tv President Trump Delivers Remarks at Suresnes American Cemetery CSPAN November 11, 2018 9:00am-10:01am EST
a majority of you are saying nay. we want nay. coming up in just a moment on c-span3 we will turn our l america,"o "ree taking a look back at the centennial end of world war i. we will get some background on the history of the soldier buried at the tomb of the unknown. a soldier from france transported back to washington, d.c., to his final resting place at arlington national cemetery. for those on c-span television, "washington journal" continues. the president will be delivering remarks in about 15 minutes. joining us next is ron, from los angeles. good morning, welcome to the program. caller: good morning. can you hear me? host: we sure can, go ahead. caller: that your pardon.
i'm a vietnam that. my dad was in world war ii. my great uncle perry was a sergeant in the last unit of the united states marine corps cavalry. war,d a loss in the civil , in aing to my dad significant battle in arkansas. i had this family history into my aunt had passed away. it seems like sergeants everywhere, but i send my very best to everybody. i belong to a veterans group in los angeles. there are about 300 of us. i sit at a table with a 94-year-old man that was a combat veteran in the south pacific in something called the alamo scouts. there were 100 and 49 of them. they survived the war, out there getting intelligence for macarthur. and he's the last one. there's a lot of world war ii
guys and a lot of history. and you never know who you are sitting next to. it's a wonderful part of our country. a wonderful part we are giving people. to bet up seem appreciated by certain parts of our country today and it burns the hell out of me. i want to respond to something that you said, you have really mirrored what we have been hearing from so many callers over the last hour and a half. your service, your father, your grandfather, your uncle's service. what in your family has encouraged you and others to serve the country in uniform? caller: well, i put it very sort 18 iuriously when i was got my high school graduation card.lective service my dad, because of the marine oklahomained out of
and camp pendleton, served out of west virginia and the battleship new mexico. i think that he got that from his uncle that served overseas. that's about the best i can tell you. host: we thank you, we will give our guests a chance to respond. caller: you got it. guest: what is there to say? there's obviously a long tradition in this country of people serving, sons serving, great-grandson's serving. guest: and with the marines that's a whole different ballgame. semper fi. paul, california. good morning. caller: after world war i ended, i was wondering why adolf hitler and others blamed the german
jews for the loss of world war i? why were they blamed? i've read that in several places. first of all, there was a long history of anti-semitism in germany and europe generally. diplomats in germany after the war were jewish and with the allies that were seen as the training the country. and also, even though german jews served honorably, certainly, in world war i, many frank's father, actually, auto frank was a german at the time. he served in world war i and anne frank's -- anne frank famously wrote the diary before she was taken to the concentration camp.
there was a sense among many germans, especially those who served the military, that jews had stayed at home, that they were on the left and had never been all that excited about the war in the first place. the officer corps of the german army was completely free of jews , i think. i think it was all christian. those were some of the dynamics. anti-semitism, it's always easy to stir up, especially when there is a sense that the nation has lost something. bytorically, jews were seen many christians as not part of a nation, really. the wondering jews, a group of cosmopolitan given wealth. these were some of the elements that went into germans backing the idea that the jews were to blame for german defeat. host: this is one of the main
battlefields, argonne forest. why was that central in the war? the original german plan was to move down both sides of the river valley. when they got to the fortress, that was the logical checkpoint. if you could get past it on either side, you had a straight shot at paris, ok? nothing, there was no geographical barrier in the way. the germans were mounting an enveloping effort around both sides. the french realized that if it germans further, the cut off both of the rail routes. the french couldn't supply the area. they were trying to attack on both sides. theargonne was originally, two attacks were supposed to be
courtney did so that the germans could fight them off. they started in trying to kick the germans out because then they would have -- that would shield the fortress, the front part of the fortress from a german attack on that side. like everything else the french tried to do in the war, it basically blew up. by the time that 1917 came around, the french had essentially been kicked out. they were hanging on. they technically had like half of a dozen trees left, basically. had lost the whole area of the southern part on the right bank. interconnected. and they are not very far apart. this idea that we would try to get both of them, that was just doing and reversed what the
germans had done in 1914. weekend ofs been a heavy rain. the president skipping a number of ceremonies today -- this weekend. but he will be a suresnes -- he , payingat suresnes tribute to those who made the ultimate price. according to sarah sanders, "the president's speech will focus on remembering the sacrifices of those who came before us." back to your phone calls from toms river, new jersey. good morning. caller: good morning, steve, thank you. gentlemen, i love this conference. there are two things i would like you to address. churchill didn't deliver two battleships to turkey that they already paid for before world war i started.
what turkey have stayed out of if water -- out of the war churchill had delivered those battleships? the other thing i would like you to address is balfour made his declaration during the war in order to get arms from a jewish manufacturer in england. not that he cared about the jews. ok? you for the call, we will get a response. they got into the war because they were afraid the germans were going to win, basically. theourse, he talked about treaty in 16. ,t carved up the ottoman empire carving up places like iraq and syria. but at first there wasn't a main
focus in britain on the ottoman empire. host: let me put some numbers on the screen. as we moved into world war i, the national debt was $5.7 billion. it has significantly increased in 1918 and 1919, nearly 27.5 billion dollars. what do those numbers tell you? we were having to fund the war effort, the french and the british were basically broke. and nobody ever paid us back except for finland. we got stuck with a whopping bill. because of this commitment we had made, which started out with wilson turning a blind eye to
all of the armaments manufacturers that were making the munitions for the british and the french. of the arguments made during the war about why the u.s. should not get into the war, and afterwards as well, was that the u.s. got into the war because we loaned all of this money to the allies and we wanted to make sure they one so that they could pay it back. that's not really accurate. but it's also important to note that the u.s., economically, is a vector in the war, emerging as the most powerful country in the world economically. for the first time in american history the united states by the 1920's is a creditor nation instead of a debtor nation. so the u.s., it's ambiguous, the peace accords as we have talked about before, but i think it's also important to note that all the european powers had to come and be nice tods the united states in the 1920's because they were the most powerful economy.
and to put on the table the reparations demanded by the allies of germany. guest: but that didn't work out well. can't pay, won't pay. as you were saying about the u.s., the fascinating thing was if you actually looked at november of 1918, if you went ,nto the countries involved great britain and france were the ones that looked like they lost. germany was doing very well. the problems didn't start until december. joining us next, a caller from brooklyn, new york. caller: yes, i'm originally from kansas city. i was just in paris about two weeks ago. commissioned to write
a play about an african-american ,oldier from kansas city considered the last soldier to die in world war i. host: who was that soldier? caller: his name was private wayne minor. i traveled up to think it's called saint lucille cemetery. i was very surprised that the lady there, who welcomes people and guests when schoolchildren come in, she does a tour with them. i was happy to find out that she actually tells them about wayne minor being the last to die in world war i and i was able to also give her a lot of information that she did not have on wayne minor. i just wanted to -- he was from the 92nd division. i wanted to find out, get a little information from your two guests here about the
contribution of the 96th. we know the 93rd in harlem, we know there are compliments, but also the 92nd. they are not given much attention. interesting, we will give the guests a chance to respond, but i want to know how you began to research this from your caller: in kansas city there was a historian they're asking me about this for three years. not being a historian, we did a lot of research together. there is a post that was named .fter him, the wayne minor post they actually came into existence in 1919. i'm a playwright, so we are doing a play in november of 1919, sorry, 2019.
so, my research has been going on for about four or five years now. first of all, keep us posted, send us an email at firstname.lastname@example.org, i'm wondering if this is another hamilton project. [laughter] aller: i'm writing it as dramatic piece, now, but i have also written songs as i've gone along. i am beginning to develop this idea that maybe this would be a great musical. host: hey, thank you very much for the call, we appreciate it. guest: there's a very important story about african-americans in the war. the beginning of the modern black freedom movement against here, in many ways, both those who support the war, like w.e.b. dubois, and those who appoint --
oppose it, like ida b wells. there are two wonderful books about black soldiers in the war. struggles,"freedom and the other 1 -- i don't have the title of it here, they point out that this was supposed to be a war for democracy, of course. the army was rigidly segregated, as the caller knows, during the war. many black soldiers wanted to serve in combat to prove themselves, but the majority were not allowed. they were laborers, seen as inferior by their white officers. when they got back to the united states, many of the black veterans got involved in various black freedom organizations. the naacp, the united nero improvement association as well. black or white, what was
life like for the u.s. soldiers there in france and europe? guest: well, compared to the french and british soldiers who had been slogging along, it was pretty good. they moved up through the lines fairly quickly. there was not really the stalemate of trench warfare. it was frightening. and we have some very good first person narratives written by american soldiers who were there about how horrible it was in terms of just being totally terrified. , theombardments difficulties that they really -- you are never really trained for that. not in the first world war. it's different now. your caller, the one about wayne -- it depends, i couldn't figure out which one of the two
cemeteries who was talking about. there is one that is close to iel.snes -- samm and the other one is on the muse. where the 92nd was actually fighting largely depends on which cemetery buried them. that would be a clue. host: just a short drive from downtown paris is suresnes, france, and we're monitoring pictures of president trump, who hasn't yet arrived for the ceremony. the eiffel tower there will be in the background of the presidents speech. a lot of movement, nobody yet on the stage. the president paying tribute to those who paid the ultimate price. we will continue with calls, but once the ceremony gets underway we will proceed to let you watch
that in its entirety. freddie, annapolis, maryland, good morning. caller: hello, how are you? host: we are fine. is, in thequestion years leading up to the united states engagement in world war i , was there any preparation done by the war department in anticipation of our entering the war? or did it literally not start until the declaration of war? host: you are shaking your head. guest: the war department, i mean, no, there was no planning for anything. regular army was something like 150,000 men, maybe. smallest army. and it's of course important to realize that the navy was its own department. so, their plans were totally different. but yeah, there was no planning. once the mobilization hit, they didn't know what they were doing
. it was a total disaster at every level. general the adjutant was never able to pin down what had happened to some of the soldiers that were missing. every year they issued a report that said -- well, we are still working on that and after about 10 years it disappeared off the radar. now, there weren't many people, ok? the army was very good about identifying the unknowns. but the whole mechanism of the war department was totally inadequate and it wasn't helped by the refusal of the war department to actually admit what the casualties were like. seemed to go to great lengths -- for example, they didn't want to include the psychologically or shellshocked people. you got the feeling reading the reports that by the time they nobody, there would not have been any casualties at all.
the rule was simple. if you are in uniform and something happens to you, you are counted. that was just an example of how totally over their heads and overwhelmed and incapable the war department was. on themericans homefront, did they really have a sense of what was happening? you mentioned newspaper accounts, pictures, were there newsreels are silent film that would indicate what was happening to americans what was happening? guest: not really. they were pretty limited. i think that americans probably learned more about the war from silent and propaganda films. belgium and so forth, that was more powerful than propaganda. german propaganda was deficient. after the lusitania was torpedoed in 1915, most americans didn't want to hear about the german side anyways. but now, world war ii is
different, of course. if you went to the movies there were sound newsreels and there was the office of war information in world war ii doing a big job of that. once into the war, there was the american propaganda arm that did newsreels about why we were fighting the war. they had speakers all over the country who made speeches about why the war was a good idea. the u.s. declares war and then there is a huge effort to sell the war to the american people. richard hall traveled to the role ofribing the hello girls. let's watch. [video clip] >> thee hello girls -- hello girls were brought to
france in early 1918 after frustration over the fact that the the french telephone operators didn't speak much english. it became a logistical nightmare trying to give orders and commands to his various field offices around the front. u.s. armyected the corps into the united states to put out a call for female telephone operators who could speak french but also could handle the pressures of being in the front during the battle. hundreds of women applied. very few made the cut. many of them were descendents of french canadians they knew the french language. they came over, they were set up, and right before the battles they were brought here. you can see by this photograph that they are sitting at the switchboard and because they are
so close to the front, they had the doughboy helmet and the gas masks behind their chair. none of the telephone operators were actually in harm's way, though the telephone hot did at one point catch on fire. there were no casualties, but the work that they did during the battle was extremely significant. especially in the very hectic days at the end of september and october, when trying to move supplies and orchestrate armies all around this huge front. host: it's all on our website, part of c-span3's american history tv. comments from either of you? it's an example of how important women were to the war effort, even the they were not in combat, of course. world war i happens at a time, after about 20 years, where women are more and more important to the labor force as well. so the idea that women are part
of the communications system of the army makes a lot of sense. they were the switchboard operators back home as well. no, that's important. also, it's a good example of how the american expedition forces were improvising on the spot to keep up with the technology and actually do the work. one of the impressive things about the american war effort at that end is the ability of the people on the job to improvise and meet those challenges. even though there was no established -- i mean that may have been an advantage, there was no established army service, yeah,was no nothing, but that's just another example. telephones were extremely important. this was the first telephone war. no smartphones.
guest: very stupid phones. [laughter] host: megan, good morning. caller: good morning, i wanted to ask a question, but i also wanted to give a lot of props and everything to kansas city national world war i museum. it's a glorious museum and i have learned so much about it from there. guest: why -- host: by kansas city? -- why kansas city? caller: from what i have learned there are -- there were memorials going up and they happened to raise the $2.1 million. guest: that is the official -- of -- originally was called the liberty memorial. officialthe original one. , the missouri
legislature appropriated to make the ship running and a hollow the bluff from the backside and that is where the museum -- thet: it probably helped harry truman had fought in the war and was from kansas city. it doesn't need more advertising, but it's one of the best history museums in the united states, i think. the war doesn't get much respect, i think, and it's a very fine museum. the: the planning -- guest: planning there was from some the -- some of the same folks who did the holocaust museum. the president, about 10 minutes ago, with this tweet on this veterans day as he prepares to deliver remarks in paris or outside of paris on this the 100thay,
anniversary of world war i, honoring brave heroes who fought andamerica in the great war every american who has worn the uniform and kept our nation safe, strong, and free. that, from the president. levittown, new york, good morning, as we watch the scene in france outside paris. caller: i would like to ask these two gentleman a question. there was a u.s. army world war i general -- general by the name of [indiscernible] who at the end of the war he gave a speech saying that there should be no flags flown in the united states but the american flag due to the fact that all the does is cause a division. i want to know these gentlemen's opinion on that. host: thank you. we should put out there that secretary of state mike pompeo, with the entrance. -- with the president there in france. guest: well, there is no flagpole -- no flag flown from a public build ring -- public
building other than the american flag, so i'm not sure what the caller means. there was part of a movement of veterans that helped to form the american legion that came out of world war i as well. he was running for republican nomination of president in 1920. he didn't get it, but along with senator roosevelt he had been whoof the main people argued that the united states get into the war before the u.s. does declare war. there's a discontinuity there. the next caller is jay, joining us from indiana. good morning. good morning, thank you so much for this wonderful program and the guest. i wanted to bring a couple of different perspectives. there is a great deal of art involving world war i. and world war ii as well. my second point is that i would
like to remember that not all the casualties, particularly in world war i, were human. were lots and lots of animals who died terrible deaths, both wild animals and domestic animals, imported to the battlefield to pull armor and canon. were plenty of entrepreneurs who bred them for this purpose. host: thank you. we see a lot of the animals, including horses, in those silent films from the time. guest: and the spielberg movie, "war horse." guest: i don't know about horse and mule casualties. i believe that those were much worse in the second world war, actually. then they were in the first. although i agree with her, it
really bothers me to see animals suffer, particularly horses. host: something that you said earlier in our conversation, it was woodrow wilson's idea, peace without victory. what was that? speech togave a congress, january 22, 19 17, where he called for peace without victory in europe. he laid out some of the terms that he thought would be embodied in the phrase. ironically, of course, 10 days later, less than 10 days later, the germans began the u-boat warfare. it's an amazing phrase, if you think about it, peace without victory. , hen, this was his naivete thought that if the united states was an honest broker in the war, helped to mediate the war, he could get them to agree to a piece.
but there would be nobody who would be better about losing the war. everyone would be a winner in the sense. this was naive because the europeans had been fighting all of these years, millions have that suddenly telling them without one side having gained the advantage militarily at that point, let's just find a way to get peace. this was something that all the european leaders on all sides, the germans, the ottomans, the british, the french, the russians, they all said no thank you. host: as we commemorate the 50th anniversary of 1958 -- 1968, nixon talking about peace with honor. guest: i don't he was saying that the united states would pull out and lose the war, though. host: let's get back your calls. hampshire, rick, good morning. caller: good morning. am i on the air?
host: you are on the air. to telli just wanted you a little bit about my mother's uncle, ed downing. he served and he was wounded. it's just a very interesting that, for whatever reason, he stayed in france and this frenchwoman nursed him back to health. and then, ultimately, he married her and brought her back to new hampshire. i'm getting ready right now, we are going to do a memorial service in laconia. at 11:00. 11.11, all of the church bells are going to ring for 11 minutes. that's what i have to say. thank you. host: thank you for the call.
a lot of stories this morning, it's fascinating. guest: i'm surprised. guest: it is fascinating. peace without victory. the naivete was not just about that. howon really didn't realize deep the hold that lloyd george found himself in was. which is that he had basically agreed to that. clemens so's whole idea was he wanted the right bank at the rhinebeck. he was back there -- this was france in 1812, 1813. the old joke was that they had learned nothing and forgotten nothing. lloyd george gave the superficial appearance of being the reasonable one, his famous remark that he what could he do, he had the devil on one side in jesus christ on the other. that's typical of lloyd george. a disingenuous remark.
that all of well the bribes that british had given to people, they couldn't possibly agree to peace without victory. they were going to have to start carving up real estate. the one thing that people always forget about this in the course of the war, versailles was directly responsible for the rise of mussolini. when the italian born prime minister came back, he had not been able to get the italian government the territory that they claimed was there reason for entering the war. italy's the collapse of parliamentary democracy. basically 650,000 italian soldiers died up there trying to break through the austrian line. here's a quote about
these without victory. "it would be stumbling and be crushed, on the hunches of a fetid, ignominious, obscene. he was against it. [laughter] guest: right, that was a nonstarter. c-span3, american history tv, this is what the house of .epresentatives looked like you can weigh-in that you are a member of congress. vote regarding a declaration of war on germany. 76% of those voting same day, 21% same day. yea, 21% say nay. colorado, you are next. good morning. caller: yes, good morning. i published a book on world war
i, the life and times of a world war i soldier, did about 13 years of research. with the wordup neutral. it keeps coming up that we were always neutral. but if you look up that definition in the dictionary, we were never neutral, we only sold to the allies and not the germans. that's true. william jennings bryan, secretary of state under wilson from 1913 until he resigned, protesting against what he thought was u.s. slipping into war against germany. he wanted to keep the united states completely neutral and not do business with either side. but in fact it's pretty legal, in international law, to do that business. doing it with the british in the french especially helped the u.s. economy to recover.
it was in recession in early 1913, 1914. by 1915 it was not in recession anymore. he's quite right. one of the things that the antiwar movement was about, with a focus on what they were going to be truly neutral, they didn't want americans to travel on british ships, that if torpedoed can get americans wanting to get into the war. american businesses, quite understandably, wanted to do business with people who wanted their goods. so yes, the u.s. was never really neutral in word or deed, which is what president wilson said the u.s. should be when the war began. approaching the time when the president was scheduled to depart back to the u.s.. he was at the u.s. ambassadors resident in paris. we are still waiting for his , france.n suresnes
the presidential seal is there behind the podium, known as the blue use. secretary of state mike pompeo is also in attendance. we know that the present will pay tribute and honor those who served in world war i, those who paid the ultimate sacrifice, and all who wore the military uniform of the united states. just wanted to mention that we are keeping an eye on this event , we will have it for you here live. your phone calls. james, silver spring, maryland. good morning. caller: i am an african american, and my uncle was in the airborne force with mustard gas. how did things go in the argonne forest? guest: the problem with mustard gas, in a very -- in a very brutal way, the argument was that it was more humane than being blown up, blown to pieces, ok?
most of the people that were gassed lived. the percentage of blindness was -- i hate to be so ghoulish about it, but it was somewhat less. most of the people that were gassed had respiratory problems that stuck with them. the germans had, very early on, discovered how to weaponize gas with gas shells. and use them. they used them, coincidentally, with high explosive shells. by this point in the war, they didn't have any preparatory fire. they zeroed in and the first news that he allied soldiers had that they were under shell fire was when the shells started worsening right on their position. in the argonne, high because of shellees, high trajectory
fire was really devastating. so, the french were still working on that problem. so, the used a lot of mustard gas and a lot of those mustard gas shells, by the way, are still out there in the woods. the british fellow who walked the whole length of the western front and wrote a book about it, his photographer was out there in the bush, in the brush. he fell through a kind of crust into a nest, a storage stockpile of mustard gas and basically was permanently incapacitated. a caller earlier mentioned the art of the war. you figure the great new portraitist, sergeant, it's called gast. it's a large canvas that has been put in various exhibits
over the last couple of years and it shows british soldiers in a long line, each one supporting the other one. i don't know if you can get it up on the screen, but it's an amazing picture, i think. some of those documentary films, you see that same thing. the caller mentioned the role of one african american servicemen. let's watch this. [video clip] >> freddy was an african-american soldier from south carolina who served in the 93rd division, a unique division . serving strictly under the french during the war. there were 200,000 african-americans that served on the western front. most of them were in labor battalions or stevedores. not many were in combat. time wasat the
segregated and general pershing had a difficult time deciding whether or not he wanted to use them in combat. but the french were very eager for americans. he pond off the african american troops to the french. but towers was not actually in the battle, but he was close by. can you tell us a bit about where the action was that cost the corporal his life? it did not take place far away from the argonne forest. on the western side. his regiment captured several lines on september 28 of 1918, they took up the 88. by when they get to the hill the german lines, the germans, they put their hands in the air and said they were to surrender. the 371 get closer back toerman trench,
the rifles and machine guns and they start a fire. many officers and soldiers are killed or wounded in a few seconds. he was then in charge of the , most of the officers had died. he decided to rush to the machine guns german position and was able to kill the machine gunners. not only a stop on the first line for the germans, but the second line between the first and second line he was wounded, bleeding and finally dying there on the battlefield. >> right, but he didn't initially received the medal of honor. wasn't it 1991 when his family received it on his behalf? at the time he was the only african-american soldier to have been awarded the medal of honor
i. world war later on henry johnson, also in the 93rd division would be awarded the medal of honor by president obama, but for another engagement earlier in the american attacks. just another story in the battle that was the great war, the war to end all wars, which was not the case. guest: the war to start all wars. [laughter] host: we have the john singer artwork. sergeant gast. guest: the sergeant was living in europe at the time. he did all of these famous portraits of aristocrats, british aristocrats and wealthy people. course most artists, this was the biggest, bloodiest event of their times. so there was a great outpouring of art.
and this came out when? 1918, i think. is actually a lot of impressive -- the imperial war museum in london, i don't know if they still do, but on the top floor they had a terrific exhibition of art done by people in the military. militaryian museum of armies museum had some very fine world war i things at one point. i've never understood why there isn't more of that. guest: some people argue that surrealism comes out of the war as well. it's such a devastating event that artist began to say that you can't just depict real life the way it looks and a photograph. painting -- in a
photograph for a realistic painting. we have to dissect reality as shards of emotions and a wave of understanding that is not -- that comes from the unconscious, you know? the kind of brutal realities that people face cannot be detected international ways. some people argue that -- i'm not an art historian, but that's an argument that modern art gets age-old from world war i. host: the dignitaries are now seated in suresnes, france. just a short drive from paris. the rain has stopped, the president, though, has not arrived. as soon as he does come we will go to the ceremony live. georgia, good morning. good morning, thank you for your show. appreciate it. i want to say thanks to all the vets out there that served our country. the question that i had is, regarding the federal reserve
and woodrow wilson, as far as the war, i know at one time you guys showed a slide about how the war generated a lot of money. what role did the federal reserve play under wilson? and if i'm correct, it was established prior to world war i? you. thank michael, in your book you found what? guest: the federal reserve, it establish interest rates to a certain degree, at least advised by the federal government as opposed to banks around the country coming up with their own loan rates. helplso, i think it did
the financing of the war. also something called income tax, which begins, really, during the war. the income tax amendment is ratified in 1813 but it's not until the u.s. gets into the war that it becomes an important part of revenue generation in the united states. before that, the main way that the government got revenue was the terrorists on imported goods . during the war the income tax becomes an important part of federal revenue generation. so, that's another way that the war is a watershed in american history. for both of you, what one thing surprised you the most in researching your book guest:? guest:well, -- your book question mark -- your book? guest: whether things that surprised me the most were the
polyp and he can war, the exact causes were very difficult, defying human intelligence to come up with, and i got to the point where i realized that if you just sort of assumed the stupidest decision possible, you the actualloser to truth, which totally blew my mind with this thing. but technically, the real coming over the french cemeteries and there was -- they were all official he tagged, the battles. good-sizede fairly cemetery, all the dates on the crosses were wrong, according to the french government the battle was over and these guys got killed seven or eight months later. that was when i unraveled everything. --t: and michael suresnes michael kazin?
thet: my book was about americans opposed to going to war. i was very surprised by how broad the coalition was comically white racist democrats from the south, black militants from the north, socialists and anarchist, republicans -- and archivistspel -- and archists, republicans and democrats. during the war man who they thought would win the mayor of new york on an antiwar platform. it shows how much antiwar feeling there was not just before hand, but once the u.s. does go to war. that is i think something that americans don't know about. we know the anti-vietnam movement and how large that was, but not how large and popular sentiment against the war was in world war i. host: minnesota, good morning. caller: good morning, gentlemen.
excited to share this story with you. i will try to be brief, but i want to for -- fully informed. my father was 40 years old when i was born. he served in world war i. his mother lied for him when he was 15, going into the navy at 1914. he was on the u.s. victoria 60 07 four, aag quartermaster that got out in 1918 and i'm so proud to share that with you. i served in vietnam, but my dad served in world war i. can you believe that? it's a short century in some ways. guest: my stepfather was -- host: clyde, you still with us? caller: yeah, i'm here. why woulduestion is, your grandmother live for a 15-year-old to go to battle? caller: well, because at that time my dad's dad had left my
mom. he at 15 went into the navy and he sent his money home to help his mom take care of his sisters , one of which died from the spanish flu. times were rough back then and my dad had a lot of stories to tell. he was really proud. sea bag, i got his original issue stuff from inside the sea bag. the number on it and everything. rough back then. he was doing a man's work when he was 11 and 12 years old for like a nickel and hour before child labor laws. he went in to help his mom take care of the family and send his money home. i got all the letters he sent his mother and i even got my stepdad -- my dad's step dad's discharge from the civil war. host: did he ever talk to you about it, do you remember?
caller: well, he was a man of few words. he raised me to do as i was told and keep my mouth shut. he was mostly in the letters and there's no time to dig them out and try to read them, they are so faded. but just how much he cared about -- he loved his mother a lot. he didn't like his stepdad. , hishis dad left his mom stepdad, he kind of hated him, i guess, if you will. but he really cared a lot for his mom and his sisters and he did the right thing, he went overseas. the victoria emanuel, i think, was a training ship. i'm not sure. i looked it up online but couldn't find out much about it. he sent all of his money home. he just -- he was just a very loyal and true person. clyde, thank you. thank you for the call.
even my own father, who served in world war ii, never talked about it. you can't talk about it. one of the first lessons -- the veterans would say -- if you weren't there, you can't understand, there's no point in talking about it. i had a friend who served in vietnam and has written about it. he claims that people ask about it, but are afraid to ask about it. i think in vietnam that's the case. those are two different situations. i absolutely agree with you, but i think that first of all in my experience, most of the vietnam veterans that you actually see around are almost invisible. they don't, they don't volunteer. they don't -- you don't know they were there. he's right, they would probably talk about it if some of the asked. -- somebody asked.
but the experiences in world war i were so horrible, i got a quote here from one of the french officers who wrote a fragment of what he saw. it's just awful. just three or four sentences. ernest hemingway, he talks about a doughboy coming -- herom the war and he doesn't feel he fits in anywhere and he's alienated from his family and it's a devastating story. guest: yeah. vincent in windham, new york, good morning. caller: i wanted to know if your guests knew how many soldiers died as a result of tetanus infection. so many horses around and my understanding is that the droppings had tetanus?
well, the army's and general a classification in his report for tetanus. animal bornese, diseases. they didn't record them. the problem i think with tetanus , as a general category is that, as you know, you can easily get it from rusty metal and all sorts of things. all in sort of put those the same category. but they didn't break out ones -- the infections, unfortunately. from new york city, steve, good morning. do you agree that there should not really be a designation of a world war ii? that world war ii is really just a continuation of world war i?
question follow-up would be -- what would have happened if the germans didn't foughter and the war was to its logical conclusion? thank you for that. first, around the second point? tost: 1919, there was a plan direct inwards then. they realized, sort of following victims, that sometimes you just have to go out there and route them. that was one of the beginnings of the entire problem with the to thean inconclusive war, german units retreated completely intact back into germany. pershing was basically right. i'm not faulting -- whoever made that original decision, whether it was colonel house on the spot
or if he was following the , ison injunction or what think the realization that politically america would be seen as basically just carrying water for the french and the british. guest: world war ii being a continuation of world war i, i think that's right in many ways. i didn'tays world war end until 1989, because of the cold war. a 70 year war, in that sense. book,to go back to your the age of catastrophe with world war i, world war ii, vietnam and the cold war. pert: the whole thing is a iod of global war, civil wars, resolute -- revolutions. first of all, they didn't think it was going to be a long war.
second of all, they didn't want a long war, of course. and they had no idea what the consequences would be. a good reason to think before you go to war. guest: trying to figure out when it actually started is another way of looking at it. warainly, the first world did not end, as far as most of were on the right bank of the rhine, the war did not end that november, it just got worse. of november. it just got worse. the pool is in place. it is likely to be in route. ast do these type of events the world leaders gather in paris to commemorate the end of world war i, what do they represent? to the u.s. and to our allies in europe. >> coming out of world war