tv Cities Tour - Milwaukee Wisconsin CSPAN May 31, 2019 6:46pm-8:01pm EDT
democratic caucus it will still be building over time. ferris covers politics for "politico." thanks for the update. narrator: next, a book tv exclusive. our cities tour visits milwaukee. for eight years now we have traveled to u.s. cities, bringing the book seemed to our viewers. watch more of our visits at c-span.org/citiestour. [generator running] milwaukee,ity of harley davidson is more than just a motorcycle company. in a lot of ways harley davidson really captures the arrival of milwaukee as a manufacturing city, as one of those cities where great american machines are built. that is a big part of harley
davidson's place in the history of the city of milwaukee. ofre were four founders harley-davidson motorcycles, three brothers, arthur, william and walter davidson and their friend william hartley. they cooperated in the early 1900s to create the harley-davidson motorcycle. came from a moment in time in the early 1900s. personal transportation was undergoing a revolution with the end of the horse and carriage and the rise of the bicycle and small, internal-combustion motors. harley davidson was founded not necessarily as a motorcycle company, but really a motor company. when you look at the name of the company, it is harley-davidson motor company. there were really the business of providing transportation solutions. and one of the first was a motorized bicycle, essentially a prototype motorcycle. and i think they had such
success motor rising that first bicycle and morphing from a clip-on motor that would be attached to an existing bicycle, to a purpose-built motorcycle that dovetails nicely to the beginning of the motorcycle industry. oldest harley davidson in existence. it is one of a handful of bikes 03 andade between 19 1905. we enshrined it here is an example of the beginnings of our motorcycle production. it does look basically like a heavyweight bicycle with the frame modified to embrace that engine. people are often puzzled by the chain on the others, the belt edals, like, what is up with all of that? early in the 20th century, the way you started one of these things is you would pedal it and when you got some momentum, you
itld move that lever, would tighten that leather belt and then it would kickstart the engine. the electric start for harley didn't come until the 1960's. we had a traditional step butted early in the teens, for the first 10 years that is how you started these things. companyy-davidson motor was officially incorporated in 1907, going from a small, hobby business where they were building motorized conveyances really for their personal entertainment, and then actually seeing the business case for them and the opportunity and incorporating it into an actual manufacturing concern where they were entering serious production and delivering product across the country. the motor company grew quite quickly from there. they had international operations as early as 1912. and in those early days they quadrupled, quintupled
production almost every year through the 1920's, until they were actually quite a big concern. >> when you enter our lovely museum you see this parade of historical motorcycles coming at you. we have this incredible collection, so we use that on both floors of the museum is a timeline, starting with the singles. so this is a later singles, around 1911. the thing that is incredible about this collection is that these things were saved in their original condition. many of them were saved right off the line. this one looks like it has been written a little bit -- it has it hasdden a little, but its original leather belt, original paint, the tires are reproductions. in 1909 the company first started trying to build its v twin engine like this one here.
that is the year that bike was introduced. the engineering, they were in a transitional phase and we believe 27 of these were built, and they did not quite perform the way the founders expected, so they were brought back to milwaukee and they went to -- went back to the drawing board. we redesigned the engine and the v twin was successful. were also saying the march of technology and our manufacturing ability, as the bikes become more beautiful and privations -- more beautiful and curve a aceous. >> a combination of things made the early harley-davidson's truly revolutionary. they were well-built, reliable,
effective at the job but also very affordable. , a motorcycle cost not significantly more than a bicycle, and especially to the -- especially compared to the earliest automobiles, they were significantly less expensive. so it was a really affordable transportation alternative that provided the freedom of motorized transportation and a package that was easy to store, easy to maintain and easy to use. i think that combination really affected physical transportation and also being really affordable in the early days really helped propel harley davidson to the forefront of the motorcycle industry. by 1920 harley davidson was the largest motorcycle company in the world, producing 25,000 motorcycles a year. actuallyvidson was supplying motorcycles for both of the world wars. iny played a small role world war i, supplying a few motorcycles, but a huge role in
world war ii, taking advantage of that particular land of access and and portability that a motorcycle offers. it can really get into places that you couldn't get into, certainly not with a tank or even a jeep, and be able to slip behind enemy lines undetected. the motorcycle offered specific advantages for working on the front, so it did play a very prominent role in world war ii. >> this is the primary workhorse of world war ii, it has a sexy name, the wla. [laughter] we made these not only for the u.s. military but all of our allies, there were ones sent to canada, russia, there is literature here for the chinese versions, and these motorcycles were not really used, they weren't combat vehicles, they
were primarily for dispatch riders, communications, so they would be running back and forth at the front carrying messages and doing a variety of support operations. but you had to be ready for everything, so it has blackout lights, a machine gun, and in addition to making the bikes we riders ande mechanics, and after the war, the gis who were lucky enough to come back, a lot of them decided they wanted to keep riding. and the ones stuck in a trench watching those dispatch riders ride by, they said, now is my chance. as we go downstairs you will see what they did with them once they tore all that military gear off. >> what we think about harley davidson today we think about a motorcycle that is a form of self-expression for a person, very individualized,
personalized. it is also often customized exactly to their particular needs or desires or wants. one of the after-effects of the depression was that motorcycles were no longer used necessarily as utilitarian tools, they became recreational vehicles. much lesss were expensive compared to motorcycles and motorcycles were much less necessary as a transportation alternative, as mass transportation and automobiles became more easily accessible and affordable. so motorcycles really transformed from a tool to a recreational toy. so after the great depression you see for the first time optional colors on the harley-davidson motorcycles, or comfort accessories or performance accessories, where you could really customize the motorcycle to suit your unique personality, just because the market had changed and the way people used to their motorcycles
also changed during that time. year ofis the 116th continuous production for harley-davidson motorcycles. the motorcycles are still made here in america. one of the largest harley-davidson manufacturing facilities here in mill walkie is just a few miles from where we are sitting right now at the museum. it is very interesting, over 116 years, that harley davidson has stayed rooted in the milwaukee community and has thrived in the milwaukee community, and these motorcycles are enjoyed by enthusiasts all over the world but still designed, created and built here in milwaukee. well-built,hat well-made, revolutionary product delivered with the words milwaukee, wisconsin on the side of it really put the city of milwaukee on the map and increased the international profile of the state of wisconsin and specifically milwaukee, as a place where great things came from.
we are taking a harley-davidson motorcycle tour of milwaukee, where they stop in the walkers point neighborhood, where a music genre once popular with early european immigrants is finding a new audience. ♪ [polka music playing] intended to never safe. it was never intended to be so bland. polka was meant to get people moving. ♪ polka was intended to get people sweating, intended to enlighten the humor in a person. most simple form is about sex. polka was about getting a group
of people together and making it culturally acceptable for them to puth, to hold hands, a hand on a hip, to move together. you have to remember, a lot of these cultures having very certain origins and cultural mores and folkways, it wasn't necessarily ok for your typical boy and typical rural to get together and physically express themselves. dance hall,ve a big everybody's family is there, it is culturally appropriate for men and women to get together and physically interact with one another. and that is a big part of what polka did. ♪ it really helped the process along a building families and building communities. polka music can be defined in a lot of ways. if you wanted the textbook definition, then polka music is time that two-two
originated from the bahamian region of what is the modern-day check republic. -- check republic. republic. it is music of the working class. at moved across europe, poland, ukraine, hungary, slovenia, slovakia. polka found its way to america and in particular to milwaukee through immigrant families. you had a lot of different groups of people from a lot of different countries in europe, and all those immigrant groups and all their traditional forms of polka kind of created this hotbed of polka activity. at created a beautiful melting pot for all these different cultures to finally start asgling with each other their old divisions started to die away, generations and generations. >> probably my parents are who e
still going to polka dance halls with some regularity and it was even kind of dying out by the 60's and 70's, it had almost .one the way of the dodo there was some resurgence and i like to think we have done a little part of that here in milwaukee. we think in some small part of the polka fusion dance as i will call them are leading the way. we just want to polka. >> introducing it to new generations by including influences they will be more familiar with. ♪ that fusion of multiple genres joining together is where my band, the november criminals, came to be, the world's first hip-hop band.
there is no one that would be stupid enough to combine those two things before us. be a safee lucky to place -- milwaukee to be a safe place for people to conceive of what polka will be. we wanted to be accessible to new generations, not just the stuff your great-grandparents used to listen to. it is a living, vibrant musical form anybody can play around with. it still has something to tell us because it is working-class music. all of the modern struggles we see today can look back and see exactly the same kind of issues the working-class has always been dealing with all the way back to the very inventive thing as the working class. they needed some form of music to take the edge off and some form of music to get everyone in the same place to organize even if it was just to have a dance
and a good time and form bonds. olga is so much about -- polka is so much about that history, all of us as a group and what we can achieve when we unify and when we are not separated. that is what polka is and it is the history that it needs to teach us in the modern day. ♪ >> the word iconic is sometimes overused but miller is an iconic company in milwaukee's history and present. it began in 1855 and has been here ever since and is the last of the major brewers still here. it was founded by frederick miller from germany who came in 1855. he was found in -- he was born in southern germany which is still the center of beer culture . he came here with $9,000 in gold
on his person and looked around in milwaukee and this was an obvious choice. one of the reasons was farmland around here, so it becomes malt, hops, a key ingredient. true winter before refrigeration was done mechanically, something to keep high school during the selling season. most importantly, it was the most german city in america. you have the german triangle of milwaukee, cincinnati and st. louis. all three became brewers largely because of populations -- german populations. so you had a lot of taste for beer here and towns were making it. he set up shop in what was called the plank grilled brewery , one that went from the lucky to a small town up in the country 60 miles from here. it started a few years before
but it was a family that started pabst brewery. they didn't make it. one died, one moved away so you have this vacant misused brewery he bought essentially as a sale. year,e 1200 barrels a which is not even a morning's work today, but that was the beginning. that was the season. >> the oldest surviving structure here in the lucky campus. in 1845. the cave system was built in 1849 by workers at the plank road brewery, all hand dug, making it the oldest surviving structure in milwaukee. for perspective the chamber here is 15 feet wide, 18 feet high and at one point stretched an additional 600 feet beyond the mural behind us.
10 that could had store up to 10,000 barrels of beer. imagine if you will a series of wooden storage racks similar to a wine cellar stacked high with wooden barrels. the primary purpose is to keep beer cold which we did through a sophisticated system called ice. we would harvest blocks from area lakes and streams, have it harvested at $.72 a ton, and we would packet along the walls and .unnels and cover it with straw the insulated nature underground was enough to keep the ice intact and the median temperature between 36 and 40 degrees all year round. until the following winter when we could harvest more ice to do it again the following year. that is how we kept beer cold for the better part of 50 years until mechanical refrigeration. this is the last surviving chamber of that cave system. the rest of collapsed in or
deteriorated beyond the point where they could be repaired. others we have filled in to accommodate the construction of new buildings as we expanded breweries. other brewers who were active here, there were two dozen in milwaukee before the civil war. around the same time frederick miller arrives, he made a name for himself by the quality of his beer. he became a player but never became more than the fourth largest in milwaukee. here isr fifth place good for first in virtually every american city. brewing played a huge role in milwaukee's economy for the first generation or two of cityhood, and it became a city in 1846. what went on over the years was from 1840's to 1850's and 1860's they began to outgrow the local market. there were not enough germans to
drink all the beer. they became a shipping brewers and that was adding market area year-by-year. really big help was the chicago fire of 1871. that wiped out half of chicago's breweries and milwaukee was only too happy to fill the vacuum to satisfy chicago's thirst. after that, there was a full train of milwaukee beer going down to chicago every day of the week. they didn't get off the map, the chicago breweries because milwaukee filled the vacuum, so that was important. huge population was just 90 miles away. the most important product. for a long time milwaukee was a leather tanning center, eighth lower milling center and -- a lour milling center and a meatpacking center but what shifted milk -- milwaukee's
perspective of manufacturing from the 1870's until the recent past, 1980's, durable goods were the most important product and that is metal bending kind of products, everything from machine tools to powers during the war efforts to turbines and marine depots. those became our stock and trade. the fact you didn't go down to a corner store to buy a mining shovel, that they were advertising those in the market, brewing they were. you have a massive amount of advertising and even though 1890 was the only year, the most important product because all of it became cemented in the national consciousness with beer, milwaukee equals beer and that is still part of our image today. >> welcome to our brewhouse. this is one floor above us where we will combine water, flour, cereal grain in the mash ton and we will cook it for two or three
hours into a substance called mash which you can think of brown, runny liquidy opium. , anill go into this industrial sized coffee filter. we will strain out the barley husks from the mash, the sugary liquid we are after for brewing called wort. it will go down into the six brew kettles here. we will take those and barley husks and dry them out because they are high in protein and sell those to local farmers for cattle and chicken feed. every single drop of beer we produce here in our brewery gets through one of the six tunnels. they are stainless steel inside and out and 18 feet deep, bigger than what you can see here. at this stage we will add hops to the beer. they are the spice, give it is bitter flavor and act as a
natural reserve it. after we have boiled them for an hour to an hour and a half we will strain out any remaining solid ingredients and pump them over to the fermentation facility via an underground system that runs under the street below. used.tation is adding we still use the same genetic founderf yeast that our brought in his pocket from germany. fermentation puts a living organism, yeast, it will interact with and i just the sugars and starches in the wort and produce carbon dioxide and alcohol which provides us alcohol. the fermentation process takes eight to 10 days. when we are done we will strain out the yeast and dry it out and sell it to pet food companies. anyou see growers yeast as ingredient, it may have come
from a facility like ours. we cap -- we technically have beer but it is not ready to be packaged and consumed. we have to send it over to the aging facility. over there we will keep it in large tanks away from the light where will blend together in a process called mellowing for 10 days or two weeks. we will filter one final time and remove any impurities or fogginess until it is ready to be packaged in the bottles and cans. the whole process depending on the brand takes anywhere from three weeks to a month. our flagship beers, 21 days start to finish, miller high life 21 days. >> prohibition was a long painful time out that took away from what had been a critical source for the local government. license of taxes, the fees would have been enough in dollars to pay for every library
in the city. it was a big hit economically. it was a hit culturally. people had been accustomed to relaxing with a broom after work saloons,fter work and people described them as communal living rooms, so there was the poor man's club, so there was a loss of social element. all of the breweries had to do something else. pabst made everything from processed cheese to machine parts and swiss chocolate bars. they made some form of soda water and they all made multiproduct -- malt product and syrup. it wasn't illegal to make it, but sell it. the public library could not keep the brewing manuals on the shelves because all these home brewers were hard at work. , even though they tried to keep the doors open, it
was never more than a fraction of the capacity before prohibition. in miller's case, it surprised me, it had been such a founding operation before prohibition and they decided, the brothers, to say what would we take? what is our goal? $5 million for the operation. in 1925 after prohibition had been on the books for six years the same assets were listed for $300,000, the same exact assets and there were no takers. ,t took the economic value hollowed out the value and didn't come back until 1933. when beer came back in 1933, miller was among the majors still in milwaukee. they were able to survive. it was like a champagne cork being released, pent-up demand
really created this almost frenzy, people wanting milwaukee chicago, people flying in a plane to pick up cases, someone from billings, 600 cases,bring back so it was kind of a finely noted the drought is over and people can satisfy a again. to our shipping distribution center. the milwaukee brewery sits on 8400 acres. this is the largest of those buildings with a total area of 200,000 square feet, the equivalent of five nfl football field lined up side-by-side. feet highs stacked 25 meeting we can store 750,000 cases of beer at any one time. it is a lot but we have the capacity to package up to 600,000 here at the brewery each and every day it doesn't give us space to keep
everything sitting around. everything here is going to get shipped out and turned over and replace in the next 24 to 48 hours. --h truck can carry 300 325,000. it sounds like a lot. if you were to drink a six pack a day each and every day it would take you 22.5 years to drink all of it on one semi truck load. we can send out 250 of those each day. >> long story short there has been a lot of consolidation and a lot of merger acquisition activity in the beer market nationally and internationally. in pabst's case, they were brought -- bought by a california investor and close. schlitz closed after some problems. blast was gone before then, so it left miller as the old
19th-century brewer last one standing. the big change was the purchase of miller by philip morris in 1969. philip morris were master marketers. what they did was back in 1972 bought a brand called light beer from light to brown chicago which was a diet beer for women. they changed the marketing to taste great, less filling which you could not be near a tv for years and not hear it. those slogans, professional athletes would somehow in list it. 1969 and 1977 miller moved from number seven in the country to number two so it was a remarkable case study how you market your way to success. it established not just the last major standing in milwaukee but with anheuser-busch, one of the largest in the country. the legacy of miller brewing is
indelible and we are looking at everything from the high life theater where you see shoes -- shows downtown to miller park where the brewers play, so certainly a huge role to play in milwaukee's legacy. ofis a tangible expression an ethnic and economic legacy that was really important and remains important in the present. we are to wait milwaukee -- going through milwaukee on the back of a harley. once known as the neighborhood of german -- weants is home to stopped by their deli and smokehouse for a taste of recipes passed down through four generations. same way myhem the great-grandfather made them. what it means is we use fresh garlic, not garlic powder, fresh onions, natural smoking processes where it is smoked in
two story brick smoke houses so it is over an open fire, done the old-fashioned way the way it was done by my great-grandfather. my great-grandfather founded this. he immigrated to the united states in the 1870's. he was a sausage maker in germany and came to milwaukee because of its large german population. he settled in town, plied his craft and in 1880 open to this business in the approximate location of where we are now. in its birth it was just a shop, sausage shop where was made in the back by my great-grandfather and my great grandmother ran the store. together they built the business, and from their own retail stores to other grocery stores, corner grocery stores in the neighborhood, it evolved into supermarkets and we shipped products around the country and that is sort of how the business grew.
andou grew up in milwaukee your parents were sausage fans, they shopped here. we have multigenerational customers. that is what it is all about. that is why we are iconic in milwaukee because generation after generation buys their products here. [no audio] ♪ southern cheese fruit ♪ >> this is a photograph of the lynching that occurred on august
7, 1930 in marion, indiana. james cameron who was 16 at the time was supposed to be the third person but survived. he and his friends, they were 18 and 19, they were killed that between 10 and 15,000 angry whites. this identifies as a southern lynching but it was in north-central indiana when it took place. he ended up writing a book he called a time of terror survival stories. memories of surviving the lynching, he started to write those when he was in jail awaiting trial and when he was convicted and sent to prison he finished writing a book. james cameron was actually born , february 20 5, 1914 and his family moved around. his dad was a barber and they made their way to indiana. he grew up as a child in
indiana. as an adult he moved to milwaukee in 1962 and made it his home for the rest of his life. when he was growing up in indiana, indiana was a state that didn't have a significant number of african-american people and they didn't because in the 1850's they actually banned black people from living in indiana in the constitution. they didn't have a great many blacks in the state and the town he lived in was kind of a mixed town, a small industrial town, local factory, a lot of farmers, farmland around marion, indiana. it was a state that had very kind of mixed reviews of blacks because of racial dynamics in the state. in the 1920's and 1930's indiana had more ku klux klan members than any other state in the nation. it really made indiana a state
that wasn't the most attractive for black people to live in. the events leading up to august 7, 1930 when the lynching took place, the day before, james jimmy, he was by outside hanging out. two of his friends pulled up in , car. his friends a and tommy they wanted to go for a ride. he said sure. here is a 16-year-old kid steps in his car with 18 and 19-year-old friends. as they are driving they go by the river outside of town, and they tell him on the way there we are going to rob somebody to get money for another car. he was like wait a minute, i didn't come along for this. but he stayed in the car. when they got to the river there was a car parked there. they said we want you to go and rob the people in the car. we will give you this gun, go over and opened the door and say stick them up to the people in
the car. he was nervous, he didn't want to do it, but he made a bad decision and let pure pressure get the best of him. as soon as he opened the door he recognized the man in the car as a 23-year-old white guy who was one of his best friends in town, standst at the shoeshine and he realized i don't want to be a part of this and gave the gun back to a and talk -- abe and tommy and we heard -- he heard gunshots and ran all the way home. the three boyso were after the shooting took place. the farmer across the road heard the shots, came to the aid and took him to a doctor in town to be treated. before he passed away that night he identified the three. abe and tommy as well. they arrested them almost immediately.
once word spread around town and some of the neighboring communities that this man had passed away, someone put his bloody shirt outside a window to inflame the crowd even more. they sexually assaulted a woman theyas in the car -- spread a rumor that the woman was sexually assaulted even though she was never touched. then rousing thousands of white, they went into the jail and were intent on lynching them. eventually they went in and took abe and tommy out and murdered both of them, hung them on the tree next to the courthouse a block away from the jail and went in last to get cameron and had the rope around his neck, dragged him through the crowd, people punching him, kicking him, spinning, calling him names -- spitting, calling him names and he recognized these people, some he thought were friends. as he approached the tree he tommy up and saw abe and
dead and thought he would die next word he said a prayer to god, ask him to forgive him and then he says he heard the soft voice that came over the crowd that was really very loud and boisterous and chanting we want cameron, became very quiet and he said he heard a voice that said leave this young man alone, he had nothing to do with these crimes and miraculously they let him go. they allowed him to get back to the jail, he had been beaten badly, and it up losing a kidney . the sheriff snuck him out later that night to take them to a neighboring community for safekeeping and then he said he waited a year before his trial, he was tried not for the murder but as an accessory before the act of manslaughter. he was convicted and sentenced
four to 21 years and sorted -- served before he received a pardon. the photograph that depicts them hanging from the tree, that was taken by a local photographer who staged the photograph. he had branches cut off of the tree to get a better view. he put lights in front and behind the bodies and asked people to pose. he took that photograph and sold thousands of copies. seven years after it was taken, a young jewish guy actually saw the photographs, and he thought it was a lynching in the south and so he wrote a poem called bitter fruit and turned to the bitter fruit poem into a song called strange fruit which billie holiday performed and made famous. swinging inodies the southern breeze
hangingfruit hanging from the poplar trees ♪ >> the reason he wanted published is because he realized lynching was such an important part of american history and part that is never taught in school, so he wanted people to be able to get an eyewitness account of the survivor of a lynching to see what the dynamics of lynching were. eventually opened the museum to tell those stories to really dehumanize -- really to humanize them. he wanted them to humanize the victims of lynching so we could begin to kind of develop a greater understanding that time, andwidespread it was another part of american history.
most americans were led to believe it was a southern institution but it hurt -- it occurred all over the country. this one in north-central indiana, and there are several other famous photographs. there is one from omaha, nebraska. there is a famous one from duluth, minnesota and really people in milwaukee are aware there was one in milwaukee as man named61, a young george bush marshall clark. when you look at the history of lynching, there were 5000 documented cases and many of the others, many others that were never documented and the documentation came from a variety of sources so the naacp kept the database, tuskegee institute and chicago defendant newspaper also soak most of the lynchings we know of come from with newspapers, a smaller account in the newspaper
and there were a variety of lynchings that occurred. some were small party of people who took somebody in the backwoods and murdered them and then you had others known as spectacle lynchings like the one cameron survived where literally thousands of people from the community who were white were going to be there as part of this test of environment, people from neighboring communities coming into the town, people think it was just an angry event but it was very festive for the people who were there participating. all of the blacks in marion had to leave town because they were frightened they would be victimized and moved out a couple days later. in 1979 he took a really important trip that led to the foundation of the museum. he went on a trip to the holy land with his church in 1979. they visited the jewish holocaust memorial. he and his wife of 68 years as
they were standing in this garden, he said, virginia, we need a museum like this in america to tell what happened to black people and those freedom loving white people that helped us along the way so it was the genesis of his beginnings to think about starting a museum and eight us a name years later, 8.5, he opened a june 18, 1988. but it never had a great deal of financial support to make it an endowment. the recession after the 9/11 attacks, the great recession in 2007, dr. cameron passing away, all of those things negatively impacted the museum's ability to stay open and we were forced to close in september 2000 eight because they literally ran out of money. museum is in a good place now because we were able to
continue going on his work after the museum closed a couple years ago. there started to be talk of that would have some space for it, the black holocaust museum. here we are in that space, installing exhibits, hoping to open the museum before the end of this year. we are excited about the opportunity to continue his work in a way we were never able to do it before, a physical museum and still have our online presence as well. went on a milwaukee manufactured harley davidson motorcycle to visit different areas of the city. in walker's point we started at formation incorporated, maker of the iconic cheese hats. >> when do you have to keep an eye on your cheese? when is up to no gouda.
>> this is not for the cheese head hats. in 1987 or current owner was actually supposed to be helping ,is mom upholstered her couch he took a look at the couch cushion and realized it looks like a wedge of cheese. he was on his way to a brewers game and he wanted to take the --mingly derogatory head term cheese head and use it for something fun. his friends were embarrassed and scattered but a lot of people were coming up and asking to try on the hat. he never had intended on selling it or anything but he realized how popular it was and decided to make a few more and take a swing at selling them. around the mid-1990's packers fans started taking and running with it. it was around when we were on .ur way to the super bowl they made a caravan selling
cheeseheads down to the super bowl and packers fans went running with it. formation today we are 32 years old. we are a foam manufacturer but we have gotten into the entertainment business because we started factory tours a few years ago and welcome locals and tourists to take a look at the cheeseheads during and on one of the tours they can make their own items themselves. >> i am your wonderful commander in chief area i will take you through the process of making a and this moldads comes out of our house so we will need to heat this up. relief then use a agents. ,e spray this, work it in holes and around the there is 24 of those in a cheese hat. at this time i will place this
on the scale and start pouring in the pauli. -- poly. i will take it to our shake machine. as it is reacting and expanding, pour this in and it is certain .o rise and keeps expanding put this cover on and we will clamp this down. about four or five minutes it will fully form out into the mold. that is looking good. just going to gently pull away from the edges, release this fairly easily and out. you have your cheese head. there is air inside this so we like to hug our cheese head, and and itrces the air out
is ready to be placed on any other cheeseheads in the world. while the cheese head is mostly recognized as a packers fan base item we do really have our ties with wisconsin as a state. the love of jesus there, -- cheeses they are making fun of ourselves and we are, we never wanted to take our product and make them abroad. they are all made in milwaukee. >> we are on the banks of lake michigan where c-span is learning about the literary scene. we speak with marquette university professor philip rocco on his book obamacare wars. >> when people hear the word obamacare, what comes to mind is in a sense what is in the title, the name of president barack obama. because thertant term obamacare was not what the
president or his party called the law initially. the term obamacare was developed strategically by republican pollsters and frank luntz who realize when people heard the word the affordable care act in a sense it was a positive sounding law. however especially if republicans are people who identify as such heard the word obamacare it would immediately associate with the president, his party and develop a sort of opposition to the law. -- or of the term obamacare we used in the title in a sense, it is part of what we are trying to signify with that title is the war was in a sense as much about the sort of symbolic politics of , theaw as the substantive
substance as well. the affordable care act was signed in 2010 and the purpose accesslaw was to expand to health coverage and to improve the quality of insurance coverage that was offered especially in the individual market place. the affordable care act tried to do this while leaving much of the structure of the american health care system in place. for example the affordable care act it replace our health care system with a nationalized .ystem like the united kingdom it didn't create a single-payer system like canada has. instead of basically attempted to fill some of the gaps that have been left in the system of health insurance the federal government helped subsidize over the years. assumewho love the aca
government would create health insurance marketplaces where people could buy insurance coverage. one of the ideas was this was a policy that had already gone into effect in massachusetts. it had been pushed for by a democratic state legislature but signed by republican governor and then presidential candidate in 2012, mitt romney. consensus space approach to expanding coverage and states would quickly sort of get on board. in reality no state had any experience with insurance marketplaces before and state legislatures were sometimes on a part-time basis. so actually developing the legislative coalition to create these sorts of things proved to be hard. in the end really only a small and origin of states ever these health insurance
marketplaces and a lot of the responsibility fell to the federal government which was not necessarily expecting to happen. the states involved with the aca, many of the regulatory grotections, things like bannin insurance companies from excluding people with pre-existing conditions from coverage, requiring insurance plans to work -- to cover dependent children up to the age of 26, and a variety of other consumer protections, all of those were implemented directly by the states, the federal government required the states to do so. once sort of important piece of this is many of these decisions on like the insurance exchanges didn't have to go back through a state legislature in order to pass. state insurance commissioners who already sort of had a general authority to do these
sorts of consumer protection things were able to bring states in to line with federal law without seeking another grant of authority from the state legislature. this is sort of one reason we document in the book by furthering on something that already existed in the building on laws that were sort of existing in the states rather than trying to demand the states do something new, this is about aci scoring its earliest political successes and ultimately those parts of the law protecting people with pre-existing conditions, allowing people to be on their parents' insurance up to the age of 26, those are the most popular parts of the law. the fact they were able to go into effect quickly is important as wyatt has it survived as long -- or why it has survived as long as it has. there was a vacuum where people were experiencing the law's
benefits. it is not a surprise when you look at public opinion polling on the aca, sort of sharply divided along partisan lines especially for the first few years of the law. what changed public attitudes about the law and what increased support for the aca was not merely the fact it was implemented but the threat of the law being revealed. once it became clear that millions of people would lose health insurance if the aca revealed -- were repealed and replaced by various alternatives, this urgency public at it -- they started to see public attitudes shift in it favorable -- a favorable direction. it is one of those things, how we feel about something depends on whether or not it is threatened to be taken away.
in one really important sense the aca did have a marketing problem. thate way it was the fact you had this incredibly partisan environment which the law was enacted which made it hard to market the law in the country thethe other thing is federal government didn't advertise the key benefits in a way that made i think sense to most americans. the comparison i like to use is the federal government and warner bros. produced a short -- the movie explains in very, very helpful, illustrative detail how social security works, who benefits from it, how
you pay in and when you get to benefit. there is really nothing like that with the aca. you can imagine if the government tried to roll that out, there would have been accusations of propaganda and the like. but i think in the very fragmented media environment that currently exists, the fact it is hard to get people to agree to what in fact is in the aca because it is complicated, i think that sort of context really makes it difficult for people to understand the way in which they benefit. the other sort of issues many people receive benefits arthrotec credits which are not necessarily salient. it is hard for them to sort of recognize that they exist. and so i think that that is sort
of more than a marketing problem. it is a problem of how do you take this complex law and actually illustrate in a way that voters are able to perceive to hown retain related the law affects them. the way that you design a law especially under conditions of extreme partisan polarization is extremely significant. he might be in for a rude awakening. for a rudet be in awakening. you can't use recipes of laws that worked 20 or 30 years ago. >> we are standing in the central library in downtown milwaukee, one of the most beautiful, historic buildings in our city and one of the oldest.
not only are we the largest public library in the state of wisconsin, but we have a unique collection you will find either nowhere else or in very few other public libraries. one example of that is our status as a federal depository. we are called a regional depository of lotteries -- of libraries for federal documents. there are libraries around the country that serve in the same role but there are only two of us that are public. milwaukee public library along with boston public library are the only two public libraries that serve as these depositories. what it means is we get everything that the federal government produces through the printing office. some of those things are still in print but many of those documents are of course now available online and we have a responsibility to make sure the community knows about these resources and that they have access to them. as part of the program we are
training other librarians in the region and making sure people have access to them. one of the interesting questions of why we have this, when the library of congress serves that role, the main reason is to make these documents accessible to the general community. if you can imagine library of congress trying to manage all the requests for this information, it would be overwhelming. in a sense it sends this show on the road, they ask their parents libraries to serve in this capacity and reach out to the community so the community knows they have access to the documents and materials that their elected officials are acting on. we were chosen as a federal depository because during the time this library was new, there were other libraries in the milwaukee area that could have accommodated this responsibility were taken this on.
milwaukee public library was founded in 1878. our neighbor down the street, marquette university, was founded in 1881. we were the oldest in the city? -- the oldest in the city and university library and public library. we became a federal depository in the 1800s around this time it opened in 1888 and served that role through all of these years. what we receive from the federal government are the documents themselves. what we take on is our and resources to manage those collections. we are a city department funded primarily through city tax dollars. we hire staff, we provide space and conditions for materials based on what is available. >> while in milwaukee we went
through the biggest -- on one of exports, a harley-davidson motorcycle. i am here with tim mccormack. what is hardly's ties to wisconsin? >> we have called milwaukee>> home since 1873. where they first rolled out a harley-davidson motorcycle. way can think of no better to see the city of milwaukee man on the back of one of its motorcycles. >> we have a 2019 heritage softail. we will be riding in style. >> let's roll. >> with lake michigan surrounding us and the skyline in view we crossed the home bridge and soon find ourselves immersed in the city.
our first stop is downtown, to learn about the city's place in pop culture. ♪ >> ♪ happy days >> the fact happy days is set in milwaukee is a piece of pride for our city. it is nostalgia and something we talk about fondly. >> this is milwaukee's riverwalk in the heart of downtown milwaukee. behind me is the milwaukee river which stretches to the north side and goes to lake michigan and we have the great downtown architecture. arthur funds really was a character from -- arthur fonzar elli was a character from the show happy days. in 2008 we decided to commission the fonzto commemorate for all he did to put milwaukee
on the map. this is one of the most popular tourist spots in the city. >> this is one of the most randomly things we have in milwaukee. people take pictures with him, interact with him, locals and tourists, one of those bucket list. happy days was a slice of life in milwaukee at the time. south so nostalgic among two thumbs up. >> and the banks of the milwaukee river to learn about fictional groomers who made their dreams come true their way. >> ♪ 1 2 3 4 5 6 shlamiel shlmazel incorporated we're guonna do we're gonna make our dreams come
true doing it our way ♪ the beautiful banks of the milwaukee river north of downtown. a small brewery, one of the more innovative breweries in town. i have a fun tour that has pop culture involved, laverne & shirley at the end where everyone gets to sing the song and put the gloves on the bottle. we get to raise their fists when they say >> ♪ doing it our way >> it was back in the 1970's. for four years in a row it was the number one show, two ladies that worked at a brewery in milwaukee and they always got into some sort of mischief. it was very representative of milwaukee, they were common people. they were ladies that worked out on the floor of the brewery which a lot of people can relate to. they were fun and energetic. people just enjoyed them in general.
it was someone everyone could look to in the united states and find a part of them in. >> we are on the banks of lake michigan where c-span is learning about the literary theme. we speak with author rachel on her book against the deportation terror. red scare after world war i there was an uptick in deportation and immigration cases. through the course of the 1920's and 1930's, these organizations recognized they needed independent organization that defense andortation work on issues involving the foreign reporters, particularly aggressive activists. so the american committee for the foreign-born was founded as specifically to protect foreign-born people who came under legal trouble. the american committee is founded in 1934, and there are
against thehreats foreign-born. initially the american committee defense -- think about the story andr benzetti who were accused of committing murder as part of their anarchist activities. the american committee emerges -- emerges out of that time period where people are facing repression and at the same time the united states is seeing an influx of foreign-born people floating dust fleeing persecution and who have -- we don't have any -- the idea of having a filing policy -- having asylum policy doesn't happen until after world war ii. so if someone is fleeing nazi germany, and they are jewish and facing death we don't have any
law that says we should take them in. so more and more people are winding up in the u.s. that is when the american committee becomes an offshoot of the international labor defense and the aclu to deal with the problems of the foreign-born. the secretary of the american committee is a jewish american named abner greene. he founded the waterfront, see which is done by the docks where sailors would get off the ships when they had shore leave and would get medicines they needed. i speculate in the book that greene becomes aware of particular issues of laborersorn maritime in high school and then there is a crisis because shipping lanes are kept open by the merchant marine which during the war is over 50% foreign-born. anyone who wants to man these ,hips, and it is all maen
keeping it open, the sea warfare, we will take anyone. alienwever the so-called don't have rights on shore. the american committee recognizes that during and after the war and this is wild. many of them who were our friends and freedom fighters during the war, celebrated as heroes come within targeted for pizza kit -- for persecution like greek sailors many of whom are anarchist. the greek government goes very right and the united states department is alive with the new fascist -- aligned with the fascist government increased. the greek government says to the united states, here is a list, we could call it a blacklist, of sailors, get them and turn them back over to greece where they face jailing and death. the americans say these are the heroes of world war ii. they are not -- the state
department is calling them communists -- they are anarchists. they hate communism. so they are doing dramatic things like in baltimore harbor there was one ship in 1947 where the sailors, five climbed into the rigging and say we are not going to let this ships sail because we don't what to go back to greece. we know what will happen to us. that is education for them. they have second-generation mostly jewish lawyers thinking about persecution that relates and their experiences on the ground, then they get education about crazy stuff with maritime labor during the war and they are like, we have to think about again who is foreign-born and deserves rights after the american committee is put on the attorney general's list of subversive organizations. there is like, i can't pay my subscription this year because my colleagues think i am a communist.
their membership falls off and they get tiny. is, theyhy my story stay alive because their supporters, liberal supporters, i never knew you, don't say hi to me but people are still getting deported. at the same moment they are listed as subversive organization, the immigration and naturalization service led by joseph swing, a west point eisenhower, initiate operation wet back. undocumentede mexicans at the border and mexican american communities throughout the southwest, so that business is booming. --n liberals are like -- in the committee has to keep going. abner greene spent a year and a half in jail because he was on the board of the civil rights congress which was progressive
civil rights organization, refused to turn over financial records, so they faced persecution but they couldn't stop because the business of the deportation terror doesn't slow down. a really famous case, harry bridges, australian born labor organizer who is more high profile in the 1950's, they tried three separate times to deport him. they try even after he naturalized and became an american citizen. what they said, and this is a playbook they have kept and used it most recently against a palestinian american immigrant organizer in chicago, they deported her two years ago even though she was naturalized. what they said is third and final deportation, they said when you naturalized, when you became an american citizen, you were lying. you came here with the intent to become a communist, which is in
opposition to being an american they said. with this man they said you were a terrorist, so you could not have become an american citizen. when she was deported, she was in her late 60's. she had lived here for 30 years, provided help and aid to the arab-american community in chicago. -- they tryy to to to deport the man in the 1940's, he wins his case. people who aren't involved in immigrant rights are like where did this come from? the answer is there is a long history in this country of immigrant rights organizing. it parallels histories we know better like civil rights but because different cohorts of different people are born at different times it is not always the same people so it doesn't look like the same movement, but it is. milwaukee is a
c-span cities tour. at can watch more c-span.org. said hisan president country is carrying out responsibility concerning immigration and hope present couple cancels plan to implement tariffs in june. represent -- sent representatives to washington to discuss the matter. conway has told mexico has not done enough. >> there are plenty of options, but we don'