit of sunlight when you see it at the very beginning is when the creche and -- crescent shrink down and at the same time you can see a ring of the corona around it and that
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bright bit of crescent issue the diamond. when it reappears, inc. issue the same thing. a flash of the sun is the diamond giving you the ring. >> there was something going on here in charleston. this is really cool for planets. you can see all the planets, right? , one ofmatter of fact our missions are studying mercury which is very close to the sun. >> we will come back to you and talk about what is happening here. is ready to take a bite out of the big apple, one of my favorite cities. the broadcast is being shown and times square on the toshiba vision screen so the city can enjoy the total eclipse. we have a great relationship
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with toshiba. a shout out to you guys. day, over 300,000 people pastor times square. alex, i will return to you in new york. they have a rich history. alex: 92 years ago, on a cold january morning, new york city, manhattan, and cleans experienced a total solar eclipse. the edge of the path of totality went from 95th to 97th street. sentwas the first time we naval scientists to study this. at the time, without eclipses could be creating radio waves which messed with communication. what is happening is the sun itself is creating this disturbance. a study and the eclipse is telling us about the sun, which is creating these students is
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here under. >> ok, this just in. on nasa's -- let's go see what the instrument observed. >> we are over the pacific ocean off the coast of autonomous. oregon. it was actually amazing. about -- talk about two things. the corona. factorsre magnetic
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coming out in close like we expected -- glows. the other one is the spectrograph. the sun disappeared behind the moon, the spectrograph showed it was spreading out the light. do you see the specific lines that pop up between the green and the red? it is helium. that is how it was discovered. we do not know we had helium. , is iron.e red that is telling us the atmosphere is really hot. red is hydrogen. even though it is really hot out
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there and only one in a million or 10 million particles are neutral, it is still visible in that one shot you saw. robert, back on earth, how did you see this occurred? was fascinating to watch the totality underneath the spirit where it -- underneath us. at totality, you could see the darkness on the ground. you can see north and south where it wasn't completely dark. as we kept going, you could watch the darkness move. it was almost like a thunderstorm moving across. it was stunning to me. i wasn't expecting that. the eclipse itself was beautiful, seeing what happened on the ground from 3000 -- 35,000 feet was amazing. >> the team across the country is doing a fantastic job. workingd see the team
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to show fantastic images and i can't wait to share them. really exciting to watch this teamwork. the pilots did a great job. we did have a little bit of a challenge and they did a great job recovering from that and kept us on path. thank you. remember to put your glasses on. we will talk to you soon. >> fantastic stuff. if you just tuned in, you are watching nasa television. we have the best views of the solar eclipse today and coming later in the show, international space station live. next up, let's visit a working farm in tennessee. so are eclipse viewing activities are underway, including lunches and cows.
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>> humans are naturally excited about these solar in eclipse, the one thing we have learned on the agricultural farm, is animals can. we are getting ready to do a live at scientific aluminum lunch. thank you for joining us. tell the crowd in our audience about the scientific payload you have on board. >> thank you for having me. we are flying still image imagesnt and will take of the ground. we are also taken live in streaming so we can look downwards and look around at 100,000 feet among which is higher than any plane has ever gone. andre flying biological trackers so we can have a successful recovery. >> they just released your balloon. let's talk about the biological substances. , and were contacted
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will have biological samples on their and they will go into the stratosphere which is a similar one that we would see on the martian surface. so we will be doing mars studies. >> comedy balloon releases are you planning on doing today and this weekend? >> we have about 50 that are launching in the path of the eclipse so we can have full coverage. we have threeday, launches from three different universities. we are really excited to be here , and hopefully all successful launches. >> when the balloons go up and come back down, what is advice if anyone finds these out and across the country, what do you tell them? >> if you find them, leave it there. maybe take a picture because it is cool, but please don't touch it. we will be soon there to pick it
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up. if you have to move it, let us know, and we will be there to get up. >> thank you for your time. yesterday we had a chance to serious with students about science. here to tell us more is mitzi adams. thank you for joining us. we appreciate it. tell us about the science that high school students are working on. mitzi: they are working on atmospheric science experiments. they are doing animal study experiments. they're helping us observe the sun and way links of light. >> they are not just from clarksville, they're all across the country. mitzi: they are from the u.s. space and rocket center in they are from all around the globe. they are from the inspire project as well. they are participating in plf radio experiments -- vlf radio experiment's.
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camp. mentioned the space feel free if you're in northern alabama to come and see them. they do a good job of representing nasa. mitzi: in the words of frank reynolds, i would like for us to remember for the next american , let the shadow of the moon fall on an earth at peace. >> poetically done. we appreciated. coming up next is our animal lovers section. here on the farm, students are studying conservation management, veterinary medicine, and biology. they are interested in animal behavior. it is not cow tipping, it is copied in, correct? >> we have to think the cows in the study to see what sort of things they were exhibiting so
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that we could record them. >> we saw the cows, and the students were involved, and we are also talking about cricket behavior and cricket observations. aboutare also talking crickets. i am entomologist and they generally trick at night. you are doing this observational research and we appreciate your time. , it is time for us to watch the solar it could spirit let's go back live for continuing coverage. >> i wonder if the milk taste better when you paint a big house. >> i don't think so. >> >> go to social media. over to john for a social media update.
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at last check their 2.1 million people on the website. it is a huge conversation. this is an amazing photo. national --en by a as a in washington. he captured it in international space station transiting the sun during the partial eclipse in washington. it is pretty amazing. we will be putting these up online if you want to see them. here is another one from our photographer in wyoming. same concept. we knew exactly when the space station was going to be flying. it is just an amazing site. i am proud of our photographer
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for getting these shots and getting proactively what no one else has. let's take a few questions from social media. i want to invite the viewers from home to ask questions with the #eclipse 2017. why don't we bring it back to the stage. the first question is from twitter. what if we were sunglasses instead of eclipse glasses, would we be able to see the eclipse, does the sunglasses give you any? protection? never wear should sunglasses. only where the glasses that are made for solar viewing like what i'm holding in my hand. if you do not have the glasses, you do not look directly at the sun. never look at the sun without the proper safety glasses. another question from facebook. and setsn rises in the
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in the west, please expired how it is starting in the west and ending in the east? the earth is rotating west to east but actually the moon is moving faster, about 3400 miles per hour casting a shadow down the earth which is rotating at 1700 miles per hour. it means the shadow is moving from west to east across the earth at about somewhere between 1200 to 1800 miles per hour depending on where you are. tina from facebook asks if i place a lens from eclipse viewing glasses on my ipad on a view park, could i successfully video it or will it fry my camera? look to the ipad the foam pig you have to be very careful not to look at it with your own eyes without the actual safety glasses. never look at it through any lens. nasa, you can see a shadow of
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a moon from space. do they have that view and they are looking from space? >> they do and that is what we are hoping to see. to shawn, ourback meteorologist, to learn how nasa is studying the earth during the eclipse. sean, can you tell us more about that? during the eclipse, it ask like a cloud and it passes through -- areas of talented casting a shadow. the footage you are seeing shows a solar eclipse that occurred in march 2016 over indonesia. that expense helped us determine best to study today's eclipse. these images were taken from nasa over no a were discovered. --noah. scientists have made extensive atmospheric measuring during the
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eclipse, but this is the first opportunity to collect coordinated data from the ground and a spacecraft that observes this the -- the entire earth. duane: we have a special guest the nasa'say, from office of medication. welcome. >> thank you. so happy to be here. linktone this is an exciting day. duane: this is an exciting day. >> i know something about the great state of nebraska. i have friends and family who are watching from the path of totality. byave to tell you, this is far the biggest thing that has happened in nebraska as of recent. it is absolutely fabulous. i have had friends from high school and college calling me and face looking me and asking where they can get their glasses and where they can be viewing from.
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exciting day for everyone who is watching along the path of totality. it is also an exciting day for nasa area this gives us -- nasa. this gives us an opportunity to do studies on the sun. nasa is going to launch a craft yet year. it will go directly into the solar atmosphere. provide a data. for more information on this future mission, let's go to beatrice, nebraska where the langley research center is standing by. he is at homestead national monument when the park service has coordinated and eclipse viewing. duane: this is going to come on shortly. we go back with the image, but we will join nebraska as soon as we can. >> thank you.
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>> this is a different view. what are we seeing? this is light that is produced by calcium. this is showing us the sun as the moon is moving over it. , on theook to the left edge of the sun, you see sunspots. these are reasons that physicists like myself are most interested in because that is where solar explosions originate from.
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corona and itthe is what we see during the total solar eclipse originate from the sunspots. sunspots had a solar flare yesterday. >> i believe this is from carbondale. that is actually the lights and a color and the filter. the filter is a bluish light and it comes out as a purple color. it is a type of visible light. it is one we look at quite often from space and the ground. >> i see some black things that look like rivers on the left. >> those are sunspots. >> what is a sunspot? >> that is where the most of the space weather originates. it has a very competent magnetic field. this is where the multiple
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magnetic energy is released. regions of the super intense magnetic fields, 1000 times stronger than the earth's magnetic field. they have lots of energy and affect space weather. >> i think that is why we didn't get to nebraska right now is because those things caused. [laughter] >> let's talk about moon shadowing. >> we have incredible imagery from you -- for you. seeing in the western portion of this image is actually the moon's shadow being cast over the path of totality. you see the cloud cover over parts of america at now. not so good for maybe parts of we haveral u.s., where thunderstorm activity developing and expected to develop later today and this afternoon for places like nebraska and
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missouri and northern illinois. it gets better again in terms of cloud cover as we move further east toward charleston. here in charleston, we have breaks in the clouds where the sun is. we are able to see some of the partial eclipse here in charleston through breaks in the clouds. we really wanted to show you the satellite,m go 16 showing you the moon's shadow being cast over parts of the western united states right now. i will hand it back over to you. as a reminder, we are tracking the total solar eclipse. it is moving along a path of of to 70 miles wide sweeping across the entire nation. those who have traveled to the path of totality, it totals an estimated 7 million.
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there are cities that are having festivals and other events. let's get into cultural impact. your take on the cultural impact of the eclipses? alex: this is a fantastic opportunity to connect the nation and the world with one of celestialost amazing events. this is something that we at nasa are excited to share. in fact, we work with some of our colleagues including the u.s. postal service. >> the postal service created a special stamp for this event. alex: -- duane: let's talk about the stamps. .e can go back new nebraska -- back to nebraska. the sunspots are gone. >> we are at the homestead national minute of america. this is a great location to watch the eclipse.
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i have a good spot on the prairie. even though the weather is not cooperating, this is still an excellent event. we're also very scared. please be sure to wear your glasses when you are viewing the eclipse. you can cause serious damage to your eyes if you do not take precautions. there are a lot of people watching. ,s you can tell, the activities just like the eclipse, are in full swing. i am joined by susan cook. >> hey, vince. >> thank you for joining us. susan: we are at the national park side dedicated to telling the story of homesteading. household, the anyone can own land. you have 160 acres. it is how we settled the west palm beach police department our democracy -- we built our democracy and our economy. the mayan calendar follows the
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solar eclipse calendar closely. is that correct? calendars mayans used to organize their lives. a lot of them are tied to celestial events. the hub calendar is a solar calendar of 365 days subdivided into 18 months of 20 days plus one month of five days. another calendar is made of 260 days subdivided into 13 months of 20 days. this calendar also has a residence with eclipses which 176 days.y every three sequences of align every two cycles. so could keep track of that? vince: it is amazing. >> this is a fantastic venue. tell us about the activities you have planned. >> right now it is getting
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darker, but we have stage performances going on. doingve nasa scientists other things. native americans, the mayan calendar sky program, folk music, fiddle music, balloon launches. there are things all around us. much.nk you so >> thank you for being here. >> we are lucky enough to be joined by a nasa scientist. let me introduce you to nikki fox. expert. a space weather thank you for joining us. today is a great day for you. tell us why. >> this is my first ever solar eclipse. i am excited because i am probeg on nasa's solar
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mission. we are frying -- flying into the corona. you will be able to see where we are flying. >> how close will you get? >> we would get within 4 million miles. i put the earth and the sun on a football field, we would be at the four yard line. >> for those of you watching at home, that is like traveling from washington dc to philadelphia in one second. how can you get so close and not burn up? >> we have a wonderful heat shield. it has been 60 years since this was first thought of. >> that is amazing. it looks like we are coming to a moment of totality on the prairie. clear, you should see a beautiful corona.
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it's called the corona because that is latin for crown. it is becoming twilight. you can hear everybody going crazy here. we can see four planets. jupiter, mercury, mars, and ven us here in this night sky durin gthg the day. this is a 3-d print. it is a prefix of what the cloud would look like today. >> it looks like the moment of totality is upon us. let's give them a few moments to take in the sights and sounds of the crowd. clicks you can see the corona, and i may cry. now you are seeing this -- this is the only time that it is safe to look.
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it is looking a little bit reddish. all of those red wisps are little prominences coming away from the sun. we can't quite see the stars because of the clouds, but that is an incredible sight. >> this is magnificent. >> other than the people hooting and hollering, everyone else has gone quiet. the animals think it is nighttime. look at that corona. that is absolutely incredible. the moon is going to continue. 35have about two minutes and seconds. here comes the diamond ring. it is glasses on again. there is the diamond ring.
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that is the most spectacular sight. just incredible. you can see the moon is not a totally smooth sphere. you are seeing little spots of light eking out. -- peaking out. it is so incredible. >> it is hard to convey the excitement of the energy. the energy is amazing. >> a lot of them have been here since 6:00 a.m. and the atmosphere has been incredible. amazing -- >> it looks like the moment of totality has passed. >> in the moments after you will start to see -- we did see the diamond ring.
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as it continues to pass the weight you will start to see the solar surface. if we had any roosters, they would be crowing. how is think what would it have been like if you did not know that the sun was going to come back, but here comes the sun again. amazing experience. thank you for talking us through that. great experience. that is amazing. areooks like things starting to come down but it doesn't mean that the show is over. nasa'send it back to eclipse central. worth the wait. we were a little delayed there, but my goodness. >> did you see the diamond ring?
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>> it was even more prominent there. >> you can see that ray of light , the whole diamond around the whole surface. >> it got really dark. i enjoyed seeing them out on that prairie, it looked like it was in some strange light, she was lit up and everything behind her was dark. you are rocking the house and we appreciate that, but there is a lot more to come. >> we had to bring in those images. they really outdid themselves this time. stampy created a special for this event. it means that it gets activated by heat. you're looking at it in your images.
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any type of heat you apply to it, it is an amazing stamp. thermachthorough -- romic? >> yes. that means it is activated by the heat. >> they sold out online right away. it is quite popular. cool have seen some pretty images. let's go to the social and see how things are going. >> there are some clouds here. the couple interesting things.
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87% of all federal web traffic is pretty amazing. 4.4 million people were watching this broadcast. interest across the country is obvious. of the another photo space station. one of our photographers here at nasa. we have video from another you can see the space station transiting the sun during the partial eclipse. pretty spectacular. 17,500 miles per hour, you have to take a lot of different shots pretty fast to capture that. >> let's go to jefferson city. the moon's shadow continues to
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pass over the united states. the next stop is jefferson city, missouri. we will hand it off to derek aldrich. guests toe special help explain the impact. over to you, eric. >> we're live in jefferson city, missouri. as you can see there are a lot of people here. saturday, sunday, here on monday. there have been 5k runs and corn mazes. there is a lot of good food. very nice weekend, the weather has been perfect. we had some showers and thunderstorms off to the west on morning, things are looking really good. by twocky to be joined
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special people. thank you so much. you are the director of the nasa glenn research center in cleveland. you are also a three-time shuttle astronaut and you are from missouri. welcome home. we have been talking about safety. what the astronauts in space, what is there to keep them safe from the solar radiation? for their eyes, they know there are certain windows they should not look out of, because it is the protection, where others have protection that shield their eyes. there are heavier protons that can cause damage. we tried to shield them as best we can. we are shielded here by the
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atmosphere, but above that, you do not have that natural shielding. -- weo get with metal have to do it with metal. >> we are interested in space communications. you are from the aerospace corporation in los angeles. you're also a space meteorologist. you're also a space weather woman. what does a weather woman do? >> most people don't realize the sun has its own unique weather. the solar interruptions that come from the sun actually cause issues. i have to do a weekly broadcast of whether predictions that talk about when it will hit earth and
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the type of issues that cause with things like gps. >> we are about 15 seconds away. >> we will put our glasses on. you can hear the crowd cheering. >> here we go, we are almost at totality. there we go. i think we are at totality. you can take your glasses off. see thean actually corona a little bit. space,have been in either say numerous sunrises and sunsets from the space shuttle. how does this compare? >> i have never seen anything like this. this is really unique. i'm starting to hear the crickets coming out.
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the streetlamps. this is amazing. find the biging to dipper and other stars. >> i am really mesmerized by this. this is a spectacular event. we have had several solar storms in the left side of the sun, but we are seeing a different from what the corona looked like in our predictions to what it looks like now. we have ham radio operators all contactsstate making that they have not been able to make because the upper atmosphere is all turbulence. we have gps operators and ham radio operators doing a ton of science. >> my team of atmospheric science researchers from the university of missouri are sit ting in a weather balloon to figure out how the weather is changing at certain heights.
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here is a map of the solar radiation. much solar how radiation is hitting the surface of missouri. this is amazing. >> you can tell the crowd is mesmerized. these areas ofe the sun where it is shining through. of totalityout which is coming up close. >> we come out of totality at 1:15:35 local time. this is an amazing event. we are lucky that some of these high clouds were able to fall apart to experience this. >> i can't believe we can see through the that is the airhorn, we're coming out of totality. but the glasses back on.
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see, we're coming out of totality here. thank you for experiencing this with me. thank you. everyone is excited here at jefferson city, missouri. we will send it back to charles -- back toarleston charleston. >> i get goosebumps every time i see this. i cannot imagine how it will be when we actually see it here. >> alex, i'm speechless. as a scientist, you have to love this stuff. >> and loved hearing and experienced astronaut talking about how overwhelming it is, helio -- tohear the hear the space weather expert, i
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can hear the excitement in her voice. it is palpable. >> we will go to another image right now. ryan massey, what is going on, you have some action there. is.ere it >> they are getting close. >> it is yellow them at does that mean something? >> the previous one we saw was calcium k, a blue light. this is more of a white light. sometimes, the different filters will change the color of little bit. there is a broader spectrum white light. >> this is a good question. i see it proceed from eastern to
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western. how come the solar eclipse is travelling from west to east? >> that is because the earth is rotating from west to east, the same reason that the sun rises in the east and sets in the west. the moon is moving in the same direction the earth is rotating. it is casting a shadow on the earth, and it is moving in that direction that the moon is rotating in the earth is orbiting. from west to east. >> the total eclipse has now passed over half the country. it is currently over illinois. shortly.ave some views this has been incredible. i want to give a shout out to the college of charleston.
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[cheering] >> we are loving it here. we have live video from hopkinsville, kentucky. it is known for southern hospitality like charleston. hopkinsville is the city with the longest total eclipse for a total of two minutes and 40 seconds of totality. cited.assey, i am so ex what have you got? >> we are here in eclipseville. say hello, everybody. i am surrounded by 1000 of my best friends. it is getting darker already. we're joined by planetary scientist rene weber. >> it is great to be here.
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i went to say thank you to the city of hopkinsville for having us on this beautiful farm in kentucky. we are all excited. >> the light is starting to fade and the excitement is getting bigger. today, tell us the significance of the greatest eclipse. >> it is a point in time when is axis of the moon's shadow pointed lester eckley toward the center of the earth. we are at the surface of the earth where that occurs. wechsler shadow will be more circular -- >> the shadow will be more circular here than anywhere else in the country. >> we cannot wait to break out in the darkness. we have been looking up at it. telescopee our live view. this is just amazing. kentuckyom all over and all over the world have joined us here.
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we are just a few minutes away from totality. to that point, rene, you are a planetary scientist. how does the eclipse speak to what you do? >> when you see the sun get dimmer and dimmer it is because the moon is up there. i like to tell people that you are looking at the moon when there is a solar eclipse. >> this is my first solar eclipse. >> this is my first one too. butve seen partial eclipses i have never had a chance to see totality before. >> the light is starting to fade as the moon steps in front of the sun. it is an ear he feeling getting dark in the middle of the day. we are a few seconds away. absolutely amazing.
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we are down to a slim sliver of the sun. >> it looks incredible and it really is starting to get dim. nobody need sunglasses, just eclipse glasses. you can see the beautiful crescent sun. forward toooking that for a chance. we have no clouds in the sky. you can see some airplanes, but the sun is getting smaller and smaller. chamber say kentucky of commerce -- it is amazing how it has got so much cooler since the sun started to be covered. >> it is nice to have a break from that hot southern sun. oute have been sweating it for a couple of days getting ready for this. >> what are we looking at? 100%.are just about at
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it is getting smaller and smaller, dimmer and dimmer. hopefully soon we will have a chance to see those beads and that diamond ring. the moon is not a perfectly smooth sphere, and you can see the sun rays shining to the mallet -- mountain valleys and craters. we are about one minute out now. it is getting smaller and smaller. the crowd is getting excited. guys, who is excited for the solar eclipse? [cheering] >> it is getting closer. it is close to nighttime. it is incredible. very dim. >> it definitely feels like do awn or dusk here. >> come on!
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[cheering] >> you can see on our feed, that tiny sliver left ot go. it is really starting to get dark now. wow, it is like dusk. you can see the pink color around the horizon. it is like a sunset. it's going. just that tiny last sliver. oh my goodness! >> wow! in total solar eclipse. this is absolutely breathtaking. >> you can see the corona, that beautiful wispy crown in all directions. we can see airplanes. i think i can see jupiter in the sky. >> wow. >> i can see other planets too,
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and stars. in anciently imagine times what this must have been like, out of nowhere. i am covered head to toe in goosebumps. >> i cannot believe we finally got a chance to see it. it is another thing when you get to see it yourself with your own eyes. >> we will take a break in a second, fully enjoy this. we hope you can enjoy the feed on the telescope.
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>> wow, it has definitely lived up to its name. the moon is stepping aside. totality has finished here at hopkinsville. that was absolutely amazing. can you put it into words? >> i have goosebumps all over my body. >> we can see the birds flying around. >> the sun is starting to come out and it is getting bright again. >> this is amazing. >> it is a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity. the next one is only six years away. we get to see it again. >> i am hooked. i'm an addcit. >> we have had beatings
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preparing for this for the last two to three months. it has completely lived up to it's billing. >> we were so worried about the weather, the broadcast, making sure the telescope was set up. we had a blast. >> we have really enjoyed it. it has been a great time here at hopkinsville. now time to send it back to whereville, tennesee, chris is standing by for their reactions to the eclipse. meant charleston. let's bring it back here to eclipse central. there is only one eclipse central, and it is here in charleston. [cheering] coming throughn the eyes of nasa.
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these are prerecorded views from that high altitude aircraft. they soar high above the clouds that could potentially block the views of the eclipse. midrange aircraft used to conduct high altitude research. let's go to the prerecorded s.ew yeah, okay. what are we seeing here? >> we are looking at the specially fitted cameras on the of the
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they are designed to look at the corona and mercury. they are capturing thousands of minute, andy processing this data to give us an extended via. up there, it is 30 times darker than on the earth. this is a unique opportunity. those planes fly in tandem to more o eight minutes or f a view of the corona. the other thing they are looking at is, because they are so high up, it is very cold. that allows them to take infrared observations. mercury is close to the sun. the temperature
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change as mercury is rotating. clarksville go to and see what is going on there. >> thank you and welcome back. we are excited to highlight some of the students of science and stem aspect. tell us your name and the school you go to. >> my name is eliza and i'm from the university of alabama. i am with the space harbor club. >> you have been launching balloons all day. tells about the scientific payload. >> we had a geiger counter, and a pointing payload to get stabilized camera footage along the way. we had some hops from a local brewery, and from the second balloon, we had a life-streaming payload. we were excited with all of our
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experiments. they went well. >> glad you came here to do this. that is the university of alabama in huntsville. we have another student joining us from space camp. tell us your name. >> and stephanie bohne field -- bonnefield from pittsburgh, pennsylvania. the day before we left, we did a bunch of eclipse stuff. like what the eclipse is and safety stuff. we talked about what experiments we will be doing. we set up the shadow boxes over here, and we recorded some hopefully interesting data about what was happening during totality. >> tell us about the students, where they are from. not just students from alabama. >> we have students from all over the country.
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someone from spain, from norway. there is another group from mexico. they were talking to each other in spanish the other day. it was neat meating other people from other cultures. global.tion is give us your reaction to viewing the solar eclipse. >> it is they like here, it was daylight before, the eclipse comes in slow, then it's just a glowing ring in the sky. it is not dark, like at night, erie almost en ambient lighting. then it was like some he turned daylight back on. it is awesome. >> we appreciate your time. >> we have one more student
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joining us from the inspired project. tell us about the science experiments are research you are working on while here. >> was working with the balloons, the shadow bands, and the ham radio. >> tell us about your reaction to the eclipse. >> it almost went pitch black i looked up and there was a ring around the sun. it was amazing. >> on behalf of everybody here university,s state we have lump -- wonderful footage of this event. we go back to continuing coverage from charleston. >> we are having a great time here. here and theoming international space station. let's get some great footage from the rocky mountains.
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[cheering] >> alex, what is that? >> we are looking at the sun. it is still too bright, but almost completely covered. this is the unfiltered sign. we will go straight from this to seeing the corona. this will be a cool shoot. dimmer and dimmer. you still have to have your glasses on, but it is almost like a tiny christmas star, tiny. >> why is it the shape of the star? >> that is because of the camera -- there it is. i can see the corona. dore is now a little black t. wet is the closest for what
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will see when we look at it with our own eyes when we view it here. >> there are a lot of questions coming in and trending all over social media. this is what one of our users did. it is cool, showing the partial eclipse on his hand. wheree a toshiba screen everyone in times square is able to see the partial eclipse. we have a few questions. sulfur -- to see a solar eclipse in selfie mode, without glasses? >> it is ok if the sun is behind it. if you are looking down and you have it in selfie mode, that
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will protect your eyes. the main thing, is to not want it pointed directly at the sign, but you might move away and see it with your unprotected eyes. opportunitye this to talk about safety reminders, making sure like you just said. >> if you are in partial solar eclipse, mixture you only -- always have your glasses on. to take time it is safe them off is in totality. ri --ou sit that diamond when you see that diamond ring, that is the time to put your safety glasses back on. >> we are having too much fun here. >> it is already getting cold and dark here. >> is it safe to be outside
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during the eclipse as long as you do not look at the sun? >> absolutely. there is nothing different, we are just having less sunlight. there is no real difference and it is absolutely safe to be outside. we encourage that. >> go outside and watch this event. >> ok, here we go. let's talk about x a planets. to special type of transit or astronomical body that passes in front of another. similar transit to track when it's outside of the solar system. x while a total solar eclipse is a rare opportunity to learn more about the sun, nasa's kepler mission has been studying distant stars for an
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eclipse-like event called planetary transit. from the ames research center have been measuring changes in the brightness of the stars as the planets transit in front of them. kepler has confirmed more than 2500 x a planets. many of these are similar to earth in size and distance from the sun. havees using kepler data revealed a vast range of planets of different sizes and future discoveries could fuel the discovery for other life in the galaxy. nasa aims to use eclipse is to study stars in deep space. ofia. called s it makes celestial observations in the infrared portion of the electromechanical spectrum. sophia operates above $.99 --
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99% of the earth's water vapor that absorbed most of the light from space. of the unique qualities occurred when researchers recorded infrared imagery of pluto as it eclipsed a different -- distant star. what we learn from missions like kepler and sophia could help us better understand the mysteries of our son come a our galaxy and our place within it. >> thank you. we are live here at the charles -- college of charleston. i'm here with my colleagues. you can see the crowd behind us. and if you look at the sky which i was doing just before, we are
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probably at 90% to tell a t. the good news from the weather standpoint is that there are some clouds. i can see some breaks in them. fingers crossed really tight that those breaks will move over as we get into totality in just a few minutes. >> i want to thank you. you are the man. this is exciting. we have glasses. we're excited here. make some more noise. ball. having a more to seeot through the eyes of nasa. here we go. glasses on, guys.
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[cheering] >> maybe a few more minutes to go until totality. it.can see you can see that. the clouds, we can still see it. pretty amazing. >> can you see it? >> a little bit. >> we have a break in the
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clouds. nutes have about three mi left. >> this is amazing. >> through the eyes of nasa. >> the college of charleston is getting a large selfie with everybody here. >> 2:30 left.
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weird. is so >> you have seen a total eclipse before. >> i have. it is amazing, it is spiritual. it brings you in step with being just a small pepple on the highway of galactic endlessness. >> does this bring you back to that moment several years ago? >> it is different because i am here on american soil with you guys, but it is still breathtaking. >>having seen it in africa and then here, it does not get any better than that. here we go.
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almost. >> is it there yet? >> i think that was just some cloud cover. [cheering] >> it is getting dark. >> it is so dark outside. >> is getting dark and cooler. >> the temperature has dropped.
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[cheers and applause] >> i don't think we are quite there yet. [cheers and applause] [laughter] >> we have got some patches of
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blue. just a little ways away. >> this is still an amazing experience. it is safe to remove your glasses and look at the total eclipse. >> we have a minute and a half of totality. >> it is safe to remove your glasses and look at the total eclipse.
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[cheers and applause] >> totality is over. >> that's it, wow. >> glasses back on now. >> glasses back on.
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>> please put your glasses back on now. you must be wearing your glasses to look at the sun. >> we experienced the temperature drop and it was dark. for the next one.
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>> this is your first? >> this is my first, certainly not my last. you said it yourself, amazing. even though we had the clouds, it was an incredible experience. we get to experience the darkness, the temperature drop. most importantly, we got to experience the energy and enthusiasm tha twt we feel today. >> we had some iffy weather, but you made it happen. >> well, thank you. i have been monitoring for possible thunderstorms which we have been having just up to the north in places like north charleston and goose creek.
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the sea breezes have been pushing thunderstorms in sure. you are a true meteorologist my friend. >> it was amazing. even though we could not see the solar corona which is what i really wanted to see, we experienced the darkness and the change in temperature. we've inserted -- we even started hugging because we were so excited. the next one is 2024? >> got to feel good. >> this was fantastic and a big tease for the next one. i could feel that shadow overhead.
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i could see the light all the way around. even sing the clouds themselves moving differently as the shadow hit overhead. it was fantastic. i could feel the energy around here and i want more of it. >> let's go to social media, over to you, john. >> the reactions across the nation have been huge. if you are watching at home, our stream went down because there was so much traffic. ournt to show some of graphics here. these are crescent shapes in the seattle, washington, taken by logan johnson. thenext one is a to tell of viewed from -- is a totality
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viewed from idaho falls. they're coming in from all over. people are sending them, using the various hash tags. them, reading a lot of seeing and reading your reactions. insurance and we saw it get and it was like nothing we have ever experienced before. helped to get the sensation of what we are trying to show. 99.5%ast one was a totality here in idaho. everyone is wearing eclipse glasses. we still have a partial eclipse on the east coast.
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it is an exciting time. i think that we have another from one from oregon, of our nasa photographers. i think that is just before the diamond rain pops up and it is pretty spectacular. i think we're ready to get going . we have a quick question we would like to take. officially over. what were your reactions as we were watching it? >> it was amazing. i got goosebumps. this is my first total solar eclipse. partial attching a home in puerto rico, but this was amazing. the total darkness that was
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around us. >> i was amazed by the rush of how quickly it happened. i could feel it all around me. it was really powerful. >> am glad that it was cool. it was hot. >> but the weather -- it is amazing. show,said earlier in the this is my second one. sharing it with you guys, this is very cool. seven years in the u.s., we have america, inin south argentina -- in 2019, in south america. >> this is certainly one for the history books. we are not done yet. the social -- solar eclipse is traveling over the atlantic
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ocean. >> it has another 3700 miles to travel. end just off the coast of africa here sierra leone and that area, but that is also where night begins. we have a ways to go. maybe if you are on a ship, you will see some of it too. >> we have the coast guard at five miles from charleston. been talking about this, this is the television through the eyes of nasa that we have been bringing you. you0 minutes we will bring a view from the one place no one else can go, the international space station. we will check in with the
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astronauts to see how they experienced the eclipse from space. remember to continue to use safe .iewing methods not going to my colleague, karen fox. ball have been having a here on the quad at the college of charleston. everybody had a great time today. we will ask a few questions for the people who are here. tell me your name. >> my name is josh. i am a second year. >> you can to the college of charleston just to see this eclipse? >> absolutely. to be honest, i love this school and i have for studying the skies since i could read.
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this is just a once-in-a-lifetime. it is amazing. >> what did you experience when you watched the eclipse? >> it was like, this is what you read in books. this is the kind of thing you think, if that happened to me, i don't know what i would do, and it happened. >> what are you majoring in now? >> the plan was to do a double major of astronomy and physics. and hopefully do some of that work myself one day. >> come look for us at nasa. we will look for you. >> let's find somebody else. amanda, i am a rising junior. and they didn't ask that. [laughter] >> i was going to. you are a mind reader. do you know my next question?
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>> it was amazing. i felt that total unity with the world. >> that was fantastic. what will you do with your eclipse glasses now? >> a souvenir from a grandchildren. >> you will be like, let me tell you. this is where i was on august 21, 2017. >> that sums it up and he well. >> fantastic and thank you. morell be back later with conversations from the college. >> it's always good to see the young. i see some aspiring scientists out there. return, we will look more at how the astronauts viewed today's eclipse.
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♪ >> okay, only here are we bringing you the international space station live. it is traveling at 17,500 miles
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per hour as it orbits earth. we have rob in mission control. over to you. welcome to mission control here in houston. about 40 minutes ago, the six residents of the international space station flew over southern canada at an altitude of 252 statute miles with a unique view of the solar eclipse. we will talk with the crew in about 18 minutes sharing some of that very unique video with you. imagery that remi breast ache has captured through the first of two passes they are making have already been posted on social media, and will continue to be posted as the day
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wears on. we look forward to talking to the crew as they passed over the eclipse about 40 minutes so -- or so ago. but back to you in charleston, duane. >> coming up later, we will have another unique eclipse view from space. we will have imagery from nasa's solar dynamics observatory. alex, tell us about sdo. nasa's helio of physics fleet. it gives us incredible detail with the sun. it shows us 10 different wavelengths of light at the same time, showing us mostly extreme, ultraviolet light, the outer atmosphere corona and
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chromosphere where we can see all of the phenomena happening. it is putting out almost two terabytes of data per day, giving us the unbelievable views of solar prominence and solar flares. all of the activity and the sun that drives space weather. >> it is an amazing mission. it lets you see some kind of high resolution images from the sun that you can understand the origins of space weather. it is downloading more than one million pictures per day. >> we will go back to karen, who has a pretty important person with her. back and i have mike massimino, a former nasa
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astronaut on the space shuttle twice. >> hello to everyone on nasa television. >> we are so glad to have you here. was this your first eclipse? >> this is my first. there was one that passed by and my neighborhood in long island when i was a kid. this is definitely the first total eclipse i have been a part of. i'm glad i got to be here for this one. >> tommy about it. did it live up to what you are expecting? >> there was a lot of excitement. it came at the right time. all of the science assets and resources went well. a lot of excitement. a little bit too much cloud coverage here in south carolina. we could have gotten a better
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view, but it could have been a lot worse. cool to bely here. it got cooler. i could feel it with the temperature, and i could hear it with the student crowd here at charleston. >> tell me what it is like, something the rest of us have not been able to see, which is to see earth from space. >> the earth from space is the most beautiful thing i have ever seen. it is beyond words, like a look into paradise. count the lucky things that you have here, and atmosphere that keeps us alive, we have water that keeps us alive on the planet. we have this magnetic field that keeps us protected from solar radiation, but we have the moon and the sun, 400 times further
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away. we get a chance to have solar eclipses which other planets in our solar system do not. the beauty of the planet in the sense of clockwork of this ballet that goes on, you can see that in space. you can see the rotation of the earth. it steadily rotates like clockwork. that is what we witnessed today. the moon getting into the path of the sun and lining up perfectly. it is that clockwork that amazes me. everything is this permanence. it has gone on for millions of years and will continue to go on for millions of years. the sun will come up tomorrow. it is a power or force that we
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cannot control. >> that is a beautiful sentiment. i agree. we have had an incredible day watching this to stop how about 2024? >> where is it going to be? >> that is going to go from texas through maine. we are excited. >> that will be good. i'll go. >> thank you, karen. entire united states has experienced the solar eclipse. let's go to social media to see what people are saying. >> this captured a few reactions and we want to show those here with some graphics. this person here is loving nasa's game day today.
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this is another one of our twitter users in nashville, some awesome photos taken across the internet. you will see some amazing photos taken from the public. like legitimate stuff across the internet. another of our users wrote this is the picture of the eclipse i took through glasses. here is another one, i would like to thank the clouds for letting me look at the eclipse. we are not thinking the clouds here in charleston, but the sun was bright enough that you could see the arsenal eclipse through the clouds, though the -- you couldn't see the partial eclipse through the clouds, though the totality was an issue.
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here this is from another user. another one. honestly, it was better than i thought. that is one thing we are seeing, everybody knew this was happening. the emotional experience a lot of people were seeing online. i think it can be really heart-wrenching, scary and emotional and spectacular. another one coming any other day i would be concerned if i saw a line of people on the roof of a parking garage, but today, not so much. last one i am showing. coolest two minutes of my life. a lot of people are seeing the celestial event that has a big impact. ands very constant for us
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to see it pure feels a little unnatural. thank you to everyone for submitting your questions. it has been a spectacular day for all of us. >> that is a great thing about social media. so awesome when they post those things and we appreciate your support from nasa, keep those images coming in. the total solar eclipse as it moves across the united states. it is incredible to think on nasa scientists are using these tools. this, the camera that people are using that we have now to my people used to draw the eclipses. let's take a history lesson. >> looking at the sun, the ecli pse is the beginning of modern
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astronomy. before we had cameras, people drew the eclipses by hand. this phenomena was first seen in an image. if you look at this image, it masstually of a coronal projection. these are images from 1869, showing the corona drawn by hand. in the past, before we discovered cameras, we discovered helium on the sun, during a solar eclipse. we discovered the atmosphere was hot and we even verified general relativity in 1919. >> that image in the book is even 100 years before we could -- it with >> i want to do something fun here.
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s outhe young student there and the future generations tists, i told alex he is one of the coolest looking scientists, but he has something even cooler. we have to show them the shoes. >> there you go. flame shoes. how cool is that, folks? alex, what got you into heliophysics and the sun? >> i have been interested in astronomy my entire life with things like star trek and carl sagan. my graduate professor said you should look at the sun. it is really close and something we can study an incredible detail. realized that we can learn so much about our
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universe, why we are here, just by looking at our closest stars in the sun. this is the reason why scientists are so excited. if we can see the region of the sun with our own eyes, we cannot even see it from space. >> alex i will come back to you. back to karen who has another special guest. >> i am having fun. the college of charleston has been fantastic supporting us today . tell me what you are majoring in. >> i am a senior at the college of charleston. i'm studying biology. first this your very total solar eclipse? >> yes.
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>> what did you think? >> i am glad i got to see it. >> tell me about how you felt when it got dark and cold. >> it was surreal. i did not expect all the lights to come on. that was cool. >> how about the rest of you? >> unreal. i will never see it again. >> you will see it in 2024? >> really? where? >> we have another solar total eclipse from texas to maine. you can start traveling for them. >> probably not. it was cool but it is a once in a lifetime kind of thing. music that you associate with the sun, space, and the eclipse? >> "dark side of the moon." ." "here comes the sun
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doo dooomes the sun, doo ♪ >> people are beginning to leave the quad, and go on to start school. was this the best start of school ever? >> definitely. >> we have one more person here. do you want to come over? tell me a little bit about what you experienced. what did you expect? but expected to get dark, did not expect the temperature to change and get so-called. >> i felt the same way -- get so cold. >> i felt the same way. what are you doing with your eclipse glasses? >> keeping them as a souvenir. i might put them in a scrap book. >> i like that. don't use them if you ever get them scratched. fantastic.
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is anybody here a science major? look at your fantastic shirt. tell me about your shirt. >> i don't remember where i got this, but it is obviously constellations. it seemed appropriate. >> what kind of a science major are you? >> geology and biology. >> would you say that this inspired you a bit more? >> yes. it is really amazing. >> thank you. i'm glad you are here today. we will hand it back to wayne brown. >> the kids and our future scientists are really special. i know that the audience would like to hear your story. tell us the story. >> i've and interested in science since i was a little kid.
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it was when i traveled to florida, six years old i went to the kennedy space center in a somewhat nasa had and i put in my mind that i want to work for nasa one day. coming from the island of puerto rico, i have to work really hard, but here i am. it has been an amazing experience. >> ladies and gentlemen, we have been talking about this now but rob atime to go back to the international space station. ok, noty yet. we will come back here. cat,we can talk about catman. >> i love cats, i have always had cats. the great thing about it is they
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are such great companions, i do a lot of traveling for nasa, it is convenient to have a cat, because they let you go away and come back. they don't need as much care as a dog. for all the work i have done it all the time i have spent studying the sun from other countries, cats have always been .here for me >> advice on becoming a scientist? >> study. keep going to school and try as many different things as you can . -- keep motivated. do the internship, try different things. you never know exactly what you really like. you really have to find that
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calling. >> for the folks and the kids, and the students watching, alex and yadi, they are amazing. across the swept continent. on thewmembers international space station had a chance to view the phenomena from a unique vantage point. let's go to the flight control room in houston. rob: thank you dwayne. millions of people have been witnessed to this event across the united states today but on the international space station, these members have had a unique front row seat to history.
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about one hour ago, the international space station flew 252 statute miles above the earth over southern canada, as it made its way south of hudson bay with a tremendous view of the moon's shadow above the earth, the moon covering 44% of the sun through three passes. glued to the windows with an hd video camera and an armada of digital still cameras. with us, aboard the international space station, are four of the members of the expedition 52 crew, peggy andson, jack fisher, others. thank you for joining us on this historic day. an excitinghas been
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day to have the opportunity to see the eclipse from here. >> peggy, you were in the spot with the hd video camera looking at the limb of the earth where the shadow appeared, capturing spectacular video. what were your thoughts and impressions? seen pictures from the previous eclipse so i think i underestimated what this would look like. this was much darker than i gave it credit for being. unfortunately, it was kind of near the edge of the ear from our viewt -- edge of the earth from our view, but it was impressive to see that dark spot as we passed by. k, you randy bresni have been looking forward to
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this for some time. you shot digital still imagery of it. what does a solar eclipse do to a human being in terms of understanding our place in the universe? certainly a big question. you look at the size of the , we have got used to the size and scope here. a friend of mine the other day, and it came to me, just a few beings years ago, human would not even have known the eclipse was coming. so you are looking up and the sun is disappearing. what other thoughts for all of human existence, people saying the gods must be angry. we know people that traveled to
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be under the umbra and make it a celestial event. for us to witness it from above, it was really special. it represents how far we have come with the technology that we have. we have more than 250 different experiments. working with an international team. i look forward to the next time se, we canfull eclip take pictures from farther away. >> for jack fisher, it is good to see you. you sent a picture early this morning of this raft of cameras laid out in the destiny lab, ready to rock and roll. times awesomes sauce two? >> it was awesome sauce times o wo. this has been a huge coronation has beenomrade randy
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in charge of planning where all of us would be, and the orchestra of which window and which camera. i was supposed to be taking off duescratch pane now, but to the lighting, we don't need to, so i got lucky and got to join this folks for the event. peggy said that underestimated it. i definitely did. judging from the pictures, that spot was a lot darker and a lot larger than i thought it would be. this is kind of like a snipon, i think someone is pulling a -- snipe hunt. i think someone is pulling a joke on me, but then this huge black shadow.
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awesome sauce times three. chocolate awesome sauce with a side of sun awesome sauce. i don't know. it was awesome. >> apollo, we remember when you departed the international space station to come home on your last flight. you took that signature picture with all the other international partner components or vehicles linked up. how did today's experience compare with that experience six years ago? >> six years ago i was alone in the soviet capsule taking pictures. team, they of the were taking timing --
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we had multiple places flying back and forth from the station to the russia segment. it was a completely different orchestrated system. i was impressed by the shadow passing by. i have seen some pictures. as a kid, i always thought the umbra would be a defined square, but it is kind of a smudge. it was interesting to see with your own eyes. >> let me follow up on what he just touched upon. it must have been a photo feeding frenzy during the firstt two passes. you have one more to go coming up shortly.
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give us a sense of that crewmateshy that year had on board. >> everyone has their favorite thing that they want to, we even took the still shot. this particular speed from this , we are surerson we were able to capture the images is best we could. we have a bunch of cameras, a bunch of people. the trick is to try to not bunch -- bump the video cameras. it's not anyone person, it is the exhibition 52 crew, to include our russian crewmates. everybody did their part which is why we're here. you, you finally for
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are less than two weeks away from returning to earth after 10 months on the station. how did this show today compare to some of the other major milestones that you have witnessed or experienced during your three long-duration missions? of being the privilege three different missions has given me a lot of different and interesting experiences. this is another one to put in the history books for my memory. maybe a little bit more than i expected. it is just another little piece, another memory, another special experience fantastic of being in space. charleston, south carolina,
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an old colleague of yours, mike massimino, has a question for you. >> i got to be in the path of totality below all of you today. themade me think of some of cool things that we see, this timing of the cosmic dance of the universe. could you describe something you that compares to this, that you only see from space, that we can't see on the ground? well, i just feel like the whole experience of being here and living here on a daily basis is very special.
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there are special parts of each and every day. this one is very nice, we have seen some incredible auroras. i really enjoyed seeing scientific research getting completed. view duringat the the spacewalk. it is just a piece of this huge puzzle of why being in space is so beautiful. ,> back here in mission control for all of you, an amazing day, and an amazing opportunity. i would like to think peggy woodson, jack breznik. on september 3. ityne, we will posit -- toss
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back to you. >> mike, thank you. >> it is good to be a part of the nasa team. >> we got you here. this is your first eclipse here. >> i never saw one in space, or on the ground. this is my first one in space or on the ground. >> how did you feel? >> it to a lot of people excited. this was one of the biggest events we have had for a while anyway. lots of people flocked to the path of totality. there was a lot of excitement. i do wish the weather was a little bit better. we had some clouds in the way. even with that, it got dark and
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cool. when you see things in space, you don't hear anything. you can see the terminator between night and day, these reminders of what our planet is about. i was able to experience the .oolness to -- good to be able this is a nice way to welcome them back to school. >> thank you for being here. >> i have a professor of physics and astronomy at the college of charleston.
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is this your first eclipse? >> this is my third totality. andw one in 1972 in canada one off the coast of africa in 1973. >> have you ever done any science during an eclipse? >> i am mostly an eclipse-watcher, but those eclipses got me into astronomy. we had tremendous support from the faculty and staff at the college of charleston who put together an event around the eclipse. we introduced the students and they are kicking off their four years in college with the eclipse. if there was ever a side of things to come, this is probably it. >> i saw some telescopes today. were people looking through them? >> we try to set them up.
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i'm not sure how successful they were because of the cloud cover, but we were able to use some indirect pinhole methods. i walked some of these devices to students around the yard. it is nice when you hear them say, can i take a picture? >> tell me more about your students. whether any of your older students out here today whom you knew were excited? >> most of our advanced students were working with faculty members and they went to different sites and locations around the city and the county. think we had 16 different sites. we took the distributed approach. decided to make a big deal about it, i said, i
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can suffer and be a good sport. i had to wear this hat. >> you look fantastic. it is great. >> tell me what was the craziest question you got? >> i wouldn't say it was the craziest thing i got asked, but a few of the staff -- because this coincided with the moving day, we had some parents who were frustrated with the fact that they were trying to move their kids in, but they had no hotels to stay in, so they asked some of the staff if they could move the time of the eclipse. >> it happened whether or not we wanted it. sure that charleston and the college will be happy as things calm down. tell me a bit more.
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do you have plans for taking this eclipse into the classroom? i'm curious if you think this will kindle excitement and get a few new students? .> absolutely nasa has tremendous job of advertising this across the country. we have the advantage now of public lectures by alex young and alex will show this up tomorrow and kick the year off. nasa is opening -- is hoping that the kind of information we have shared will get people excited around the country. forou already have plans
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2012 for? >> i would like to say yes but i need to relax from this one first. like everyone here, everyone has done a tremendous job putting on a great show and making all the effort to tie in as many of the .tudents as possible >> if you had told me -- you work with nasa on a regular basis. >> i study cosmic gallery bursts. . work with data i have worked with swift data, a number of collaborations. i have a number of collaborations on very good stuff. >> week will the back to duane brown. >> i'm sure that hat he had on
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will be on social media a lot. from coast to coast, we have tracked the solar eclipse for three hours. thousands of people have witnessed a total solar eclipse in person. a breathtaking moment when the day turns into night and back again. today we brought you the most spectacular images so the millions watching from home saw the on spidering moments ---inspiring -- saw the awe-inspiring images. we will continue to learn more about the sun and how it affects our daily lives. yadi, your feelings, your thoughts? yadi: this has been an amazing experience. the clouds to not let us see the solar corona, but it has been an amazing experience.
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it is not over yet. the next solar eclipse will be in argentina. spanish] in thoughts.our alex: this was amazing. experience was immersive, getting to feel everything around me, getting to feel the excitement. being able to work with you all, to share this with millions of people. that is what i live for, getting to share the beauty and wonder of nature with everyone that we possibly can, to know we have been able to help millions of people in the path and outside the path to share in this human experience.
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it's what i'm glad to go home and know the end of the day. i also know that i get to see another one. we will have another one in this country in 2024. it will go from mexico to texas, to the ohio river valley. it even crosses carbondale. you can see another one in less than 375 years in a single place. >> i bet the hotels have already filled up. >> under the conversation, everything, the images, your thoughts? >> just from this point of view, the science is fantastic. one of the things that was most interesting to me was the volume of people. this broke our records for the
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most streaming events we have ever had. nasa does incredible things, we fly things through space, we have the hubble telescope, developmental work, but for this event to eclipse every thing else we have done is spectacular. i have a couple of cool photos i would not mind showing. this one is from the space station. he posted this on his twitter account. pretty freaking cool. you could see the shadow across the planet. one more photo i want to show you from the new york city times square. this broadcast was all over the country. were texting, i am showing this to my kids in the classroom. there were classrooms broadcasting across the country.
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>> that's what it is about, inspiring the next generation. >> what a day. wonderful thank the city of charleston for hosting "eclipse central." this could not have been done without the coordination of our nasa tv crew, stakeholders, and many more, too numerous to name. thank you. finally, i want to thank you, the public watching this program across the nation. thank you for your support. your questions, your thoughts. the eclipseto bring of the nation. what alex, sean, karen, day. yari: an amazing day.
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>> 2024? we will be there again. yari: let's do this again. >> see you in 2024. thank you for watching. through the eyes of nasa, you have experienced eclipse 2017. the story does not and it here. -- does not end here. many more images will be coming out over the next several days. stay tuned to our website and social media accounts. nasae signing off from eclipse central.
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have been watching the eclipse, courtesy of nasa tv. the picture of president trump earlier today, watching the eclipse. here is a look as he watched it
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from the white house.
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>> president trump and the first lady and son, baron, all at the white house today. the president expected to make an announcement about the way forward in afghanistan. we all enjoyedat watching today, a solar eclipse. in a moment, we will open our phone lines to get your reaction
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across the country. eclipse 2017. a look at some of the first moments of the eclipse from earlier this afternoon. an exclusive view of the solar eclipse as it is arriving at the united states. it is over the pacific ocean and about to reach oregon. we will begin looking to the eyes of that, out the window of our g3 aircraft. let's take in the view.
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now we are looking at the first glimpse. that is the first glimpse from the ground on united states soil . it is coming to us from salem, oregon, where thousands of people have gathered to experience this monumental event. let's take a look and take in the view. >> that is the g3 there.
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>> as the moon has now moved, the sun is appearing again.
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we can see the diamond ring. i see the outer edge, prominences, little pieces of chromosphere from the outer edge of the atmosphere. >> it is breathtaking. it iseeing it right now, an amazing thing to see. i can't imagine how we will feel here in south carolina. dwayne: sean, get that whether looking good here in -- get that weather looking good here in charleston. alex, what are we seeing? alex: that looks like it is from the g3, because i see spectra. dwayne: better still from salem. alex: the camera is causing a prism effect. your sing the bright light from the edge of the sun. that is the edge of the diamond
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ring effect. >> when the diamond ring pops up, that is when people should put their glasses back on. alex: when you see the diamond after the totality that is the signal. yari: it is an amazing experience and that can only be seen when you have this kind of totality. dwayne: the corona, that is what solar scientists live for, right ? alex: that is where the origin of space weather comes from. yari: that is solar flares, that is where the biggest particles originate from. >> if there were solar activity, would we see that now? alex: if there were a coronal mass projection leaving the sun, we could see it there. we have seen it in the past. i will show history later that
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images -- of images that people drew. dwayne: why is it so critical to get this type of view from the sun's atmosphere? yari: like in a total solar eclipse? dwayne: there is the diamond. yari: that is amazing. this important to do because we do this kind of eclipse artificially. covers the sun in such a perfect way that we see parts of the corona that we do not usually see. dwayne: and safety. alex: when you see that flash of light, that is the moment to put your glasses back on. now it is too bright and it could damage your eyes. yari: safety first, people. they have a perfect view,
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and they are seeing one of nature's most amazing spectacles. dwayne: i can only imagine the reaction on the ground from the folks there. alex: they are probably completely overwhelmed. dwayne: i hope that we get something like that. thee got it here through eyes of nasa. we have the international space station coming up and other images that only we can bring. yes. only nasa can bring, [no audio] 10:18 this morning totalc time when that
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solar eclipse began in the united states. these folks in oregon were the first to see it and feel the impact. the path continued, stretching throughoast of oregon, 14 states and 3000 miles through the shores of south carolina. ended in the united states surely before 3:00 p.m. et. good afternoon with the so-called great american eclipse finished. we will take your phone calls to get your reaction to what you saw and the science of this natural phenomena. if you live in the mountain pacific part of the region. and in the eastern central. join us on twitter, @cspan, or go to begin dialing in summary can get
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your comments on that. let's go to the moment that the total solar eclipse left the united states. it happened that 2:46 p.m. eastern time and it lasted one minutes and -- one minute 36 seconds. it there yet? >> i think that was just cloud cover. >> it is getting dark and cooler, too. >> the temperature has dropped.
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[cheers and applause] >> i don't think we are quite there yet. charleston,oment in south carolina, around 2:46 et when twilight fell. it was the end of the path of totality in the united states. the first time we have seen a total solar eclipse from coast-to-coast. roberta, in san diego
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we had a huge crowd inler: san diego at our local library for my nine-year-old son was there and everyone was sharing glass is and came together for we built a viewer out of a cereal box. andman brought a strainer we have beautiful images we took where it went through the little tiny holes. we did not get totality, but we had that partial eclipse and it was just risk-taking. ,t was a once-in-a-lifetime just amazing experience with everyone coming together and sharing different ways to watch it. very crowded and fun and such positive energy. host: what did your son think? caller: i loved it. it was so amazing seeing the rt


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