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tv   Public Affairs Events  CSPAN  October 21, 2017 4:00am-6:01am EDT

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program is quite clear. the negative affect on national stability is furthered by other factors. there are threats that this needs to be prevented, and the russian-chinese project on the nonproliferation of nuclear weapons in space. the nonproliferation is a collective responsibility of all the world. and russia is ready to work with anyone who wants to make international peace and security more stable.
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i am ready to answer your questions. thank you. [applause] >> you will be given a chance to ask three questions. i will give an opportunity first of all, to our foreign friends. you have sent a very experienced ambassador now, to washington. he has experience in negotiating strategic arms control with the united states. i am wondering what you have proposed to him, to restart the arms control dialogue with the united states. as you yourself mentioned, we
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have a big breakdown in this vital working relationship between the two nuclear superpowers. mr lavrov: we have had problems in our dialogue with the u.s. in recent months in recent years. during the previous administration there were many things that were failing. this is a different conversation. but after the trump administration came to the white house, we have stated our readiness to renew dialogue on all directions. we understand clearly, the situation that the new administration is in, how much pressure it is in at the moment, the allegations against it. and it is still confronted by those who supported the
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democratic candidate. still, we are ready to renew dialogue in all directions. on the scale that would be comfortable to the trump administration. i talked about that with the u.s. president when we talked in the oval office in spring this year. before that, i talked with rex tillerson, who came to moscow. as a result, we developed a channel of communication. apart from other issues, we looked at where we stand on nuclear stability.
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the main issue we discussed was the bilateral issues, how to prevent the spiral of conflict from escalating. in september, we had a conversation on stability. these were issues of strategic limitation of arms. and the short-range missiles. i cannot say the dialogue we have allows us to see any positive results in the near future, but this is still
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renewed. it will be continued on in bilateral channels. >> mark fitzpatrick, from the international institute for strategic studies. thank you for your time. almost everyone here agrees with you that the iran nuclear deal needs to be preserved. one of the threats to the deal involves questions about the verification of the so-called section t, prohibiting activities relating to nuclear weapons and their development. the secretary general has asked for tools to be strengthened in verifying section t. do you agree this would be a good idea to strengthen the iae's mandate to verify section t?
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>> you cannot strengthen something you don't have. there is no mandate to verify this section. this reflects the consensus with the participation of the e.u. and the security council, that the changes to any part of this consensus requires support from all members of the five plus one and iran, of course. i am convinced, as are our colleagues in europe, that any attempts to do so can put an end to these talks in terms of the iranian nuclear problem. -- program.
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>> very good t. >> can you say two words about yourself? i am a retired military officer from pakistan. >> that is impressive. [laughter] >> the best part was still to come. in my own days, i handled some very complicated affairs. frankly, i am in the business of peacemaking. no longer re-armament. do some ar my question was about the stumbling blocks.
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forh are coming in the way nonproliferation to achieve its core objective. onelly on such occasions, is heard very often, we hope it will happen. there is a wishlist. him but people very astutely deviate from mentioning the problem. if there are problems you would like to highlight, what is , is it the elitist approach that is preventing us from achieving that goal? thank you. >> to be frank, it is not a question. but a philosophical point i
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t. we need to base our actions on the spirit and letter of the agreement. essential,ortant, is to maintaining our efforts toward farther limitations in production of arms in the context of a comprehensive trek towards weapons reduction. as mr. putin had said yesterday, we cannot ignore the new achievements in terms of military technologies. saw after the nonproliferation treaty was signed.
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we cannot ignore them, that would be unreasonable. those who support the idea of a complete nuclear ban, they ignore the threats to strategic stability. the creation of new, deadly weapons. i don't know what to add to that. the npt needs to be maintained , needs to be secured. we cannot have a different dialogue so that someone can play games with this. and follow their own line. that would include the mutual exclusive documents. we should not allow this to happen. thank you. agreed --e rob
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mr. lavrov agreed to answer another few questions. >> thank you. when speaking a few weeks ago, it is not enough to work and at the level of administrations of russia and the united states to maintain arms control, but to also work with the congress? what is your view? >> i would say that the number of players needs to be even greater. the number of actors needs to be greater. when we talk about the issues of nonproliferation and strategic
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stability, it is not just for eign ministries. it is also done together with the ministers of defense in russia. also federal securities services are involved. certainly, it depends on how our interests are presented in the package we are proposing. and of course, the action of the parliament depends on that. i see the administration of the u.s. president trying to work with parliament with her congress. we see parties that try to use the congress to create unsurmountable obstacles for the
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american administration. as long as these negotiations, talks continue, i don't think we will receive any specific reaction from the congress. theng an into account russophobia we have been saying for quite some time. >> i am the ambassador for disarmament from sweden. mr. minister, you stressed the importance of the and see and we agreeeement and we all how crucial the agreement is. i was wondering, apart from organizing this excellent conference, what could a more contribution -- concrete contribution be from the russian federation? ensuring a successful outcome?
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thank you. >> alright. don't ask what the country can do for you, ask what you can do for the country. in other words, a slogan a long time ago. we've been blamed not only for interfering in the american election, sweden is also worried russian hackers will be involved in your elections. the french talked about that and .any other countries rea accused of trying to block the minsk agreements. now we are accused of the problems in the syrian peace process. fortunately, there has been less talk about that recently.
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probably, we will be made responsible for the north korea nuclear program issue. i don't think it's reasonable to say it will be up to russia whether the 2020 conference will be effective. we see here someone who can tell you in detail about that. but the understanding we reached on out to lunch negotiations on the creation of a nuclear free zone in the middle east, we are
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all the components were prepared. we have taken into account security concerns from israel. i will not go into details right now. all of the people in the conference who needed to engage started to block and jeopardize this very important document. there is a lot of goodwill coming from us. at the talks, currently taking place, as part of the reviewing process, we are looking for new alternatives for ways to overcome this pressure. this confrontation. i hope when you talk to americans, the british and other countries that you also point
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out to them the importance to make the review process successful. for many times, 35 years after the idea of convening such a actually fails, this will be a blow to the process. nonproliferation process. >> we have time for another small question, short question. >> i am the counselor of the austrian embassy. i would have a quick question on nuclear disarmament proper. for the future, would you see actions and moving toward a unilateral setting for nuclear disarmament?
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>> we need to ensure the current agreement is implemented. dateary of next year, the when we need to see agreement both from russia and the united states. then we will continue to think about the next steps. i am convinced that dialogue will continue. i am also convinced it is quite difficult to imagine a situation hypothetical, virtual round of talks on further reduction of nuclear arsenals can take place in a bilateral format. the figures reflected in the
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current agreement reach more than the arsenals of the united states and russia. >> thank you. thank you and good luck. [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2017] [captioning performed by the was anhought it
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important speech and i really appreciated president bush delivering it. he covered a lot of ground. he talked about how white supremacy is an absolute blasphemy to the american creed. he talked about the importance of listening to each other, working with each other. i did not always agree with president bush, as i think any democrat sitting here would say. but i never doubted his patriotism and never doubted he worked really hard all day. he went to bed worried, woke up concerned about what he would do. i was in the oval office with him two days after 9/11 as a senator from new york. what hetood a lot of was having to face. out andiate him coming making a thoughtful critique because we are on the wrong path. announcer: watch the entire c-span interview with hillary
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clinton on her book "what happened." on book tv on c-span2. >> now, the french minister on global terror threats and a proposal for a joint european union defense force. this is one hour. s one hour. >> good mo my name isning, heather connolly, i am senior vice president here. needing our europe research. we are absolutely delighted to be able to welcome her excellency.
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she accepted her responsibilities on june 21 of this year so four months into the job, and as she arrived here in washington, france has produced its strategic review of defense and national security, a document that i certainly encourage all to read because as one of america's closest military security and foreign policy partners, this document articulates some of the great challenges of our time and the french priorities and how to focus on those. before i welcome the minister
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the minister knows logistics and brings that skill set to the ministry. before i turn this over to her, i want to deposit for a moment. the past few weeks. on october 4, many americans awoke to the news that we had u.s. forces in iger that were on a counterterrorism operation and great and strong cooperation with france and its counterterrorism operations we in mali. we learned that as the tragic death of four u.s. green beret soldiers were lost, the first aircraft on the scene were french military aircraft and helicopters. i think this is a moment in time to reflect that it is our greatest allies and partners that are there when we need them most just as much as french aircraft flew over the sky after
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the 9-11 terrorist attack. these are moments to reflect and that's why this conversation is so important that the minister is here to help us understand their strategic defense and national security priorities. with that, on this beautiful fall day, please join me in welcoming her. [applause] >> thank you very much to see the csis for hosting today and sorry for my voice which is not completely back, but better than yesterday. your institution is one of the most highly regarded in a city that has many. i am well aware that for the
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past six years, csis has been the world's number one think tank for international security by the think tank index and your notices is compulsory reading in paris. i should also add, as a statement of interest, that we have fantastic quapaw and -- cooperation with you. some french diplomats serving as temporary fellows at csis and this sort of cross organization between administration and academia, which is not so frequent back in france, is of immense value. in a word, thank you for being so good. think tanks have a particular relevance today. when i look at the world today, i see the middle east widespread terror, refugee crisis, tension
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in the east and the occasional nuclear test or ballistic missile flashing by. i see a lot of tank, but not much think. our world is transitioning to an unknown place. it is difficult to read and your work is more important than ever. being a practitioner, rather than an analyst, i will spare you a lengthy in introduction but i would like to say a few words about what i have in mind coming here to d.c. as a new minister for the armed forces of france. first, we have an all weather
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friendship with america. we have been friends for a long time and we will remain. yesterday was marking the 236 anniversary of the yorktown victory. our friendship is one of the heart and of the mind. of the heart because the french will never forget what america did for us when we were in distress. the mind because because for nations like ours, with democratic values and shared interests in an increasingly unstable world, it is necessary to cooperate. commentators may well expand on whether france agrees with the
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current administration on climate, on unesco or the like, but the bottom line is there has scarcely been a time when our two nations have been closer in military plans. we are side-by-side in the fight against terrorism. i have seen this with my own eyes. we are also engaged together in all the visible and not so visible reassurance activities on the nato's eastern flank.
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all this attests that france is serious, capable and committed ally. at the core of our partnership is the awareness that france and the united states share both similar security interests and common strengths and that we can best confront them together. this is true today and will be as true, if not more so tomorrow. france has the intention to remain a serious and capable ally. under president mccown's guidance, my ministry is enduring financial buildup.
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inherited from the past, a strong bilateral alliance we enjoy today must be maintained into the future which will require the commitment of our two great nations, and i have no doubt that it will be the case. i will work as much as i can to develop it further. second, i am particularly honored to be here and to meet secretary matus. i've talked with him on a few occasions recently and i've been impressed by his authority, his charisma and his depth. i've also had an opportunity to meet with general mcmaster,
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members of congress, and to visit institutions of interest to me such as the sco and darpa as i place an emphasis on innovation in my own ministry. it is fascinating to come here as the representative of a new french administration. the administration of a new kind that we have not seen for a long time in our country. our president is the youngest head of state since napoleon. most of the government comes from civil society rather than from professional politics. gender is balanced and the president is set to reform the
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country thoroughly from labor laws to taxation and beyond. he is very strong on defense. he will increase our budget to 2% gdp by 2025. he has a very special interest affairs, with ambitions -- ambitious affairss for the eu, and the power of diplomacy. he places the norm is value on the transatlantic friendship. i believe you will see a lot of us in international affairs in the coming months. coming to substance, i would
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like to give a few thoughts about my priorities coming here today. the first is, how to defeat terror? we have maximum cooperation with all levels on the u.n. with this. made tremendous headway recently. raqqa wfell this week. but the challenges are daunting, made tremendous headway recently. raqqatoo. we have to support the iraqi government in consolidating its victory against isis, and moving away from sectarian politics. time, but we can see encouraging signs. deescalatework to current tensions with the kurds. the most i saw one of
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intractable international issues today. there is much to do. we need to eradicate isis from his hideout in the middle euphrates river valley. when thel come a time ealiphate can no longer hav geographic expression, the only an -- but only an intention to kill. this will not be the end of the story. syria will have critical issues to address before considering redeployment. we must be sure not to leave too much of a mess behind. this means avoiding at least four things -- first, a war with the kurds. second, involving israel and
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lebanon. an unpunished use of chemical weapons. government of terror, whether from sunni or s hia groups. it sounds simple, but it is not. employing 4000 military in a high-intensity environment,environment, with ts support from the united states. we are immensely grateful for the support. there have been strong achievements. we saved mali from the jaws of al qaeda. terror groups are under
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pressure. much more needs to be done. we can be, and don't want to be the praetorians of southern african countries. they must be able to defeat terror on their own. forjoint force is meant that. it will start its first needsions soon, and it definitely support. to give itants support. i hope everyone can become isvinced that assistance necessary. i would be happy if you all co in help us spread the word the beltway. -- we have an
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interns cooperation with the u.s. on terror and intelligence. i hope it will be strengthened. one day perhaps all the untold story of thisi hope it will be l be told. that day, we will have reasons to be proud. lives would be dull if there was only terror. places come to mind -- iran and north korea. noticed thehave president's statements. the leaders of germany, france, and the u.k. have reiterated the urgent recommendation to stick jcpoa and curbing iran's
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missile program and regional activities. we need the jcpoa. dropping out would be a gift to iran's hard-liners, and a first step toward future wars. but we should also be extremely serious about the destabilizing ballistic regional activities. we are working on it. the issue is now in congress. france has no desire to be embroiled in u.s. domestic our position on the agreement is clear. share u.s.rea, we
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concerns with recent developments. a europeanlong been theer on sanctions against dprk. we were instrumental in passing the latest package of eu measures. more pressure is necessary for any future negotiations towe weg be latest package of meaningful. the question though, is, do sanctions come too late? and how far is china willing to go? the third thing i have on my mind is how well we cooperate dith the u.s. and nato, an european security more broadly. france is a responsible nato ally. -- we are onrstand
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a clear path toward reaching 2% of gdp expenses. they are a war fighting percentage. although not all of our efforts are in nato, it all contributes to nato security, whether in the south or the north atlantic, where our navy cooperates to combat threats. beyond this, we strongly believe more torope must do defend themselves. in that spirit, the french president recently decided to launch a european initiative called the european intervention initiative.
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key to thelso been permanent structured cooperation and european defense fund. i would be happy to expand on it further. i would like to conclude with a slightly more global outlook, if you may. france has just concluded a strategic review of her security environment at the request of the french president. we face growing security in in multiple areas around the world. these challenges call for new assure on how to best our security, which is why we launched this strategic review. will serve as a
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basis for the multiyear defense oad that we will establish, defense appropriation for the next five years. i would like to give you a primer on some of its findings. is that thing i can say it is bleak. risks we arend identifying now materialized than expected. europe faces a great concentration of challenge tha e the end of the cold war. exposed,lt, france is and its armed forces are fully
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committed, if not overstretched. are currently four beaches. fourin response to organizatios like al qaeda and their affiliates, we lead the counterterrorism effort in mali, and helped stabilize the country, and contributed to the security and stability of the entire region. the u.s.articipate in ntd coalition in the leva and french forces and french forces are also heavily committed on our national territory, participating directly in the direction of homeland. the latest terrorist attack reminded everyone a few weeks
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ago. beyond this commitment, the review clearly states that we must remain vigilant in four other regions of concern. the belgians, which are still fragile. safari in africa, where structural weaknesses and ongoing crises require preventative action. the mediterranean sea, where we bothhe convergence of security issues such as migration and terroristic activities, and defense issues considering the return of traditional power politics and the concentration of military assets. where several arms races are taking place. involving in some cases nuclear
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weapons, even though this crucial region doesn't have any credible security architecture. the environment is more unstable and more unpredictable. the observer worrying tendency to challenge and we can international norms. environment is often at stake. with state and environment is often at stake. with state and nonstate actors having increasing access to advanced military resources, western armed forces superiority will probably be eroded. we expect future operations to be more difficult and more costly. to address a growing number of common challenges, france must have two objectives.
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one, two preserve our strategic autonomy, and second, to help build a stronger europe and stronger alliance. preserving our strategic autonomy will require to renew nuclearponents of our deterrents. also to appropriate efforts in terms of knowledge, nuclear deterrents. d td to retain a full spectrum and balanced military. forcesicular, french should be capable of the utmost action with respect to nuclear deterrence. the protection of our home territory and its and intellige, an approaches, as well as for intelligence command
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operations, special and cyberspace. i also want to point out that retaining certain key capabilities such as nuclear deterrence, and the full-spectrum military provides france the legitimacy that is critical to forge thenerships and uphold stabilities of a framework nation. by the same rationale, france must remain a major technological power with a solid defense industry and technological base.
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supporting this innovation and harnessing innovation from the key inial sector will be preserving our military survivability in the long run. it is one of my key priorities as minister for the armed forces. however, facing such a daunting set of present and future challenges, france cannot do everything alone. it would like to see europe and strengthened, based on the number of common security interests we share with our european partners. strengthenedaccordingly, we sul going eu and nato talks and initiatives, such as the one i mentioned earlier, provided they deliver actual result.
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will require a buildup and corresponding financial effort. i mentioned that we are on a path toward 2% in defense expenses. france raisedady, its defense budget by over 1.8 billion euros in 2018. i know this is france raised its less than the pentagon's laundry bill, but in france, this is a significant 5% increase. i would like to conclude with this -- don't underestimate those single-digit billions. from what i have seen, when you
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invest in the french military, you really get a bang for your buck. thank you for your attention. i am ready for your questions. >> [applause] >> madam minister, we got a lot of bang out of our buck for that. my colleagues, i am stealing the phrase "more tank thank think." we put a lot of think in. i would like to pose a few questions. we have a fantastic audience that i know has additional questions from that very rich offering you just provided us. i would like to start with your fire in the middle east. in some ways, we are about to be
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the victim of our success. --the anti-isis coalition the victories in iraq, now moving towards other places, we have two challenges as i see them. clearly, we still have foreign fighters that are being squeezed. hey have to go somewhere. you have expressed strong comments about the french citizens that are foreign fighters in syria, how to address that challenge, terrorism and the homeland security part of that. the second part of my question, what does syria look like? we will have an assad regime that controls parts of syria iraniansian and support. president putin's comments about the normative regime, putting
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that into question, what is the serial we want after we are successful? -- the syria we want after we are successful? minister parly: that is a good question. i am sorry because my statements about remaining terrorists in syria was not too strong and expressed in a diplomatic way. i am quite new in this job, so sorry for that. are committed -- we have been committed in this area, along with the coalition, for some years now. ,e are fighting terrorism wherever the path of the terrorists. we could not care less whether
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they are french or syrians or whatever, they are terrorists. they are threatening muslims. my statement was just to say, we are combating everyone. successful,t is that is good news. nowb, back to your question. syria is probably the most difficult. as you said, iraq is progressing. isthe kurds issue stabilized, which is not yet , but probably if this is the case, iraq will be able to step-by-step reunifying the country. reunify reunify the country.
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it will take time. in syria, we don't know. the country has been completely destroyed. on theime is progressing west part of the -- west part of syria. period, therethis will be a political one. i really don't know what will happen. it is clear we have nothing to say about bashar. we are absolutely convinced that this country needs political solutions, and this political solution is not available. that is one of the key issues we will discuss. we need also to share a common vision about what comes next,
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what comes next for the coalition and if the coalition setting, what its does it mean? sorry if your question was not answered. >> we will keep working as we appreciate your comments. let me turn to europe a bit. understand what strategic autonomy means in the french sense of the nuclear understanddeterrent and the sp. that term has been adopted in the strategic autonomy. president macron mentioned that in his speech. i'm having trouble understanding what strategic autonomy means in the european union setting. does this mean that the eu can a ct independently from nato, from
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the u.s.? reflection.s a i think many in washington do not appreciate after the horrible terror attacks and harris -- -- terror attacks in paris, president hollande invoked -- by invoking that, did that do what the french government wanted it to do? --t european invention intervention initiative, david put eu defense into the mix? help us understand that. minister parly: for the time being, there is a growing conscious within the european member states that their security is at stake. it is not only one country within europe, but potentially
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all, and europe as an entity is fromat stake viewed terrorists. moment, aare at the potent moment to trigger. this was a concept that was thoroughly discussed in the past. i was not there at the time -- i was told. more and moreing not a concept, but a reality. we made collectively major steps. i mentioned that european defense fund, which is something , that was onw
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conceivable a few years ago -- a fear years ago. europeans understand their security is something they have to look at, and they have to take care of it. that is the first point. the second is, above that, tosident macron would like create solidarity between all countries who are willing and a battlefield, because they would consider it as necessary. for the time being, this has a long process. the processes are not yet completely set. this initiative meant that yes, a quick andave
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operational process to put together different military forces if there is a need for it. hollandeoned president asking for solidarity when we went to mali. to carry if we were out such an operation in a different theater, ideally we would like to do it not alone, butng them for solidarity, doing it with other european countries or any countries who would be willing and able. heather: this is still being
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formed. it is potentially very exciting. as the migration crisis continues to roll europe politically, as we are seeing in many european elections, could this european intervention initiative, this type of readiness, could it be used by a more robust border security prevention of smugglers, traffickers? that seems to me such an important issue. europe has grappled with that. competency, but it needs to be shared. minister parly: that is the purpose of -- is to allow the military forces of the five
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countries concerned -- niger, mauritania, mali, to take into account their own security. that is what we are doing in dakar with the support of the u.s. and others, germany and spain. succeed in implementing a powerful and efficient military force from the region, then we will not be efficient. assignments of thishe force is also to control the borders. allowed to go be back and forth across borders to make sure that we can track efficiently trafficking and
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terrorists. of course, it is huge work. and for sure, even with very strong support from allies, we will never succeed. a localitely need initiative. that is why i underline that much. we need your support as a community, just to help juststand this is not isey poured in the sense, it something that will happen. the operation that is prepared in the coming days will be a first training to demonstrate that this is possible. heather: the g5 will be such a critical test of some new initiatives.
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last question before we turn to the audience. one thing you and secretary mattis can jointly talk about is the challenge of readiness. one thing youlooking at the mape ministry provided, over 30,000 french forces deployed worldwide. 4000 of those are in high intensity situations. if i understand correctly, over 10% of the french military actually deployed internally to france to provide the necessary homeland security aspect against terrorist acts. this is a huge challenge of just maintaining that operational tempo, that readiness. as you mentioned in the strategic review, the average length of operations are 10 to 15 years. we don't budget for 10 to 15 years.
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huge set of challenges. where are your priorities in making sure that french militaries -- they were not necessarily designed to guard churches and train stations -- but that they can be rapidly deployed if they are required? minister parly: we have up to 10,000 soldiers protecting the homeland. what we decided a few weeks ago is to redesign the process, because we have to take care of our stations permanently, churches and everything, but we also have to be more flexible already to intervene wherever it is necessary, and whenever. we have to work with mobility. that matches completely with
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what our soldiers ask for. toy are not trained exactly remain stable. run, to useined to force. -- i would not say satisfied, but they know this is necessary. so we try to make the best use of this force, because it has costs of course. a huge army like the u.s. has, and we have to be present in our national territory, but also very much present, and with a lasting , given we can discuss
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that with general mattis when we are working together. heather: colleagues, let me welcome you into the conversation. if you could raise your hand, identify your self and your affiliation. please keep your question short so we can take as many as possible. if you could raise yoursometimed to hear. if you could speak clearly directly into the microphone, that would help us. i'm going to go across this way. if we could have a microphone over here, please. keep those hands up so we can see. please stand up and give us your name. >> led a minister, thank you for being with us despite your cold. wilsone woodrow international center for scholars, where we also received french scholars.
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my concern listening to your words is that the european defense initiative would appear to be an alternative to nato. the 27, 28 members, but this new initiative would exclude turkey and the united states. what assurance can you give to us that you are not setting up an alternative defense initiative? heather: you will take a separate -- we will take a separate question. >> i am with search for common ground. macrontioned president takes civil society very seriously. sub-saharaning in africa, how you would engage civil societies and security
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arrangements. heather: thank you. we will take one more and we will pause. sorry, i an assistant professor at the john hopkins school of international studies. i had a question regarding the european intervention force. i was wondering what mission it would be designed for, if it is an expeditionary mission, and how it could build on work that has been done as part of the framework with the u.k. letd expeditionary forcd -- u.k.-led expeditionary force which includes the netherlands, estonia. heather: is the eu defense plan an alternative to nato? how can we engage civil society in sub-saharany africa and part of counterterrorism activities?
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and the initiative, how can it in sub-saharan africa and part of counterterrorism activities? be combined with the joint expeditionary forces? you can tell there is a lot of interest in the european defense plan. minister parly: i will be extremely short, and will share a strong conviction. fromu initiative coming france asking for other european countries to be able to go together wherever they need is not undermined in nato -- not all.mining nato, not at why? europe invests in its own protection and security, that day europe contributes even more to its to nato.t so this is something which is completely -- that can be
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combined, and not be opposed. so i have absolutely no doubt that this is not meant to undermine the nato commitment, not at all. this is just meant to be more as europeans, we feel insecure not only on the eastern part of europe, but also in the southern part of your. we have to deal with those two constraints. about the european initiative -- about what the european initiative can do. stage, i don't have any examples to provide of mentioned, if i
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this european initiative had existed when we started to go to this would have been a good example of what this initiative could have done if it had existed. operation, of course. it could be a smaller one. what i have not mentioned in my answer is about the financing of it. said europe is working hard in building a european defense , but itich is new doesn't mean europe is now ready to finance all of its member
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states in its day-to-day operations abroad. this is one serious question we have to solve at the european level. that is why president macron s aid, we are financing that on our own, but we would like very much to extend this financing to european contribution as well. not means we should be able to -- that means we should be able to revisit some processes which are not aimed at doing so. heather: we have three questions in the back. herminister will then give closing remarks. >> hi, and the reporter with politico. washington has been somewhat cool on the g5 project before.
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there is talk that the u.s. position might change on this. do you plan to talk about this topic with secretary mattis today, and do you have any sense momentum might be changing from the u.s. side? heather: thank you. morning.od i will piggyback on the last question. if you could talk more about what you will discuss with general mattis today, and second of all, you talked about the french defense industry as a key priority for you. can you talk more about weapon sales from french companies around? sellca is trying to warplanes to argentina, frigates to colombia and a record. -- and uruguay. >> good morning, i am from the embassy of italy. talking about the migration crisis in the mediterranean, do you see france working closer
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with italy to save lives and prevent migrant trafficking? heather: excellent questions. if you want to preview some conversation you will have with secretary mattis. you will have that meeting later today,then migration, bilateral cooperation with italy. minister parly: yes, we will discuss this with general mattis. it is of utmost importance. i am pretty sure that general will be -- knows we are strongly committed. it is a very demanding fight. we need tocommitted. find support everywhere we can.
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i am not sure it is so important to discuss the way to support it. whatever it comes from -- the u.n. or bilateral support we already have from the u.s. -- but that we would try to increase, of course. otherwise, in five years from now, the situation i would com mend to you, if you would invite me again-- heather: done. minister parly: we would say the situation has not made much progress, and if we don't make progress, terrorists will.
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we are migration crisis, with our italian allies. we are with them. i have an extremely good relationship with my counterpart in italy. that it is a place of concern for italy. we are working also to find solutions, to find ways to avoid both trafficking and illegal , and the treatment that happens in this area. we are clear on these issues as
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weare with all the others discussed about cooperation within the european framework. italy, germany, spain are our best support in europe to initiative. this heather: do you want to say anything about the defense industrial component? you have seen a lot. heather: do you want to say of vibrancy, whether that is in india, argentina, elsewhere. minister parly: much smaller than the american ones. we definitely have a defense industry. because itd of it, autonomy webasis of
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are building every day and trying to keep. as with any country having a we must alsotry, export. i would say that is necessary. that is a business model, otherwise you need an enormous to get theoney abilities, the technologies that are needed today. to get the so yes, sometimes we succeed in exporting our weapons and military systems. of course we have to be extremely cautious. is it safe to do it? do we comply with international rules? of course we have to do that. setthese rules are accordingly. we do our best to comply with
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them. heather: madam minister, thank you so much. you gave comprehensive insights that helped us understand greater french security priorities and its defense needs. thank you so much for your partnership, for the embassy. we benefit from french diplomats that enrich our research. thank you for managing this cold.sation with a that is above and beyond the call of duty. thank you for agreeing to come back at a future date. we will work with your calendar. most importantly, thank you for the incredible partnership cold. and military cooperation. the united states is a safer place for it. ift award -- just a word, everyone could remained seated at the end, we will escort the minister and delegation out.
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as soon as we are out the door, please enjoy a fantastic fall weekend. ministere thank the with your applause. >> [applause] [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2017] [captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit ncicap.org] >> this weekend on american history tv, a look at commercial union and confederate generals with a discussion i historians starting today at 9:00 a.m. and sunday at 9:15 eastern.
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america, we examine resistance to the vietnam war and the draft. >> lyndon johnson is a common murder and should be arrested for murder. women whose child was burned by napalm. that is the anger the peace movement should reflect. the peace movement has to use the tactic of disruption because the american people are drunk with apathy. >> on sunday at 7:00 p.m. eastern on oral histories, we continue our series with diana walker, former time magazine white house photographer. acceptlt that i should their offers to be behind the scenes every time they offered
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it because anytime you see the president of the united states behind the scenes you learn something about the president, and you see something. it is important i can be there are you. you cannot be there. everything i see is important. >> american history tv, all weekend, every weekend. only on c-span3. now secretary of state rex tillerson talks about u.s. india relations at an event hosted by the center for strategic and international studies in this is just under an hour during. just under an hour. >> i will start with a little safety announcement. i learned this from rex tillerson when he was ceo at
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exxon mobil. instructions as the exits are right behind us. stairs closest that will take us down are behind the store. all of them lead to it. go down to the first level. we will take two left-hand turns and meet at national geographic. there will be ice cream for you when we get there. everything is going to be just fine. let me first say welcome to richard spencer, secretary of the navy. thank you. it was about a year ago i was having breakfast with then rex tillerson. he is no longer rex tillerson for me. he is secretary tillerson. he announced he was going to be retiring, and we were talking about how we would continue relations. i said what are you going to do when you retire? he said, i am going to the ranch and russell the cattle.
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i think he misses the opportunity. it is a lot harder to rustle wranglers here in washington than it is in texas. we are so happy he decided to become senators state. i have had 11 years of opportunity to work with secretary tillerson and know the scale and interest he has on international matters. he is so perfectly suited to help us at this time in our nation's history. let people stand up and give speeches when they ask questions. there will be cards. turn them in. we will make it a much more efficient way that way. with your plus, these welcome secretary of state rex tillerson. [applause]
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>> i see so many faces in the room that were big part of bringing this to a reality. i think he told me that are full simultaneous events going on. perfect. i want to thank many of you in the room for the 11 great years i have serving on the board of trustees here. i learned so much during my time here and those engagements. i thank john for his friendship. it really has been important, my ability to do what i have been asked to do to serve the country. here a real pleasure to be , and thankful for the opportunity to be back in this building. first, let me wish everyone a
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happy diwali. all of our friends around the world who are celebrating the festival of lights. generally fireworks a company that. i don't need any fireworks. i'm getting too many fireworks around me already. india dateship with back to 1998, almost 20 years. i began working on issues related to india's energy security. i have had many trips to the .ountry over those years it has been a great honor to work with regulators as secretary of state. this visit could not come at a more promising time for u.s. india relations and the u.s. india ownership. as many of you know, this year marks the 70th year of relations
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between our two countries. when president truman welcomed the prime minister on his visit to washington, he said destiny will that our nation should be discovered in the search for a new route for yours. i hope yours will be a router discovery. key wrote what would become our national anthem wall sitting aboard a ship that was built in india. as we look at the next 100 years, it is vital that the indigo pacific, a region so central to our shared history continues to be free and open, and that is really the theme of my remarks to you this morning. president trump and prime minister modi are committed, more than any other leaders before them to building an ambitious partnership that benefits not only are two great democracies but other sovereign nations working towards greater
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peace and's ability. highlighted june the many areas of cooperation in our strategic relationship. our defense ties are growing very weird correlating counterterrorism efforts or than ever before erie earlier this month a shipment of american crude oil arrive in india, a benefit of our deepening cooperation. for us today it is late to see why this matters. india represents the world's largest moxie. the driving force of our close will you rests in the ties between our peoples, our citizens, business leaders and civic leaders. you than 166,000 and students are studying in the
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united states. more than 4 million indian americans call the united states their home. probably serving their country in uniform. closer, weomy grows find more opportunities for prosperity with our people. u.s. foreign direct investment has jumped by 500% in the past few years alone. tradeear bilateral reached $115 billion, a number we plan to increase. together we have built a sturdy foundation of economic corporation. as we look for more avenues of expansion, the announcement of the first local entrepreneurship summit to be hosted and south asia is a clear example of how president trump and prime minister modi are promoting innovation, expanding job opportunities and finding new ways to strengthen both of our economies. when our militaries conduct
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joint exercises we sent a powerful message as to our commitment to contacting the global commons and protecting our people. the largest vessels from american, and yet and japanese navy's demonstrated their power together in the indian ocean for the first time, sending a clear example of the combined strength of the three in the pacific democracies erie we hope to have others in coming years. statusing with india's as a major defense partner, status overwhelmingly endorsed by the u.s. congress and our mutual interest and expanding maritime cooperation, the trump administration has offered a menu of defense options are india's consideration, including the guardian uav. ensure theyred to have even greater capabilities. over the past decade, our
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counterterrorism cooperation has expanded significantly. thousands of indian security personnel have trained with american counterparts to enhance their capacity. the united states and and yet are working together. later this year we will work on a new dialogue. states and united india stand shoulder to shoulder against terrorism. states that use terror as an instrument of policy will nice either their international reputation and standing diminished. it is the obligation not the choice of every civilized nation to combat and discourage terrorism. the united states and india are leading this effort. another more profound transformations taking place. one that will have far-reaching implications for the next 100 years.
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the united states and india are increasingly global earners with growing in street -- strategic convergence. we share a vision of the future. wally --ing the upholding the rule of law, universal values, and free trade. our nations are two bookends of stability on either side of the globe, standing for greater sick or to your prosperity -- standing for greater prosperity. the challenges we face are substantial. the scourge of terrorism and disorder sewn by ciber tax threaten peace everywhere. -- cyber attacks threaten peace everywhere. the very international order that has benefited india's rise
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and that of many others is increasingly under strain. china, wall rising alongside india, has done so less responsibly, at times undermining international order. even as countries like india operate within a framework that protects other nations provocative china's actions in the south china sea disrupt the international law and norms that the united states and india stand for. we will not shrink from china's challenges, and where china subverts the sovereignty of neighboring countries. theeriod of angst united states stands with india. united states is that partner.
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with india's youth and optimism, it are whole democratic example and increasing stature on the world stage, it makes sense that the united states should seek to build on the strong foundation of our years of cooperation with india. it is time to double down on a democratic partner that is still rising and rising responsibily for the next 100 years. the world needs the united states and india to have a strong partnership. india and the united states must do the needful. our two countries can be the voice of the world needs, standing firm in defense of a rules-based order to promote sovereign countries, unhindered access to the planets shared on land, at sea, and
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in cyberspace. we must foster greater prosperity with the aim of a free and open into pacific -- indo-pacific. it will be the most consequential part of the globe. this is the focal point of the world's energy and trade dress. 40% of the world's oil supply crisscrosses the indian ocean every day. with emerging economies in africa and the fastest-growing economy and middle-class in india, economies are changing to account for this global shift in market share. asia's share of global gdp is expected to surpass the percent by the middle of this -- 50% by the middle of this century. we need to collaborate with indo-pacificure the
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does not become a region of disorder, conflict, and auditory economics. of gravity isnter shifting to the heart of the indo-pacific. we must serve as the eastern and western beacons of the indo- pacific. grow with an eye to greater prosperity for our peoples and those throughout the indian and pacific ocean. by the year 2050, india may post the second-largest economy in the world. india's median age is expected to surpass that of china's within the next decade. getting our economic partnership right is critical. economic growth flows from
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innovative ideas. there are no two countries that encourage innovation better than the united states and india. the exchange of ideas and technology is changing the world. prosperity in the 21st century and beyond will depend on nimble relies onlving that markets in the india and pacific. societies generate high-quality ideas at the speed of free thought. helping partners establish similar systems will generate solutions to 21st-century problems. greater activity is essential. -- connectivity is essential. south asia was for millennia a region bound together by the exchange of goods, people, and ideas. today it is one of the least
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economically integrated regions in the world. international trade has languished, sitting around 4% or 5% of total trade. where international trade stands at 5% of total trade. -- at 25% of total trade. interregional trade in south asia could nearly quadruple from the current $20 billion to over $100 billion. one of the goals of greater connectivity is providing nations the right options when it comes to sustainable development. the millennial challenge corporation is one model of how to achieve it. it is committed to data and evidence-based decision-making. last month, the united states sign ball signed -- napal a $500 million contract
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agreement to meet growing infrastructure and transportation needs in a ball -- napal. the united states and india must look for more opportunities to grow this connectivity and our own economic links even as we look for more ways to facilitate greater development and growth for others in the region. for prosperity to take hold in pacific, security and stability are required. we must evolve as partners in this realm. for india this evolution will involve fully embracing its place as a leader in international security. this means building security capacity. my good friend and colleague secretary mattis was in delhi last month to discuss this. we both look forward to the twougural two pluse
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dialogue. which effectively fields u.s. navy counterparts lands of our shared maritime interest and need to enhance interoperability. the proposal the united states has put forward for guarding uavs, vertical lift programs, and fighter aircraft are all potential game changers for our commercial and defense corporations. -- cooperation. our commitment to indian sovereignty and security. security issues of india are concerns of the amended dates. the world's two greatest democracies should have the two greatest militaries.
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i cannot agree more. when we work together we don't just protect ourselves, we protect others. instructors year from the u.s. and indian army's came together to build a you and peacekeeping capacity among african partners. this is a great example of the u.s. and india building security capacity and promoting peace in third countries and serving together as anchors of peace and its monstrous world. as we implement president ,rump's new south asia strategy we will work together to ensure stability in a stand and throughout the world. -- in afghanistan and throughout the world. pakistan is an important partner in south asia. in the regionips stand on their own merit. they expect pakistan to take decisive action on terrorist
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groups within their own borders that threaten their own people and the broader region. in doing so pakistan furthers stability for itself and its neighbors and its own international standing. even as the united states and india grow our cooperation, must have an eye to other nations that share our goals. build greater connectivity and have a louder voice and regional architecture that promotes their interest and develops their economy. this is a natural complement to india's act east policy. we should welcome those who want to strengthen the rule of law for further prosperity and security in the region. our starting point should continue to be greater engagement and cooperation with indo-pacific democracies.
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our important engagement between the u.s., india, and japan. there is room to invite others, including australia, to build on the shared objectives and initiatives. and can also serve as a clear example of the diverse, dynamic, and pluralistic democracy to others. the subcontinent is the birthplace of four of the world's major religions. india's population includes more than 170 million muslims, the third-largest population in the world. we do not encounter with cap numbers of indian muslims in the ranks of foreign fighters of isis and other terrorist groups, which speaks to the strength of indian society. power of india's democratic example is one that i know will continue to strengthen and inspire others around the world.
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in other areas we are long overdue for greater cooperation. we expand on cyber security and humanitarian assistance, the more the nations pacific will benefit. --y nations have limited often fail to note jobs or prosperity -- promote jobs or prosperity. it is time to promote tools that will actually help nations instead of saddle them with mounting debt. india and the united states must lead the way in growing multilateral efforts. we must do a better job of leveraging our collective expertise to meet common challenges while seeking to tackle those to come. there is a need. we must meet the demand.
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offers the india pacific the best opportunity to benefit humanity over the past several decades. it also comes with responsibility for both of our countries to do the needful in support of our united vision of a free, open, and thriving indo-pacific. the united states welcomes the growing power and influence of india. we are eager to grow our relationship even as india grows. ificstrength of the indo-pac has always been the interactions of many people and cultures. open toed states is working with any nation that shares our vision of an open pacific where sovereignty is upheld. visionime we act on our
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supported and protected by strong pillars of democracy, the united states and india. thank you. [applause] >> thank you, mr. secretary. we will move this down so people can see. we have a blocking vector. thank you for an interesting speech. one particular praise caught my attention -- phrase caught my attention. the opportunity to see last night. we need to collaborate with india to ensure the indo pacific is a place of growing prosperity so that it does not become a region of disorder, conflict, and predatory economics.
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interesting. what d.c. as being an example -- what do you see as an example of predatory economics? >> i think everyone is aware of the huge need in the region among a number of emerging economies, fledgling democracies for infrastructure development. it is important those emerging democracies and economies have alternative means of developing the infrastructure they need, but also developing the economies. we have watched the actions of others in the region, in particular china, and the financing mechanisms it brings to many of these countries, which results in saddling them with enormous levels of debt. jobsdon't often create the in these economies, but too often foreign workers are brought into execute these infrastructure projects. financing is structured in a way
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that makes it difficult for them to obtain future financing, and often has very subtle triggers in converting debt to equity. that we is important begin to develop some means of countering that with alternative financing measures the structures. summit in east asia august we began a conversation with others of what they were experiencing and what they need, and we are starting a quiet conversation and a multilateral way of how we can create alternative financing mechanisms. we will not be able to compete on the terms china offers, but countries have to decide what are they willing to pay secure their sovereignty and future control of their economy?
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up aat really helps open new understanding that we all have to develop. bei could ask, this seems to an asymmetry because you ran a big corporation. for you to raise capital, you have to go to public markets. against competing state-owned enterprises that could go to a central bank and get a no interest loan or grant. this is a profound asymmetry. it may go beyond just new financing instruments. how do you think about it? >> in many respects it is the case that needs to be made to many of these countries that need for structure financing that they have to think about the long-term future of how do they want their country and economies to develop. in many respects, those were
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similar to the kinds of discussions and arguments we would make in my sector days that here are all the -- private sector days that here are all the benefits that mckinley when you allow investment dollars to flow to you. that should have significant .alue while it is on a direct competitive basis, it is hard to beat with someone who is offering investment on terms that are worth a few points on the lending side. we have to put that in perspective of the longer-term ability to control their country and economy in a rules-based system. that is what we are promoting, you retain your sovereignty. we will come with other options for you.
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mr. hamre: great, thank you. and i apologize. ambassador singh is here. he's running a very dynamic embassy. i wanted to make sure that you knew he was here. and i'm going to ask a question he would ask, but he's not going to get to. [laughter] and that is, you know, i was in india in august and great enthusiasm in india about a growing relationship, but real frustration with the way in which we restrict india getting access to technology and this sort of thing. what would, this is the ambassador's question, so how are you going to fix that? sec. tillerson: well, just so you know, he's not shy, he's asked the question. [laughter] mr. hamre: i'm sure. sec. tillerson: and we've had discussion about it. and i touched on it briefly in
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the prepared remarks in designating india as a major defense partner and congress' affirmation of that. i think, as everyone appreciates, the u.s. has the finest fighting military force on the planet, first because of the quality of the men and women in uniform, all-volunteer force, but they're also equipped with the greatest technologies and weapon systems that are unmatched by anyone else in the world. so that's an enormous advantage to our military strength. so we don't provide that lightly and that's why we have such rigorous review mechanisms when we get into technology transfer. but having said that, our most important allies and partners have access to that and india has been elevated to that level. and that's why i touched on a couple of systems that are not offered to everyone. the guardian uav system is an extremely technological piece of kit that we now are making available. and we're in discussions with india about other high-level weapon systems. and as i said, it's all to improve their capabilities to play this important security role that we know that they want to play in the region. so we're continuing to work through those systems in a very
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deliberate way while protecting america's competitive advantage in this area. mr. hamre: i don't know how close you all listened, but the secretary had a remarkable invitation, which is for the u.s. and india to jointly take a larger leadership role together in southeast asia. it was quite an important statement. you also indicated that there would have to be an evolving architecture of coordination. you hinted that it could revolve around expanding the u.s.-japan-india trilateral. you indicated maybe australia. is that going to be the architecture of america's engagement in this new strategy? sec. tillerson: well, i think, as you heard me say, and if you think about the map of the indo-pacific all the way to the western coast of the united states, and that's the part of the map we're dealing with, india, this very significant and important democracy, pins one side of that map.
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japan, another very important and strong democracy that we have very strong security relationships with, pinning this side of the map. but there's an important part of the south pacific that also we think needs an important pinpoint as well. australia, another very strong and important strategic partner and ally to the u.s., has fought in every war and has fought alongside us, in every battle we've ever fought, the australians have been there with us. so we think there are some useful conversations to have in the current trilateral relationship which is very strong and effective, the india-japan-u.s. relationship. so we're going to continue to explore, how do we strengthen that architecture that really it is about this indo-pacific free and open policy that we have, and how do we pin that in the proper places with our strongest, most important allies? and how do we strengthen those in this multiparty arrangement? india-australia relations, how
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can they be strengthened? it has to be in everyone's interest, obviously. india has to see it in their interest. japan has to see it in their interest. but it is going to be an evolving process as to how we create the security architecture which keeps this free and open indo-pacific region, creates the opportunity for nations to protect their own sovereignty, to have the opportunity to conduct their economic affairs without being threatened by others. and that's really what the architecture's design is intended to do. mr. hamre: i'm going to turn back to you as an energy guy. last month, we had an indian minister responsible for renewable energy was here. and this is a big push for india. now, now, you're not the secretary of energy, but you know a lot about it. how do you think we could expand cooperation on energy issues with india? sec. tillerson: well, i know there are any number of active programs within india. india has huge energy needs, not just from the direct supply of
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energy, but also the infrastructure to distribute that energy and get it so that all indians have access to that, both for their personal quality of life, but also to support economic growth and expansion. and i know csis has some particular programs that are exploring that as well. and those are all, i think, important avenues and mechanisms. the u.s. has a very important energy posture in terms of the technology that's been developed here across the entire slate of energy choices, from conventional to renewables and other forms of energy. and i think that's the value of the relationship is, within the u.s. business community and our entrepreneurs and our innovators, we have a large slate of opportunities we can offer in partnering with india to meet those needs. and we're encouraging that. again, we think the work that csis has done is valuable in
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that regard as well to create those relationships to provide that. it's another area of opportunity for u.s. businesses. mr. hamre: as our indian friends complain rightly about the restrictiveness of technology, american companies complain about how hard it is to do business in india. how is that conversation going to enter into your discussions? sec. tillerson: it has its ups and downs. in the 20 years i've dealt with india, i encountered these same frustrations. i think india has undertaken a number of important reforms and we want to acknowledge that. i think it's important that those efforts and that momentum be sustained. it's easy to take a few actions, you get a few reforms in place and then say, ok, we're done, let's sit back. you're never done. you're never done. and that's my message to india: you're never done. because the world around you is
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not sitting stagnant and you have to continue to put in place the necessary conditions that is attractive, first, to indian business, just your own internal business entities, but also then make it attractive for foreign investors to come to india and grow that economy. i think one of my interesting earlier experiences with india was in the 1990s india undertook very, very little foreign direct investment. it was a very closed system. they didn't encourage companies to go out and invest overseas. and one of my first interactions was to facilitate the purchase of ongc videsh limited which is a very important indian national oil company, acquiring 20 percent of the sakhlin-1 project in russia. and i put those parties together for a lot of reasons that served the interests of the people i represented at that time. but it was an interesting discussion, i had a lot of conversation with the indians in that process because they were not used to investing overseas. that resulted in me going to a business conference in goa a
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couple of years later. they asked me to come over to meet with indian businessmen that were being encouraged to invest overseas. again, it was kind of a new thing for them. and i remember the last ? we had a panel discussion, a lot of great questions. the last question i got, one of the indian businessmen said, if there's one thing that we should always make sure we keep in our mind in investing overseas, what is it? and i said to him it's very simple, choose your partners wisely. because in any venture you are going to have partners, and who you choose is going to determine your success. i've carried that same most-important element in any relationship. i've always viewed that. and that's the way we view the indian-u.s. relationship now: we think we have wisely chosen a partner in india for the strategic
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relationship. but i think that process i have watched over the 20 years of india investing abroad helps india understand the conditions necessary to be successful back home. because when you have to encounter it as a foreign direct investor, suddenly you understand what's important to success, you take that back home. and that helps you with your reforms back home. we encourage india to continue the pathway towards reforms. there's much needs to be done to really enhance the full economic value of what india has to offer. mr. hamre: i have about four or five questions that are all kind of clustered around the same issue, and that's about the complex power geometry in this region. india historically had close ties with russia. china had close ties with pakistan. we tried to keep ties with both india and pakistan. it's a lot more complicated environment now. could you just give your thoughts about india and this power geometry?

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