tv Future of Iraq Syria Panel 1 CSPAN April 8, 2018 2:35am-3:37am EDT
we are different. we have self-awareness. we can see the future. we plot, scheme, plan. perhaps we will avoid this conundrum and may be survived, but we need an insurance policy. that is why this book is different from the other books. the other books talk about the steps, what is the goal, the part of gold out there. >> q&a, sunday night at eight across -- at 8:00 eastern on c-span. >> now, a look at isis in iraq and syria with remarks from ambassador to the u.s. and a kurdish official. this is about an hour. >> good morning, everybody.
good morning and welcome to the u.s. institute of peace. my name is nancy lindborg, and i'm delighted to welcome you here today for a very important andtimely program on iraq syria, views from the u.s. administration military leaders in the region. u.s. institute of peace was founded in 1984 by congressional leaders, dedicated to the proposition that piece is ce isical -- that pea c practical, possible, and essential for national and global security. we pursue this mission by working with partners around the world with practical ways on how to prevent and resolve violent conflict. organized a trio of events that will focus on iraq and syria.
there -- they are two countries that have been rocked by violence, brutally occupied by isis, and subject to the continuing competing interests of regional and international powers. they are two countries with very distinct challenges, but they are linked by a long and porous border. they have the continuing threat of isis and are located in a tough neighborhood. u.s. ip works in both iraq and syria. we work in complement to u.s. military diplomatic and aid workers. as well as with our iraqi government and civil society partners and the kurdistan regional government and civil society partners in both iraq and syria. we have been on the ground in iraq since 2003. i was there last month, and i was encouraged to see some very
useful, heartening signs of hope and progress, as we await the elections in may. i'm sure you will hear more about that. for many years, particularly isis, u.s.he rise of ip has worked with our u.s. and --qi counterparts to spread to prevent the spread and subsequent reemergence of conflict. -- most notably, we have worked to consolidate the recent successes of military action delivery areas from isis. we have supported our iraqi partners to broker and implement local peace accords. -- local accords and places these local accords in different places have been able -- have enabled iraqi's to come together, bridge deep divides, which were left deeper in the wake of the ikea -- the isis occupation.
out the new grievances that resulted from isis and ,ddress decades or even longer old grievances. most importantly, it has allowed families to return home. appreciative of the partnership we have had with government. thank you to our honored guests that are with us today. we have supported the national reconciliation committee in the prime minister's office in its efforts, and we have provided the kurdistan regional government with conflict mitigation tools, particularly on fostering women's participation in post-conflict peace building. we are now at a pivotal moment. isis is largely driven out, particularly from the urban areas and no longer holding territories and most of iraq and much of syria. since --an urgency
urgency to sustain those gains, to stabilize the region, the necessity of preventing the return of isis, and very importantly, enabled the return of many millions of iraqis and syria, to go home, to start a process of rebuilding their lives. this has to happen against continuing significant internal challenges, as well as while the competing interest of many regional and international players continue to play out. the stakes are high. require closely aligned and coordinated efforts across the u.s. government with international partners and with our iraqi end syrian partners. iraqi and syrian partners. we will start by first looking at iraq. we will follow with a panel looking at the regional implications for both countries, followed by a networking lunch.
with lunch, we will finish a powerful conversation between , a specialcommander envoy, and u.s. administrator green. this discussion will be moderated by the u.s. institute of peace board chair stephen hadley. i hope you will be able to stay with us for all three panels. very important topics at an important time. to start this morning, we are quite fortunate to be joined by leaders from the region, who will assess the current situation and discuss what is likely to happen next. iraqinored to welcome ambassador to the u.s. , and sarhangseen
hamasaeed. have the president of the middle east broadcasting network to moderate this conversation. the ambassador overseas and manages to television networks. his role is to provide critical news and information in arabic to the middle east and africa. previously, he was a career member of the u.s. foreign service with the rank of minister counselor. he was a foreign service officer from 1983 to 2015. rolesved in many critical and posts. ambassador, over to you. much.nk you very
it's a pleasure to open up this important conference today, which i think will be powerful. this panel onh pivotal moments in iraq. a pivotal moment in history. this year is the 50th anniversary of the rise to power of a power in iraq. 17 unfortunate july revolution, 1968, and 15 years marking last month. 15 years since the liberation of iraq in the fall of that regime. certainly, iraq has had its fair share of serious moments in history. we are blessed and fortunate to have a panel that has deep roots
and deep knowledge of the region. many of you know what of the challenge we -- challenges we face in washington if we often have people talking about parts of the world that they know in a shallow way. that is not a problem today. withinly not a problem this panel, which has a deep understanding of iraq and the region. yaseen and our other guests are voices that have deep insight into the region in iraq and have seen the country fully as it is as a place of tremendous challenge, tremendous problems, and yet tremendous potential, and i think we in the west often ignore so much is going on on the ground beneath the surface that is easy to dismiss from 8000 miles away. there's a lot good happening in iraq that is often lost when we think of things like the corruption raids or the violence or political tension.
we forget that granularity of what is happening on the ground and the potential. they understand in iraq that has suffered tremendously at great human cost, human dignity cost, and yet how iraq has triumphed, how the iraqi people, the armed per schmerber noted the security forces, army, police, and others who bled, fought, and defeated the islamic state. it something we forget, the great cost of the iraqi people. the triumph that resulted from this. all of these elements demonstrate the importance of this panel of this conference, and the importance of the engagement of the united states with iraq. for me, it is important to highlight that iraq is not a place that is one or lost, it's the place that is in play. it's a place we have to engage with. this is important in and of itself for the u.s. and policy. we will begin with about five
minutes from each person. we will take it from there. we will ask a few questions and open it up for you all is well. ambassador? to think the u.s. ip for inviting me. they have a tradition of doing these things. you are right. it is an important juncture for iraq. we have, as he said, defeated isis. i i were to encapsulate this would say you would find nowhere in iraq were the flight of isis floats. if you look at the flag, it reminds you of a pirate flag with skull and bones. we have defeated them, and we have defeated them. not to defeatis isis. it is to prevent the rise of anything similar. americanten heard
friends tell me that we are concerned, because we find ourselves right now in a situation which was similar to what happened in 2010. andave defeated al qaeda undergone elections, and then things went south. there is a big difference. i would like to stress this difference. the search that ended al qaeda was carried out, essentially, by u.s. troops. i'm thankful for this effort. the fight against isis was carrier -- was carried out by -- they paid a heavy burden. wes is a victory where really have a lot of skin and blood in the game. we are concerned. we wanted to stick. way, isisge
potentially brought us together. i remember this famous quote speaking of communism. he says it is contained in itself the seeds of its own decay. similarly for isis, if they find [indiscernible] ideology pushes them to do things that were unthinkable, unacceptable, beheading americans, doing what they did to a woman, killing the is the men, expelling minorities from muzzle. nobody can accept that. united, we have defeated them. a learningything, is organization. they have morphed. in a sense, we have deprived them from territorial control. they have are converted to what they were previously, which as a
third and see, terrorist -- which is insurgency terrorist activities. they have also destroyed a shrine. this means we will have to continue fighting them. i have to say that the fighting with isis was carried out by iraqis, but it would not have been possible without the support of the coalition headed by the u.s. to play a critical role and will continue to need to their sip -- and we will continue to need their support and expertise to fight isis in the coming phases where you will have to move from touring intelligence,re, counterterrorism, things like that. ultimately, in order to defeat
them, we will have to do two things. we will have to confront their ideology, and that has invocations as much for us as it does for you. we have to address the message, but i think the u.s. government and other major international institutions should do something about the way the messages are being propagated through social media. facebook for a long time was a global recruitment will prices. they are doing some work now, but more needs to be done. that is one thing. the other thing we need to do is to make sure that the population or approvelcome them of them as they did in 2014. that means we will have to focus on a number of issues, ,overnance, economics reconciliation.
also, demilitarization. the united states can offer a lot of examples. for example, the famous g.i. bill that transformed the united states army into the greatest economic reconstruction engine after the second rope or. that is something we can run first -- draw inspiration from. i have to salute the critical work that u.s. ip is doing in trying to bring in and strengthen and consolidate reconciliation in difficult areas in iraq. i mentioned the economics. conference that took place in kuwait last month. pledged billions of dollars to help us rebuild. it wasn't a pledging conference. it was a reconstruction conference where for the first time -- actually held a special
session for the private sector. why? because iraq has potential. we are hoping this will pan out very quickly. positives me feel very that this will happen is that one of the most important developments on the political has been theregion -- that has been sent. we had delegations come in, including sports delegations. we have had important events in iraq, a soccer game that took place where we beat the saudis 4-1. [laughter] soccer is aoke,
religion in iraq. [laughter] aside, we stand in a position where we are a lot more confident. we see this in the politics, and i have to talk about the politics, because we are coming to eleions in may on the 12th. throughout the trials we have 15 years sincest the regime change, we have had constitutionally mandated all the time. we did not miss a single one. we are going to all of these elections. they are going to be held under different conditions come of it i can assure you that there is great goodwill and a strong will .n iraq to make these work
we are taking all of the technical measures necessary to make sure these are fair and full proof elections. the iraqi government has officially asked for the united nations and other international organizations to come in and provide international observers that will help prove that these are elections that are fair and strengthen the legitimacy. one point i will mention is that in these elections the debate parties is local gradually shifting from identity politics to issues politics. it is a welcome sign. another thing, and i will close on that, is if you look at the names of some of the coalitions elections,n these the indicate a certain confidence. we have the prime minister running on a coalition called the victory coalition. there is one called the coalition of conquest.
i'm sure there are other positive names. i hope this will pan out and have an impact on the politics. thank you. alberto: thank you. >> thank you very much. i also would like to think u.s. ,p for hosting this conference which the ambassador has said is very timely. it is an honor to be with this panel or part of this panel. i think the ambassador has really set out the terrain in iraq, so i will focus my comments more on the kurdistan region. view, byrdish point of the time we got to 2013, 2014, our relationship with baghdad was deteriorating. could it economy was doing well. .here was a flourishing society
the relations with baghdad were tense. isis came and everything was suspended. focus on isis, which was a threat to all of us. that isis hasud been defeated. those problems that existed were not dealt with, and so today, we are at this pivotal moment where we have those old issues still there. we have new issues, because isis i think touched on so many full that already existed in iraq and syria, but we are focusing on iraq. that is the negative. on the positive side, we are heading for these elections, and these elections are critical. the curtis danny parties have decided to participate in the elections. -- the krtis dan
urdistani parties have decided to participate in the election. it should be across sectarian come across ethnicity government. it rings alarm bells for many of us in iraq when we hear some parties or political leaders talk about it is time for majoritarian rule. it is time for whoever wins the majority to rule iraq. i think in a country like iraq where you have kurds, arabs, christians, syrians, so many other minorities. over oil,isputes revenue sharing, budget, the status of some of the military. militias are accepted were as it appears others are not. you have some issues.
to have majoritarian rule i think would be a backward step. we are hoping the next government will be a reflection of iraqi society and will be able to implement some of the aspirations of iraqi society. there is a danger of too high expectations of the new government. as the ambassador said, we also have to manage those expectations. , and i wouldtan say it is a microcosm of the wider iraq, we have economic issues, problems, political problems, a fragmented society, and i believe that's true for every sector or every component of iraq. when you talk to the christians, they are divided. when you talk to the kurds, they are divided. sunnis, talk to the
there is a fragmentation that this election and the formation of the next government is the opportunity to bring it back to a new focal point and a new beginning. i truly believe these elections are the opportunity for a new chapter, so going forward, what are we looking for in curtis dan --in kurdistan? as you know, we had the referendum. this was both a your fork and traumatic -- both a euphoric entremed event. now, we need to focus on future relationships. isbelieved the constitution the best guide for our relationship with baghdad and all iraqis. the constitution has shortcomings, and every group will find shortcomings that apply to itself. probably, the constitution is the way forward. it protects the rights of
different groups, different ethnicities, different religions. it sets out a federal structure for iraq, which has a truly been implemented. it's unfermented, i believe it will strengthen iraq. we are looking towards a stronger implementation of the constitution. we still need to have some kind of a revenue sharing agreement, about --between some between some, but for all iraqis. we need a new revenue sharing mechanism that a no labels every citizen to share in the wealth. -- that enables every citizen to share in the wealth. in the disputed territories a joint security mechanism, which worked previously very successfully. i believe there are steps now towards that. mechanism fore a that hasith the trauma
bemposed on the people of iraq. all of the soldiers who were killed, whether kurdish, arab, syrian, just the soldiers families, every family has had to deal with the trauma of loss. faceurse, the people who genocide, the trauma they face, these are issues we need to deal with. when we are talking about the issue of justice and accountability for isis crimes, this is an area we need to cooperate. will needtan region to cooperate with baghdad if we are to bring these people to justice. kurdistan and a rock still has a humanitarian crisis. has 1.5 million syrian refugees and displaced, internally displaced iraqis. that is a huge population. that is a lot of people to take
care of. remember thatto while isis has been defeated militarily, they are still there as a threat, so we need security cooperation and we still have the humanitarian crisis, and all of those people need to be helped. that means a reconstruction program that hasn't been done on this scale. i believe we need something like the marshall plan. that is the scale of the reconstruction, not just the physical reconstruction of in the towns and cities, but also a rebuilding of our society. believe this election is critical. we need to build bridges between all of the components of iraq. we need confidence building measures, and we need an era of
coming back together after splintering into hugely fragmented society. i believe the united states has a critical role to play in this. many americans are sick and tired of the whole story of iraq and afghanistan, and shouldn't they be tired of syria? i understand that, but we need you. we need you to stay the course. recover fromety to the most recent trauma we faced. think you very much. alberto: thank you. sarhang: good morning. it's a pleasure and honor to be part of such a distinguished panel of ambassadors. i see many familiar faces. it is good to have you here. is truly a pivotal in iraq itself but also
in the region and world stage. i understand the panels will get some of those. the same with the boundaries of iraq. visited iraq four times in the past year, it is evident that there is an enhanced sense of national sentiment, mostly foride the kurdistan region understandable regions about iraqi nationalism, on the back of the military defeat of isis. now, that energy is going into the political space with the elections coming up, and the process of the elections is mostly set. a couple things will be critical in the preface to the election, which is the turnouts, widescale
turnout is important for this election. platforms on which this election will be run. so for, the common theme is we want the civilian state. we went cross sectarian. -- we want to cross sectarian. that is important to deliver after the election. we need a government that is formed quickly. a government that is inclusive not only in numbers of people but also in delivery for the people, and a government that can actually manage conflicts, the next stage of iraq. placehere a lot of contradictions are true at the same time. the next government will find and i rock that is at a better place but also at a more complex and sometimes dangerous place.
to build on the point about the insus -- offensive fatigue the united states, i think iraq one that is more prepared to engage in a democratic process and be a partner. that did not exist in 2003. years, i think it was an adjustment. i think iraq is at a different place. we have partners in the government and also in the community. piece, it's more complex. security will remain a challenge. security, i think iraqi security --ces in the process, there has been
the formation of a good number of groups in the fragmentation of the security landscape. the next government will have to deal with this problem. on the issue of stabilization, reconciliation, reconstruction building up to resilience, because the ultimate goal is how do you build a resilient iraq that in terms of government institutions, society, individuals, and the past to get there is going to be difficult and require help. progress. many have returned home. , but we still have a difficult number to overcome, 2.3 million people who have to go home. also, communities have returned home. whether those are in situations that have been affected by isis or you are somewhere else where
lack of job opportunities and economic issues continue to challenge you. return, iue of mentioned the security part, but one dilemma that the government will have to overcome is the legacy that isis of living behind -- is leaving behind. another senior iraqi official told us tre are 90,000 arre warran for peoplaccused of being isis. he acknowledged not all those people are actually isis members. you can be accused of that for a variety of reasons. there are 36 thousand people who are already arrested. that is a big number of people that the justice system and security system will have to deal with. that is a problem we had in the
past when the sunni communities -- causing a number of their communities to be in contention, and the iraqi justice system is going to have to have the ability to process quickly and look into these issues. that is a challenge that will threaten. that is where local reconciliation comes in. we have national and local reconciliation. institution, we have been active in the space and leading the dialogue processes and very difficult spots of iraq to -- the dialogue processes in very difficult spots of iraq.
the leaders, the women come of the youth are engaged. they're trying to find solutions and adapt to a new reality. fatigue with violence and iraqi issues, that sense of fatigue also exists in the iraqi community. they are turning that into an energy to find solutions. i know i'm not naive. i'm not trying to paint a rosy picture. i can paint a bleak picture, but i'm trying to give a sense of the positive energy and help challenge. elections give us an opportunity to jumpstart the political process and address fundamental constitutional issues putting the country in terms of the framework of the country. there is also energy at the local level, the frontline of where violence breaks out, where extremism is trying to recruit, so this is something we can work with. forward, for the
international community, we need to remain engaged. tell us and they what they deserve and what this process deserves. if we leave now, we have made a lot of progress against isis and putting iraq back on a political tracts, but if we leave it at this point or soon after the election, i think we risk losing our investment, and this is where it's a dangerous moment for the iraq overall. people will lose faith in the elector process bringing them backe, and we may revert to violence, and we do not want to do that. the region has competing agendas in iraq. building iraqi institutions will help the government stand on its feet, and we have to preserve the ability throughout iraq, fromonly those liberated
isis. andeeded in the kurdistan in the south. with that, i will stop here. alberto: thank you very much. i will take now the moderators prerogative and asked the first question. mentioned the military defeat of the islamic state. arrived at such a tremendous cost. you mentioned the challenge of ideology. today, in iraq, what is it really, that challenge of the ism?logy, jihad is does the connection between isis and sunni-arab population and the grievance of the population in definitively broken so we have moved beyond that? what is the challenge we face with the ideological dimension?
fareed: the extremist ideologies and iraq have always been marginal. they came in through the 1990's through saddam hussein's campaign that opened the door to them. they were always marginal. the extremist ideologies were the engine that brought tens of thousands of foreign fighters into iraq. in iraq, i think what we should the massis to prevent of people from accepting these insurgents because of their to satisfaction with the services, the government, the justice, the corruption.
issues,to address four ,conomics, governance, security and there was one more, but this is what we need to do in iraq. on the ideology aspect, i think it is a global problem that affect all muslims need to address. to?rto: do you want bayan: i think we have to be careful that we don't allow isis or al qaeda or any other form of islamic extremism or terrorism to gain ground in iraq. caused iraqi society and society a great deal. my father and brother were killed by islamist terrorists. it is incumbent on all of us to ensure they don't gain a foothold again.
it does mean our neighbors have to play a role. after bloomberg -- after the liberation of iraq, syria became the conduit for every terrorist to make their way into iraq. we need our neighbors to play their role as well. this is not something that we in kurdistan or iraq as a whole can fight against alone. it means we need the united states and the coalition to stay with us. that is why i made that appeal earlier, the american people may be tired of being in iraq for 15 years now, but you play an important role. you play an important role diplomatically, politically, and militarily. it is in your own interest to help all of us, not to allow these ideologies to gain a foothold. alberto: thank you. iraq, there is the ideology, but i think it is a
much smaller scale than many people think. that the kind of danger the governmentd issues were the vehicle through where this ideology from space and became amplified. i think that is now contained. the threat is not fully eliminated. it is there. success of the electoral process, the success of governance, and the success of government issues need to remain a priority and engage the community and maintain a channel of communication between the government and community to problems altogether and manage the next chapter. that will be the best mechanism to prevent violence, whether oring from internal issues terrorist organizations. alberto: now we can open it up to the public to see who wants to ask questions first.
please identify yourself and your institution if you wish. this lady right here. >> thanks to all of you for doing this. trudy from the philadelphia inquirer. mentioned that the neighbors have to play a part. i want to ask how you all envision the neighbors not causing future chaos inside iraq . can the u.s. play a role without being contradicted or attempted to be pushed out by iran, by a new role for russia? can the saudis and iranians both it without in playing games on your soil? pulls out its forces from syria, how will that be seen in iraq, and will that be seen as a sign that the u.s. has no staying power for the future in iraq?
>> you can go first. [laughter] bayan: ok. we don't want iraq or kurdistan to be the theater for proxy warfare. among our neighbors or anybody else. iraq already has enough problems recovering from decades and the issues we have had since 2003, and of course isis. enough problems. we really don't need any more gifts from our neighbors. i believe the relationship with kuwait has been improving. , we have good relations with neighbors. the golf countries were the
biggest investors in the region. we have a good relationship with iran and turkey. it might not look like that from the outside, but our leadership has always maintained a good relationship. the u.s. has a role to play, and so does the coalition, not just the u.s. a southern withdrawal -- a sudden withdrawal from syria would send a frightening message, a mustard was an expiration that comes with it the mix everybody think, yes, that is why. right now, we are just hearing alarming things without that explanation. how it is going to turn out. i would say we do need our neighbors, the neighborhood to realize it is in their interest to have a stable and prosperous iraq that is a good neighbor to them and plays a positive role.
in that, i include kurdistan as part of iraq, but also we have our own semi-independent relations with those countries. at the end of the day, the international community, the u.n., they have a role to play as well. alberto: ambassador? fareed: thank you, judy. it is in the interest of everybody to prevent isis from reemerging. i think that is one of the drivers that brought the saudis back to iraq. they were threatened by isis. be -- well, isis stands for the islamic state in iraq and syria, but remember, they changed their name to the islamic state, meaning the targeted not only iraq and syria, but the whole muslim world, including saudi arabia. everybody has a stake in preventing them, preventing this
terrorism. syria, we still suffer. to this day, we have insurgents or jihadists crossing the border into iraq and wreaking havoc. as an operational for step, what we need to do a secure the border. this is something the united states is helping us with. the thing for the for siebel future, we need that help. washingtonognized in as it is in baghdad, and bringing in favorable results. with regard to relationships between the other countries, it is in our interest to see that tensions are -- in the region. we have played our role in order to try to bring people together. one of the things the united become one of the
bringements was to help saudis back to iraq. the saudi foreign minister went to baghdad, which is a nice --cker at the request of the which was an icemaker at the request of the state department. that is where we are at. there is no question we need to have continued engagement with the united states. realize the cost that this war has made us pay in terms of our troops. i think the tip of the spear of , they suffered a casualty rate of 30%. they need to be rebuilt and strengthened. we need support of our friends and allies to do that. very quickly, i think the
u.s. leading role and engaged role is critical. i cannot recall a signal conversation, syrian or iraqi, where i was not told from the diversity of community that the u.s. has an important role to play. the thing we talk about lessons learned in the past about not disengaging and continuing support, i think we need to be careful about the trillions of dollars in the engagements are not what those people are asking for. they are asking for support with the political processes to move the politicaling processes to be inclusive and building capacity. i think that is important, and when the u.s. is not engaged, those processes will not happen. it gives hesitation to u.s. allies in the weather in europe or in the region, that they will not do the kind of role they are
playing now. a heas. engagement, not engageme, what the region of asking for. what we are really looking for is a broader engagement with the united states. we are facing a reconstruction phase, and we would very much like to see the united states private sector very much engaged. another question. yes, right here. [inaudible] thank you again. u, iraqi ambassador, talking about what we need.
now, they are coming with the election, maybe they when, next election, also talking about investing in iraq, foreign investor. how'd does the foreign investor come in, make an initiative to invest in iraq? think you. alberto: thank you for that. these issues were discussed at the conference in kuwait. the iraqi government has engaged itself to stream in the processes and to make them simpler for foreign investors, including a mechanism that will follow the investments to ensure there is minimal corruption and efficient use of the funds. question,behind your which is the independence of iraq.
it can only be a short after we have strengthened our institutions. unfortunately, we start from a low baseline. iraqi institutions have been wiped out. we are in the gradual process of rebuilding them and making them as secure as possible. it takes time, but i can assure you there is a good faith effort to do that. alberto: let's get another question in. over here. >> good morning. doug with new america. we could ask 100 questions today, but let's start with how do you keep your people on board , as you have to go all of this recovery in transformation? when you talk to all the ethnic areps in iraq, this year
deeply upset about the lack of services and oil-rich south, the sunni have been decimated. he had been watching the demonstrations in the north. how do we keep these people on board with what will inevitably disappointing levels of recovery, even if the progress does move forward? i think that is really a critical question. i am going to focus on kurdistan and the territories. people are very tired. 2014 had several shocks. first, the prime minister cuts share of the's federal budget, then isis came and we were engaged in an expensive war, both financially and in human life.
we were flooded with refugees , as oillaced people prices crashed. it is now four years that the people of kurdistan have endured economic stress. the humanitarian crisis, we still have 1.5 million displaced people and refugees. that is impacting not only them, because they can't go home. the 10th they are in are now four to six years old. in are nows they are four to six years old. the health system is under stress. educational system, we now many more children in our schools than we expected. after four years, everybody is out of reserves. there are no more savings for people to tap into. that goes for everybody. it is not surprising that there are protests. we have to recognize that the majority of these protests are
legitimate, and the grievances are legitimate. i think you raise an important question, and the kurdish them,ship, focusing on but i would say be supplies to tory leader in iraq, we need convey messages to the public that they believe in. i think there is an erosion of trust across the board between the public and leadership. it is hard to rebuild that trust, but we can't keep making the same old promises. we have to make promises that really address the issues we ace today and provide solution that is realistic. we don't want to raise expectations that then lead to disappointment. this is a very important question. alberto: is there anything you wanted to add? think this is one of the questions that keeps me up at night, because you do all of this work, and that very reason, if you have no isis, no threat
of terrorism, that could be a reason, the frustration of the people could take them governments whether local or otherwise. what we have found extremely useful, the engagement of the community can have a variety of benefits in building iraq's democracy, the value in terms of managing people's frustration. you have to see and you have to build. i will give you a quick anecdote. iraqi minorities participate in a budgeting process where they engage their communities, identify their priorities. and this is pretty isis. the -- pre-isis. the national government for passing legislation to enable those changes. they identify how much money is there, what are their
priorities, and they manage their own expectations as far as what would work. so that model they are trying to repeat post isis to enable the return of the minority communities. as a model, i have seen its success. it has limitations, but we need to scale this because it has properties that can be unique and local but we need a wide range of those. we need the same thing at a national level. those agreements need to be implemented. for them to be implemented, unique capacity. -- you need capacity. this is something lacking in the iraqi institution that needs to be worked on. >> we will let you make your comment and then one last short, sweet question. >> you are absolutely right. managing expectations is hard to do because expectations are so high. what the government has to do is
prioritize and try to achieve at least a string of successes that will add to its legitimacy with the population. one thing it can do is listen and they are. people in the government are paying attention to what people are saying in iraq. they should address corruption, that's a big issue people are talking about. another issue is mismanagement. one has to sate mismanaging cost iraq much more than corruption. i think looking forward, holding of the elections in a fair and transparent way in itself will be a success that will add to the credibility of the government. >> yes, this lady right here. >> [inaudible] thanks for so much for your substantive commentary. i have a question for ambassador yassin. can you explain to us the makeup
of the coalitions ahead of the elections? because it seems there is some unusual alliances and from studying that make up of the coalitions, it seems to an outsider that the objective is to decrease or minimize iran's influence. so could you give us some idea -- for example, premised or maliki was aligned -- prime minister maliki was aligned and he withdrew from the alliance. just looking at this from the outside, it is very unusual. can you give us insight into how these coalitions are formed and what the objective is? >> the trend that people see in the formation of these coalitions is that they are multiethnic and multi-sectarian. to constitute, the cross-section of the iraqi
population, more importantly there is discourse is multiethnic and multi-sectarian. and you can see this consolidation of a trend we have seen for a number of years. wasexample, mr. malik he's called state of law. iraqis urine for state of law. four years later, -- iraqis yearnedr -- iraqies for state of law. later, we are going in this direction. one of the examples of this current electoral season in iraq that we have is an alliance between the communist and the separatists. this is one of the reason people are helpful is because we are on track to move from identity politics to issues politics. >> thank you very much.
thank you all. that concludes this session. [captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit ncicap.org] >> there is a 15 minute coffee break and you should be back here at 11:20 for the next session. on newsmakers, scott gottlieb talks about the opioid epidemic, drug prices, and the fda's cutting drug prices. 10:00 and 6:00 p.m. eastern on c-span. on 1968, america in
turmoil. liberal politics. as we look back to a bj's great society and a liberal activists redefining the role of the federal government and challenging traditional values. our guests are kathleen kennedy townsend, rfk's daughter, and former lieutenant governor of maryland, and michael:. the 1968 collection and the politics of decision. watch 1968: america in turmoil live today at 8:30 am eastern on c-span's washington journal and on american history tv on c-span3. >> this week, facebook ceo mark zuckerberg will testify before senate and house committees on facebook's handling of data privacy. 2:15, he will answer questions during a senate wednesday at 10:00
a.m. on c-span3, he will appear before the house committee. watch live coverage on c-span3 and live on c-span.org and listen live on the c-span radio app. next cover-up a discussion on the roles of russia, iran, turkey, and israel in the syrian conflict. posted by the wilson center, this is an hour and 40 minutes. >> good afternoon and welcome. my name is will pomerantz and i am deputy director of the kennan institute and on behalf of jane harman, our ceo