Skip to main content

tv
Rex Tillerson
Archive
  Secretary Tillerson on U.S.- India Relations  CSPAN  October 18, 2017 4:26pm-5:19pm EDT

4:26 pm
left to still work in the same position in which he was harassing you. is the way our society sexual ded to resolve
4:27 pm
harassment cases, to gag women we can fool everyone else we've come so far in 2017. gretchen carlson talks about exual harassment in be fierce, stop harassment and take your power pack. she's interviewed by "washington columnist sally quinn. watch after words on book t.v. >> secretary of state rex tillerson looks at relations what can be done to expand the partnership. strategic and international
4:28 pm
studies, this runs 50 minutes. >> well, go morning, everybody, -- no , we're worries and let me first say, welcome to richard spencer, of the navy, fwlad y -- glad you could join us. thank you for your service. a year ago, i was having breakfast with then rex he's no longer rex tillerson, he's secretary announced nd he had he was going to be retiring and we were talking about how we relations and i said, rex, what are you going to do when you retire? said, go to the ranch and rustle up cattle. that, i alking about
4:29 pm
think he misses the opportunity, to rustle harder wranglers in washington than in grateful , but we're that he didn't have any plans to come into this office and become state and i'm so grateful he did. years of opportunity to work with secretary tillerson and know the scale and interest on international matters, he is so perfectly suited to elp us at this time in our history. we're going to -- maximum efficiency, i can't let people stand up and give long speeches when they ask questions, fill out the little cards and rick will get them up to me, it will be more efficient that way. > welcome secretary of state, rex tillerson. [applaus
4:30 pm
[applause] state: thank you, john. it is a pleasure to be back in the building. john if the building was meeting the expectations that we had when project was undertaken and i see so many faces in the room that were a big part of bringing this to reality, i think he told are ur simultaneous events going are going on today, perfect, that is what we had in mind. also want to thank many of you in the room for 11 years, great years i had serving on the board trustees here and your mentorship of me and i learned i was during the time here and those engagements and i friendship.for his he's a dear friend throughout that time. to my been important ability to do what i've been asked to do to serve the country. pleasure to a real be here and thankful for the opportunity to be back in this building. so first let me wish everyone
4:31 pm
to our friends in the united states and india, around the world celebrating the lights. of generally fireworks accompany that, i don't need fireworks, too many fireworks around me already. fireworks.go the my relationship with india dates 1998, so almost 20 years now, when i began working on india's energyto security. i've had many trips to the years and r the many it was a real privilege to do business with the indian and a great then honor this year to work with indian leaders and secretary of forward to look returning to dehli next week for the first time in my official
4:32 pm
capacity. this visit could not come at a more promising time for u.s.-indian relations and the partnership. this year marks the 70th anniversary of relations between our two countries. truman welcomed then prime minister on his visit prime minister on his visit to washington, he said and i quote "destiny will that our have been hould discovered in a search for a new route to yours, i hope your visit will be ascent of discovery of the united states of america," the pacific and oceans linked our nations for centuries. scott key wrote the national anthem, aboard a ship built in india. look to the next 100 years, it indo-pacific, a region to our shared history continue to be free and open and that is the theme my remarks to you this morning. the partnership benefits our two great democracys and other
4:33 pm
sovereign nations working toward and stability. prime minister modi highlighted of cooperation underway in this new area of our strategic relationship. growing.nse ties are we are coordinating counter terrorism efforts more than ever earlier this month, shipment of american crude oil arrived in india, tangible illustration of expanding energy cooperation. the trump administration is determined to dramatically deepen ways for the united thiss and india to further partnership. for us, the day, it is plain to matters.this india represents the world's largest democracy. the driving force of our close rests in the ties between our peoples, our citizens, business leaders and our scientists. nearly 1.2 million american visitors traveled to india last year, more than 166,000 indian in the are studying united states, and nearly 4
4:34 pm
million indian americans call united states home, contributing to their communities as doctors, innovators and serving their country in uniform. 600 american companies operate in india. jumped eign investment by 500% in the past two years bilateral last year trade hit record of roughly $115 illion, a number we plan to increase. together we built sturdy of economic cooperation and look for avenues of expansion. the global ment of entrepreneurship summit to take next month is a clear example of how president trump and the prime minister are innovation, expanding job opportunities and finding both of to strengthen our economies.
4:35 pm
when our militarys conduct joint exercises, we send a powerful message as to our commitment to commons g the global and defending our people. his year's exercise was our most complex to date, the from japanese navy demonstrated their power together in indian ocean for the first time, setting clear example of the combined strength indo-pacific democracys, we hope to add coming years. in keeping with india, status is status endorsed by the u.s. congress, and our expanding rest in merry ti maritime cooperation. the uardian uav, we value role india can play in global security and stability and are ensure they have even greater capabilities and
4:36 pm
counter past decade our terrorism cooperation expanded significantly. housands of indian security personnel have trained with american counter parts to enhance capacity. india are states and cross-screening, known suspected later this year on ene new dialogue terrorist designations. the terrorist designation, the u.s. and india shoulder lder to against terrorism. states that use terror as instrument of policy will see reputation ational and standing diminish. it is the obligation, not the civilized every ation to combat the scourge of terrorism. the united states and india are leading the effort in that region. profound transformation is taking place, one that will implications ing for the next 100 years, the
4:37 pm
united states and india are global partners strategic g conversion. india and united states shares a vision of the future. emerging dehli-washington trategic partnership stands upon shared commitment upholding rule of law, freedom of values and universal free trade. bookends of are two stability on either side of the globe, standing for greater prosperity for citizens and people around the world. he challenges and dangers we face are substantial. the scourge of terrorism and the disorder shown by cyber attacks everywhere.ce north korea ballistic missiles ose threat to the security of the united states, asian allies and other nations. order y international that has benefited india's rise
4:38 pm
other system ny increasingly under strain. alongside le rising india, has done so less responsibly, at times undermining the international rules-based order, even as countries like india operate that protectswork other nation's sovereignty. in a's provocative actions the south china sea challenge the international law and norms india bothstates and stand for. the united states seeks onstructive relations with china, but we will not shrink from china's challenges to the order and where china subverts neighboring countrys and disadvantages, the u.s. and our friends. uncertainty d of and somewhat angst, india needs a reliable partner on the world stage, i want to make clear, with our shared values and vision for global stability, prosperity, the united
4:39 pm
states is that partner. india's youth, optimism, powerful democratic example and stature on the world stage, it makes perfect sense that the united states at this seek to build on the strong foundation of our year's india.peration with it is indeed time to double-down on a democratic partner that is rising and rising responsibly for the next 100 years. but above all, the world and indo-pacific in particular, the united states and india to have a strong partnership. united states must, as indian saying goes, do needful. our two countries can be the oice the world needs to be, standing firm in defense of a rules-based order to promote unhindered ountries, access to planet's shared sea s, be they on land, at or cyber space.
4:40 pm
and the ular, india united states must foster greater security with the aim of io-pacific.pen and the rn pacific nation's that surround them will be the most consequential part in the 21st century. home to more than 3 billion the focalis region is point of the world's energy and trade routes. world's oil supply criss-crosses the indian ocean pointsy through critical of transit like the straits. ith emerging economies in africa and the fastest growing economy in middle class in ndia, whole economies are changing to account for this global shift in market share. asia's share of global g.d.p. 50% by to surpass middle of this century. we need to collaborate with indo-pacificure the is increasingly a place of
4:41 pm
peace, stability and growing prosperity, so that it does not become a region of disorder, predatory d economics. the world's center of gravity is heart of the e indo-pacific. the u.s. and india with shared peace, security, freedom of navigation and free serveen architecture must as the eastern and western eacons of the indo-pacific, as the port and star lights between which the region can reach potential.nd vast first, we must grow with an eye to greater prosperity for our peoples and those throughout the indian and pacific oceans. 2050, india may boast the second largest economy in the world, india's population with median age of 25, is expected to surpass that of next decade.n the getting our economic partnership critical.
4:42 pm
economic growth flows from ideas.ive no two countries encourage innovation better than the india. states and the exchange of technologies and deas between bangladesh and silicon valley is changing the world. 21st century the and beyond will harness the emerging arkets and markets in the indo-pacific, his is where the united states and india have a tremendous competitive advantage. highpen societies generate quality ideas at the speed of regional ht, helping partners establish similar systems will deliver solutions problems.ntury for that to happen, greater egional connectivity is essential. roads lk routes to grand south asia was a region bound by xchange of goods, people and ideas. but today, it is one of the
4:43 pm
least economically integrated the world. interregional trade has 5% of total or trade. compare that with osian, trade stands at 25% of total trade. he world bank estimates with barriers removed and stream lined custom procedures, south gional trade in asia would nearly quadruple from 100 illion to over their billion. one of the goals of greater connectivity is providing nations in indo-pacific right options when it comes to development. the millenium challenge corporation is one model of how we can achieve it. program is committed to data, accountability and evidence-based decision-making foster the right circumstances for private investment. the united states and nepal signed a compact first with south
4:44 pm
asia nation to invest in growing cture to meet pal and promote linkages with partners in the india.like the united states and india must look for more opportunity to row this connectivity and economic links. as we look for more ways to facilitate greater development others in the region. for prosperity to take hold in indoso-pacific, stability must evolve. india, this evolution will entail fully embracing its potential as leading player in he international security arena. first and foremost, this means building security capacity. good friend and colleague secretary mattis was in dehli this.onth to discuss we both eagerly look forward to he inaugural two plus two dialogue championed by president
4:45 pm
trump and the prime minister soon. indian navy was first overseas user of the it eillance aircraft, effectively feels with the u.s. counter parts speak of our interest and need to enhance interoperatability. put sal the united states forward, including for guardian uav's, aircraft carrier technologies, the future program and f-18 and f-16 fighter aircraft are changers for game our commercial and defense cooperation. and , technology transparency speaks for itself, and sovereignty and security. issues that concern india are concerns of the united states's. has said the is world's two greatest democracys greatest e the two militarys.
4:46 pm
i couldn't agree more. earlier this year, instructors rom the u.s. and indian armies ame together to build a u.n. program, a program we hope to continue expanding, a great xample of the u.s. and india building security capas sxit promoting peace in third countries and serving together anchors of peace in a very tumultiuous world. implement president strategy,ew south asia we will turn to our partners throughout the region. in a is a partner for peace afghanistan and we welcome their assistance efforts. too, is an important u.s. partner in south asia. ur relationships in the region stand on their own merits. we expect pakistan to take against action
4:47 pm
terrorist groups based within their own borders, threaten people and the broader region n. doing so, pakistan for er stability and peace itself and its neighbors and improves its own international standing. even as the united states and india grow our economic and defense cooperation, we must eye to improves its including other nations which share our goals. india and the united states be in the business of equipping other countries to sovereignty, build greater connectivity and have a louder voice in regional that promotes their interest and develops their economies. a natural compliment to india's act east policy. we ought to welcome those who want to strengthen the rule of law and further prosperity and in the region. in particular, our starting point should continue to be engagement and cooperation with indo-pacific democracy. capturing the benefits of our important
4:48 pm
trilateral engagement between india and japan. as we look ahead, there is room including thers, australia, to build on the shared objectives and initiatives. india can serve as clear example f diverse, dynamic and pluralistic country to others, flourishing democracy in the age terrorism. the subcontinent is the birthplace of four major religions, and india's diverse population includes 170 million third largest muslim population in the world, encounter sig nant number of indian muslims in the or other terrorist groups, which speaks to the society. of indian the journey of democracy is never easy, but the power of democratic example is one i know will continue to strengthen and inspire others the world.
4:49 pm
other areas we're long overdo or greater cooperation, the re we expand cooperation on aritime and disaster relief, the more the nations and indo-pacific will benefit. we must recognize many ndo-pacific nations have limited alternatives when it comes to infrastructure investment programs and schemes, which often fail to promote jobs or rosperity for the people they claim to help. it's time to expand transparent, regional lending mechanisms, tools that will help them s instead of saddle with mounting debt. india and the united states must growing multi lateral efforts. we must to a better job everaging our collective expertise to meet common challenges while seeking more avenues of cooperation to tackle those that are to come. there is a need and we must meet demand. the increasing convergence of
4:50 pm
u.s. and indian interests and indo-pacific the the best opportunity to defend the rules-based global system benefited so much of humanity over the past several decades. comes with a responsibility for both of our needful and do the support of our united vision of a free, open and thriving indo-pacific. the united states welcomes the growing power and influence of people in this region and throughout the world. we are eager to grow our as india grows as a world leader and power. the strength of the indo-pacific has always been the interaction among many peoples, governments, cultures.and the united states is committed to working with any nation in region, a or broader that shares our vision of an indo-pacific where sovereignty upheld and rules-base system is protected. time to act on free and
4:51 pm
supported andfic, by two pillars of democracy, the united states and india. thank you for your kind attention. [applause] >> thank you, mr. secretary, move this down so people can see. we have a blocking vector. thank you for really a very speech.ting
4:52 pm
one particular phrase really caught my attention i'd like to just drill in a little bit on it. i
4:53 pm
4:54 pm
4:55 pm
4:56 pm
>> great, thank you. -- i'm going to ask question he would ask. in august and great enthusiasm in india about relationship, but real frustration with the way in which we restrict india getting to technology and this sort of thing, what would this -- this is the ambassador's question, how are you going to fix that? asked not shy, he's questions and we've had discussion about it. the ched on it briefly in prepared remarks in designating major defense partner and congress' affirmation of that. u.s.eryone appreciates the has the finest fighting military force on the planet. first because of the quality of men and women in uniform, all
4:57 pm
are teer force, they equipped with the greatest technologies and weapon systems unmatched by anyone else in the world. so that is an enormous advantage our military strengths, we don't provide that lightly and we have such rigorous review mechanisms when transfer,to technology but having said that, our most important allies and partners and india to that has been elevated to that level nd that is why i touched on a couple of systems that are not offered to everyone, the uav system is extremely technological piece of kit that making available and we're in discussions with india bout other high-level weapon systems and as i said, it is all to improve their capabilities to play this important security role we know they want to play in the region. work throughing to those systems in a very eliberate way while protecting
4:58 pm
america's competitive advantage in this area. close you know how listen, the secretary had remarkable invitation, which is india to s. and jointly take a larger leadership asia,together in southeast quite an important statement. indicated that there would have to be an evolving coordination, you hinted that it could revolve expanding the and japan-india trilateral indicated maybe australia, is that going to be architecture of engagement in the new strategy? say, tary: you heard me think about the map, indo-pacific to the coast of the nited states, that is the part of the map we're dealing with. significant and important democracy, pins one side of that map.
4:59 pm
japan, another very important and strong democracy, we have ery strong security relationships with, pinning this side of the map there is an important part of the south that also we think needs an important pinpoint, as well, very strong other and important strategic partner lly to the u.s., fought in every war and fought alongside of us in every battle we've ever australians have been there with us. we think there are useful onversations to have in the current trilateral relationship, which is very strong and japan, u.s. dia, relationship. we are going to continue to explore how do we strengthen architecture that really is -- it is about this indo-pacific, free and open that we have and how do we pin that in the proper places strongest, most important allies and how do we trengthen those in this ulti-party arrangement, india,
5:00 pm
australia relations, how can they be strengthened? in everyone's interest, japan and australia. it is an evolving process as to we create the security architecture, which keeps this indo-pacific region, creates the opportunity for nations to protect their own sovereignty, to have the opportunity to conduct economic threatenedhout being by others and that is really what the architecture design is intended to do. energy back to you as an guy. last month, i should say, we had renewable onse for energy was here and this is a big push for india. the secretary of energy, but you know a lot about could do you think we expand cooperation on energy issues? there are any number of active programs within india.
5:01 pm
needs, notuge energy just from the direct supply of nergy, but also the infrastructure to distribute energy and get it into so that indians have access through the personal quality of ife and to support economic growth and expansion. i know csi has particular programs that are exploring as well, those are important avenues and has a very the u.s. important energy posture in erms of the technology developed here across the entire slate of energy choices from to renewables and other forms of energy and i think that is the value of the is within the u.s. usiness community and our entrepreneurs and innovators, we have a large slate of in rtunities we can offer partnering with india to meet those needs. we are encouraging that. we think the work that sis is doing is valuable in
5:02 pm
that regard to create those relationships to provide that. it is another area of for u.s. businesses. > as our indian friends complain rightly about the restrictiveness of technology, american companies complain it is to do d business in india. how is that a conversation going enter your discussions? ecretary: it has its ups and downs. in 20 years i dealt with india, i encountered the same frustrations. i think india has undertaken a number of important reforms and to acknowledge that, i think it is important that those be rts and that momentum sustained. it is easy to take a few in ons, get a few reforms place and say, okay, we're done, sit back, you're never done. done, that is my message to india, you are never done. ecause the world around you is not sitting stagnant, you have o continue to put in place the
5:03 pm
necessary conditions attractive to indian business, your own entitys and ness make it attractive for foreign investors to come to india and the economy. i think one interesting early india was in the 90s india undertook little foreign direct investment, it was a very closed system, they didn't encourage companies to invest overseas. one of my first interactions was facilitate the purchase of ngc limited, a very important indian oil company acquiring 20% uszrussia.ject in i put the parties together for a serve said ns that the interest of people i represented at that time. it was an interesting discussion lot of conversations with the indians in that process used to hey were not investing overseas. going to ted in me
5:04 pm
business conference a couple years later, they asked me to with indian meet businessmen being encouraged to invest overseas. kind of a new thing for them and i remember the last, we had a panel iscussion, a lot of great questions. last question i got, one of the indian businessmen said, if thing we should always make sure we keep in our whatin investing overseas, is it? i said to him, choose your artners wisely, because in any venture, you are going to have partners and who you choose is your success.mine 've carried that same, most important element in any relationship i've always viewed that and that is the way we view indian-u.s. relationship now, choose your partner wisely. chosen we have wisely the partner in india for the strategic relationship, but i hink that process, i watched over the 20 years of india investing abroad helps india
5:05 pm
nderstand the conditions necessary to be successful back home because when you have to it as foreign direct investor, you understand what is you take to success, that back home and that helps with reforms back home. to continue india the path way toward reform there is more needs to be done to the full economic value of what india has to offer. or five about four questions, all kind of clustered around the same issue and that about the complex power region., in this india historically had close russia.th china had close ties with pakistan. both to keep ties with india and pakistan, it is more complicated environment now. give your ust thoughts about india and this power geometry? secretary: my view and i think the collective view within the well, is as nt, as
5:06 pm
china has risen over the last 20 years now to take its rightful place as an economic ower in the world, moving hundreds of millions of people out of poverty in the middle india, too, has been rising. i commented on this again in how the twowe watch very large nations are taking rightful place in the global economy, they have gone about it in different ways. touched on that. i think that is why the u.s. now as an important point in thinking about the next relationships. we're going to have important relationships with china. have the same relationship with china, a society, that we could have with a major democracy. evolved and at has i would have to let the indians, indian government speak for
5:07 pm
as india has gone hrough the process of rise, it has taken account of the circumstances around it and its wn history relationships and how have those relationships served their advancement and how their ey not served advancement and i think as the democracy, the world's largest democracy, it has said i want to be a partner democracy, i don't want to partner with these other ountries that do not operate with the same values. i think at the end of it, this shared ship is built on values, that is what has brought large, her, two very important democracy want to share the same future and we a shared vision for the future. i think that is what has changed of three ast couple decades, there has been a real ccounting, as i have observed it, real accounting has been taken by the indian government experiences and
5:08 pm
decided this is where we want to go. it is not y, i know precisely the reason for your trip, but i think several to ask you d have about, miomar, incredible humanitarian crisis, could you perspective on this? ecretary: we are extraordinarily concerned by bur in burhma.ng is a sharing government in burma.merged we hold the military leadership for what is happening with the area. important to us the world can't stand by and witness
5:09 pm
area.ties in the we encouraged the military to, you have understand serious rebel terrorist elements your that part of country, as well, you have to deal with, have you to be isciplined about how you deal with those and must be restrained in how you deal with access d you must allow in this region again so that we theget a full accounting of circumstances. i think any of us that read this "new york y in the times," just had to tear your heart out, instead of break your heart, to read this. we have been asking for access to the region, been able to get people from our embassy into the region so we can begin to get our own first-hand account of what is occurring and we're encouraging agencies, red aid cross, red crescent, u.n. we can address the most pressing humanitarian needs
5:10 pm
importantly, get a full nderstanding of what is going . someone, if the reports are someone will be held to account for that. it is up to the military to decide of burma what direction do they want to play in the future of burma, burma as an e important emerging democracy, test, it's a real real test of this power-sharing overnment, as to how they are going to deal with this very serious issue. deeply engaged, engaged with others and engaged the u.n. with the direction this takes. > again, several questions dealing with afghanistan. afghanistan, complex geography geopolitics, i should say, as well. a strong s have had interest in what happens in afghanistan, as pakistan, part
5:11 pm
the backdrop here. afghanistan? doing e you going to be there? secretary: you heard the resident announce his new policy towards the south asia trategy, afghanistan is what people tend to focus on. one difference in how we this is the challenge why it took a little longer for us to fully develop a policy. regional issue, it is not solely an afghanistan issue. solve afghanistan by addressing the regional challenges and pakistan is an element of that, india is an important element of how e achieve the ultimate objective, which is a stable no longer , which serves as a platform for terrorist organizations. policy quite simply on errorism is we will deny terrorists the opportunity, the means, the location, the inancing, ability to organize
5:12 pm
and carry out attacks against americans at home and abroad, world.e in the we'll clear the threat to that locust in many way necessary afghanistan. thate extent we can remove as opportunity for terrorism, are reatest beneficiaries pa pakistan and afghanistan. provide assistance to afghanistan as they move forward to create better economic that provide for the needs of a very diverse ethnic people in afghanistan. it is about a commitment message to the taliban and other we're not going anywhere. it l be here as long as takes for you to change your mind special engage with the fghanistan government in reconciliation process and develop a form of government that does suit the needs of afghanistan and to the afghan government, they have tobe committed to being open
5:13 pm
addressing the full needs of the culture ically diverse that exists in the country and its own history, as well, we achievable and we can have a stable, peaceful afghanistan. happens, a big threat is removed from pakistan's well, whichility, as then creates a better condition pakistan relationships. so we see it as not just one issue, but a means of the entire region and we intend to work closely and with pakistan to, we hope, ease tensions along well. border, as pakistan has two very troubled borders, two very troubled borders. we'd like to help them take the ension down on both those and secure future stable pakistan government, which we think improves relations in the region, as well. >> secretary, i know i'm running given byo the deadline
5:14 pm
ask, holders, but let me several questions were dealing with development. to question i'd like to pose you is, we've got a capable new usaid, you or for have been involved in aid and issues.ent what to you see is the relationship between the state usaid going nd forward? it?are you thinking about secretary: the roles of the two rganizations are no different, state department foreign policy develops strategys and tactics nd important element of our execution of foreign policy is development aid and assistance, be in direct umanitarian assistance, food programs to address need, isaster response or developing democratic capacity and capacity, it is an
5:15 pm
enablement tool of the foreign policy, they don't make policy, are critical to our execution of foreign policy. want s really where we that expertise to reside. view them as in many using lingo of my prior life, they are a center of expertise when it aid and development programs, nobody does it better than they do, not just directly, but they have tremendous rganizational and convening capacity to work through other multi lateral organizations, ngo's, direct in-country capability, they are in the world erts for doing that, they have relationships, contacts, they procedures and they are vital to our execution of foreign policy and therefore, integral to how we develop foreign policy, how we est its viability and how we layout the plans, the strategy and tactics for executing
5:16 pm
against that policy. so that is the relationship and ne thing we want to be sure is everyone understands their roles and everyone understands what is their role on the state department side, our expertise assessment,sis, the the development of foreign policy, carrying out of integration of all of that, usaid, they are the experts, the state department doesn't have that expertise, it resides over there. got a sign that says last question. know, in question, you recent years, most secretaries of state have been policy their life in the policy world. frankly, through the history of the department, had great number of business people, what is the -- how do you think about with the u can work private sector in advancing and values lomacy around the world? secretary: i think one thing make sure o us is to
5:17 pm
that we have great clarity around what our policies are, strategies, what our tactics are so investors, the community, can at least make their assessment as they are trying to make decisions their own business conduct, private enterprise and whether investment, foreign investment they want to make or partnerships they are creating for investment here in goes back to my earlier comment, choose your partners wisely. is important ink for us in the state want it to do is to be able to ensure we to the ide clarity business community and to investors as to what the with a ship is particular country, how we view the risk, the stability of that things that e were were important to me in making decisions when i was in the private sector. is a risk management decision, how can we help the one understand what risks are in this country, but also what the vectors, we think going in the right
5:18 pm
direction. we have concerns that things are and inhe wrong direction the business leader consist make their own decisions about what do. choose to >> i think you all can see why i as so lucky for 11 years to have secretary tillerson on my board, he's a wise and thoughtful man. would you please thank him with applause. [applause]