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tv   Washington Journal Clifford Young  CSPAN  July 19, 2019 2:28pm-3:30pm EDT

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by president trump and russian interference in the 2016 election. live all day covered on wednesday, july 24, starts at 8:30 a.m. eastern. watch live on c-span3, or on c-span.org or listen with the free c-span radio app. thend joining us for conversation this morning is cliff young, a u.s. public affairs president. let's talk about the headline. overallan support nasa but not a return to the moon." let's take the first part. when you look at the c-span poll, 78% of those surveyed have a favorable view toward nasa. only 7% unfavorable. it is a conundrum. we did a poll the last couple of weeks, naturally representative of the conversation and we put out 20 questions to understand
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americans' understanding of space exploration. lots of good nuggets. a real conundrum. on the one hand, americans value and support space exploration. 78% support nasa. goodsee space as a public and support government intervention and in many case, -- nasa should be involved in space, u.s. government should be involved. on the flipside, it is not to go to the moon or even mars or even long distance sort of unmanned space expiration. it is about being close to earth, doing those things that help our existence on the planet such as monitoring weather patterns and climactic change. we have done that, been there, been to the moon, not so interested in mars. 52% of american support actually using space to better our lives
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on earth. host: what do you make of the 8%? 8% of americans say a manned moon mission should not be a top priority. the administration has said we are going back by 2024. guest: they are not aligned with public thinks.an public opinion has said we have done that, been there. space exploration is important. we want nasa and the american government to use space to help our lives here specifically on earth. closer to home issues. help us monitor the weather patterns, climactic change, reinforce national security. interested in space exploration, not interested in going to the moon or mars. look at the top three responses.
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what should the united states be doing in space. the top three responses, monitoring earth's environment, improving security, and conducting experiments. guest: they are not interested in going and basically going to the moon, to mars as much as using space once again to help our existence on earth, better our lives on earth. host: do you read monitoring earth's environment as climate change -- the environment? guest: among americans generally there is a variable meaning. i read it personally, specifically as helping us understand, monitor, identify and anticipate climactic changes in weather patterns. i would not say it is necessarily linked to climate change. host: we are asking all of you to call in with your priorities
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for space policy. eastern central part of the country, 202-748-8000. mountain-pacific, 202-748-8001. we will get to those calls in a minute. bottomnt to show you the 3 responses in this c-span ipsos survey. exploration of the solar system, manned mission to mars or the moon. those were the bottom three responses. how did you ask this question? guest: first and foremost, we were surprised by the results. reinforcing american values, space exploration, but they want to use space to help and better their lives. this question asked a series of possibilities and asked americans to rank what are the priorities. we had something like 10 or 12 different priorities. we put them together using qualitative methods beforehand
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and we asked what is the most important and tick all those important to you. we are ordering the question to get an idea of priority when it comes to space exploration. host: jim bridenstine, who will be our newsmakers gassed this sunday, tenneco -- newsmakers uest will sit down to talk about nasa's priorities. had to say.at he [video clip] >> things are shifting. i will tell you we submitted the budget request about three weeks ago now and in that budget request, there is a very new direction for our country. the president has issued space policy directive 1 and says we should go back to the moon. i like to say we should go forward to the moon because the way we do it under space policy
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directive 1 is unlike anything we have done before. we are not going to the moon to leave flags and footprints and not go back for another 50 years. the president said he wants to go sustainably. in order -- in other words, this time we will stay. we will go to the moon and ailed a coalition of international partners. we will go with commercial partners and utilize the resources of the moon. in other words, the hundreds of millions of tons of water and ice that have been discovered retire riskoing to and improve technology and take all of that for a mission to mars. that is what is on the agenda. i will tell you the first step in achieving that is continuing of low earthe -- orbit.
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we are in the midst of watching -- many saw the crew dragon docked to the international space station. by the end of this year, we will -- theching american first time since the retirement of the space shuttle in 2011. that is an exciting thing we are looking forward to. we have already completed commercial resupply capabilities and eventually want to get to commercial asian -- commercialization -- we think it is important and i know this committee has doubled down on this importance. nasa should be one customer of many customers in a robust commercial marketplace. that includes launch and habitation and we want numerous
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suppliers competing on cost and innovation. the reason for this is to drive down cost and increase access and utilize the resources that have been given to us by this body to go to the moon sustainably. with our international partners and commercial partners to do things that only government can do, that is what nasa should be doing. host: the nasa administrator, our guest on newsmakers. you can watch on c-span.org or listen with the free c-span radio app. the nasa administrator making headlines this morning in the washington post, cliff young, white house anger over moon mission proceeded removal over official. a removal of william kristol mayer, a clear sign the white house is increasingly frustrated with the agency's efforts to return humans to the surface of the moon by 2024.
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we are asking all of you to tell priorities as we look at the ipsos poll. what are your priorities for space? caller: forget the moon. at's go to mars and start colony. this will ensure the survival of the human race. to joe in newgo jersey. good morning, your priorities? i cannot believe that poll. it shows you how stupid the american people are. aren't we going to another ?ection of the moon trying to mind and do different things. china, italy doing other things, russia as well. the second priority for myself is not an american mission, but an international mission for mars would include the european
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space agency, japan, russia, ourselves. i believe that would bring the world closer together. as neil armstrong's mission to the root -- mission to the moon did. what are we lacking right now besides math in our education? science, make people want to be scientists. we need to do those things and i think to just shut it off is ridiculous. guest: what we know generally is that americans are very much -- 80% of americans believe space exploration is essential for technological and scientific discoveries. it is key and americans believe that. more generally, they see space and space exploration as a
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collaborative effort and they believe it is much better, 70% of americans believe the united states should do it with other countries in cooperation, they should not go it alone. the question is are the priorities we talked about already -- are they leading or lagging indicators? right now americans are not in favor -- only 8% of going to the moon relative to other priorities like monitoring weather patterns on earth. that is not to say a president like trump or jfk more than 50 years ago who framed some sort of grand objective -- grand goal for america cannot change public opinion's priorities. today what we are saying is american see space exploration as essential. space is a public good. 52% of americans believe space should be treated as a protected wilderness.
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usingre concerned with space today for concerns on earth to improve life on earth more than going to mars or the moon. once again, that can change. host: and it all costs money. when you ask the question about nasa's budget, look what you found out. the you ask is 21.5 billion right amount, 50% said yeah. and you asked as a percentage of the total budget, 49% said yeah, that is about right. -- 56% said that sounds about the right amount. guest: we framed the budget issue differently to see american's general support and whether it varies.
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if we get the total amount or less than 5% of the national budget. americanse overall is are in favor of what being spent now or more, but it is sensitive the way we frame it. 24 -- 20.5 billion, that's a lot. host: what about when you ask too much, too little? guest: that is what seems really varied. specifically, if you take not spending enough plus spending right, independent of how we asked, a vast majority of americans are in favor of expenditures on space exploration. when we put it into percent, less than 5%, 41% think we are spending too little. the overall message is americans
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are really supportive of the amount of money being spent on space exploration and depending on the way you frame it, they might be more in favor. it,: is the benefit worth what did you find chunk of amers think it is worth it. 58% of americans think it is worth it and they try to think they can keep the spending -- spending on nasa, keep it at the same level or increase, only 14% are in favor of reducing it and thisg it over or ceding response ability to the private sector. government in americas' minds has a role in space exploration. that there is say not a role for the private sector. nasa and government has a key role collaborating with other
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countries and driving forward the space exploration agenda. a look at this chart from the government. this is 1958. is $2019. line look at how nasa budget went up in the 60's and how it has gone down and up and is on the way back up in our current year. take a look at how americans and your government has viewed nasa over the decades. what are the priorities? larry in new york, good morning to you. caller: hi. is we have money to go to the moon, but we don't have money for a wall? why not invest money in gml and feed the world -- gmo and feed the world? our allies want to go to the moon.
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we can get technology from them when they get back. host: gary next in orchard park, new york. caller: yes. i am opposed to the hundreds of billions of dollars that have been spent over the years for the space program to me is the new version of the military-industrial complex. we already have the pentagon nowing their chops right over arming space, putting weapons in space, competing with many of the other countries in the world such as russia and china. what we have here in my opinion is another complex of no-bid contracts for huge american corporations that profit from it. if anything comes out of it such as a new device, it is not licensed to corporations, it is
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given to corporations and if you look at congress, the same type of people that have funded blindly the military-industrial complex, it is the same characters are behind pumping more billions into the space program. host: cliff young. guest: i was going to respond from gary and larry because they are both against it, they are in the minority. a majority of americans are in favor of spending public moneys on space exploration. obviously there is nuance we can talk about, but there is broad-based support for space exploration on the one hand and specific funding for nasa on the other. host: let's talk about privatization brought up in those comments. when you asked about it, how did you ask and what answers did you get? guest: we ask in a couple different ways. do you agree or disagree space exploration should be the sole
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or primary sponsor billy of the private sector. wording to that effect. only 27% of americans are in favor of space exploration being the providence of the private sector. we ask in another way where we just apply -- juxtapose nasa. only 14% in favor of that. that is not to say americans aren't in favor of a robust range between public and private, but the space exploration agenda should be pushed by the government and more specifically by nasa. ask republicans and democrats about privatization, what did you find and what did you think of the numbers? variability.d some democrats are less in favor of privatization. republicans more so. that is very much aligned with the way republicans and -- break
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down and all issues related to the government. smallicans are much more government oriented, public-private partnerships and other related arrangements. democrats are much more state centric and believe much more in a robust interventionist government and it is not surprising the numbers specifically that we found in the poll. host: did you find 47% of republicans disagreeing with privatization was high? guest: higher than average. going back to the initial points i was making, space across party .ines is seen as a public good it is seen as an asset, a natural asset that should be, on the one hand curated, but also taken advantage of by the government in collaboration with other governments. it is higher than what you would've thought, but the
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differences in terms of party id makes sense given the differences. host: we covered a hearing this past week of a senate commerce committee and there was a representative of commercial spaceflight there and he talked about how nasa can and should privatize some of its operations. i want to show our viewers and get their reaction. [video clip] >> whenever possible, nasa should award multiple competitively chosen agreements to commercial partners willing to put up private cac -- capital at their own risk. that will replace any need for the costly micromanagement and basedcracy of typical far contracts. it allows for greater diversity and much lower strategic program risk. none of this will be easy. commercializing low earth orbit will be hard.
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human travel to than moon is hard. mars will be harder still, but with even greater rewards as we explore a different planet and its moons. american industry is ready to help nasa chart and affordable and sustainable path into this challenging future. this month, it is natural to venerate the past, but we should be proud of the great new things we are achieving today and what we can do together tomorrow if we build a true partnership between government, including congress and the american people and their enterprise. host: back to our conversation with all of you and cliff young at our table. teresa in michigan, good morning to you. host: -- caller: good morning. i think it is just another way for donald trump to get hooked up with putin and i disagree with that. i think putin ought to be shunned all the way and they ought to take care of the roads in america, climate change, and
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invest the money here instead of giving it to the rich folks and their tax breaks. host: juan in miami, florida. good morning. are you with us? caller: hello? host: you are on the air, sir. go ahead. caller: i had a quick question about the framing of the question. i see a lot of the problem constantly is regarding the amount of money we are spending on space, but people don't seem to notice we spent $600 billion on defense. how do you explain to people we should be spending more on space and less on weapons? host: how did you frame the question? guest: that is a great question. americans are fuzzy on the size of the national budget, what is discretionary and nondiscretionary. it is a hard sort of thing to
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ask questions on. what we did specifically, we did not juxtapose this as a choice of defense versus space, we just straight up asked are you in favor of the amount being spent, 20 $1.5 billion or less than 1% of the national budget and what we saw, as i was saying before, people are more in favor of spending the same or more if we put it into percent versus total dollars. that said, it would have been interesting if we had juxtaposed it vis-a-vis the defense budget, but we did not do that. host: john in alabama. caller: good morning, how are you doing? host: good morning. what are your priorities for space? caller: my priorities for space are definitely exploration. my comment was what many people don't understand is if we let
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other countries go to outer space without us, it diminishes our technological edge in the world and leaves the united states at risk of losing our edge in economy. going to outer space gives us an overall edge and helps the health of our citizens is basically what i wanted to say. aboutwhen you asked folks space exploration, you ask them several questions, allow scientific and technological discoveries, encourages young people. why did you ask those types of questions? guest: we wanted to get a granular and more qualitative understanding of -- idea of people's understanding of space. i made this point a few times, broad support for space exploration, understanding that it contributes significantly to technological discoveries, it encourages rod-based, wide based
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believe it encourages math and science study among young people, students, young students. americans are not against space exploration. it is an issue of what are the priorities? basically today are using space exploration to better our lives on earth, less about going to the moon or mars. that said, they are very much in favor of not going it alone. they would rather we work with other countries. they believe not only does it enhance peace and cooperation, but the best way to advance the space exploration agenda is working with other countries. host: take a look at the numbers when the c-span ipsos paul asked those surveyed if they agreed space exploration allows scientific and technological discoveries, 80% agreed with that statement. is, it allows -- 63% said it
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a means to understand climate change. 66% said contributes to science resulting in advances to health care. of say improve understanding the human body. host: we are trying to get an understanding from a qualitative perspective how much americans value space exploration and that says it all. there is broad-based majority or even super majority support for what is being done. they see the benefits. should be ina space, they should not go it alone, space is a public good and it should be a collaborative effort with other countries and not a singular effort, which is super interesting because we are celebrating the 50th anniversary of the moon landing and the moon landing really was about american exceptionalism, beating out the russians in the space
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race and the space race in general. it is burned into our memories and our imagination and it was really about going it alone, showing the world we were number one, that democracy would triumph over communism, et cetera. america sees space much more as a collaborative effort, much more so than 50 years ago. host: usa today notes the pole in the six -- 1960's versus the pole where 8% of americans say a man to moon mission should be a priority at a gallup poll in 1965 found 39% of americans said united states should do everything possible regardless of cost to be the first nation on the moon. guest: yeah. a leading orinion lagging indicator? should leaders set the agenda or follow public opinion,
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very interesting data point. what we know specifically looking at the polls across the board at the time, it was very much linked to the notion of american exceptionalism and a key sort of symbolic event when it came to the race against russia. host: we are asking all of you to tell us what your space priorities are this morning. eastern-central part of the country, 202-748-8000. mountain, -- mountain-pacific, 202-748-8001. on this idea of going back to the moon, apollo 11 flight director jean krantz was testifying this week and this is what he had to say about the future of u.s. space policy, want to get our viewers to react to this. [video clip] >> for the past several weeks i have done dozens of interviews. many reporters have questioned
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should be go back to the moon? should we go to mars directly and skip the moon? can we do it again and why haven't we done it already? all good questions. should we go back to the moon, the answer is yes, no question. thee are opportunities lindner industry would provide .ur industry my answer, can we do it again and why haven't we done it already is much more complex. that is why i am here today, to offer some perspective based on my experience as a leader of one of the spaceflight teams which accomplished president kennedy's 1961 mandate to land an american on the moon and return him safely to earth. the 1960's were not dissimilar to where the nation is today. president kennedy faced a confident soviet union and a sleeping giant in the people's republic of china. we are at the beginning of the vietnam war and the domestic
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turmoil over civil rights is building. goal was timely and masterful and utilizing the challenge of space exploration to unify our nation and demonstrate the technical capabilities of the united states. today we have many of the same issues although one critical and important element is missing. kennedy's mandate was the impetus, but there was a national unity that assured our success. i believe today in our country, unity is necessary for great efforts and is lacking within our country, our government, and the space industry. we have an administration that is strongly supportive and willing to provide the resources. we have an agency charted to do the mission, top-level leadership in place and a very capable workforce, but each of these segments are philosophically divided on the goal. there is infinitely more
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technological capability than in the early programs, but there is a lack of focus and prioritization. i believe the general support for space and a desire to see our nation continue -- will continue, but without unity, the space exploration program will be grounded. host: what do you make of the last part, without unity? when you think about the pole ipsosn this boss -- thi did? guest: super majority support, we rarely see that today. it is highly polarized. we have very few symbols in the united states right now that unify and rather, most of them divide. 50 years ago, the landing of the moon and the effort it took to challenge jfk -- the challenge jfk put forward to america
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during the heart of the cold war thesee unifying event images are burned in our minds when we saw them specifically the day of. maybe that is what america needs today. on mark -- most issues, democrats are going to divide highly partisan tribal huge differences. this could be the unifying agenda. there are elements in the pole that suggest it could be again. host: one of the overarching themes of the pole shows up when you ask surveyors about their attitudes toward nasa. 78% of a favorable view of this agency. we are asking all of you to tell us what your priorities are.
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danny in maryland, good morning. go ahead. caller: i think if we are going .o go, we should go bold let's build a permanent space and let's have c-span put an office up there and the host can rotate every couple months from space. you could float around with your coffee, that would be cool. move on.will david in michigan. caller: thank you very much for taking my call. i am very much in favor of unlimited budget. as long as they explore the one-way travel, line up all the republicans, put them in a spaceship, send them into space and leave them there forever. what a beautiful america we would have with no republicans. host: you did ask people if they
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are willing to travel to space. guest: without a doubt. host: what did you find out? guest: we found a significant chunk of americans, 31% would love to travel there. that includes me, i would take my whole family if i could for spring break. pedro, byhost: and the way. guest: your background instead of the capital, it could be earth -- that would be cool. 31% of americans interested in space travel. host: millenials, 40% said they would. gen x, 43%. guest: it is for the young. boomers want to stay close to home. i think the young are adventurous and they want to go to space. a third of americans would love to travel to space. let's go to john in new
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jersey. caller: my comment is they have people like elon musk -- hello? host: we are listening. musk went ahead and teslais rocket with his car and rich millionaires should .e allowed to go out of state i don't think nasa has the stomach to go to places like mars or any other place because thatrely on old technology we should be investing and more -- in a up-to-date rockets like elon musk had. if you send up a politician, i have one in the white house we can send also and his family.
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a lot of partisan talk, setting up half the united states and our current president. americans are not in favor of space exploration being the -- that is not to say they don't believe there should be a -- they still believe this is an agenda to be driven by the government, that it is a public good. 52% of americans believe space should be a protected wilderness. humanity orurce for two humanity and they don't want to have the private sector being the sole entity responsible for space exploration. host: elon musk's name coming up when you think of space. who are the astronauts or people
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who have top name recognition and what about these billionaires like elon musk and jeff bezos and their attempts to get to space? guest: i wonder if he has seen our pole. basically ask a series of questions on familiarity with astronauts and non-astronauts and individuals linked to space exploration. number 1 and 2 are neil armstrong and buzz aldrin. less known, mark kelly, a more recent astronaut superstar. all fairly well known, but especially that first moonwalk burned into the american imagination. 52%. at 57% and musk at cognitively,st that cognitive map americans are, cognitive figures there front and center.
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host: you mentioned privatization versus government involvement. the trump administration wants to get back by 2024. this initiative to create a space force. i want to show our viewers what the president had to say in february announcing this directive to create a u.s. space force. [video clip] >> america must be fully equipped to protect our vital interests. undermine our security and space and they are working hard at that. that is why my administration recognized space as a war fighting campaign and made the creation of the space force a security. i think we will have great support from congress because they supporting -- they support one where we are talking about such importance and a lot of the generals and people involved speaking to congress and we have
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very interesting dialogue going on. we are investing in new space capabilities to project military powers, especially when it comes to safety and defense. -- develop a legislative proposal that will establish the structure and authority of the space force as the sixth branch of the government armed forces. saucein the new c-span if poll, we asked people if they support space force. 30% had no opinion. what do you make of this result? guest: it is not front and center. it is being talked about on a policy level among elites and people in the beltway, but it is not front and center and we will see the data, there is a difference in support among
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democrats and republicans. republicans being much more likely to support defense-related issues. even though it is low familiarity, not well known or familiar, national security is the number two priority for americans when it comes to space exploration. it is front and center as a priority. space force more specifically is not on the radar. people are more worried about bread-and-butter issues. it is not something they paid attention to. who like thiss idea if they sell it as a national priority -- they see it as a concern, but they are not paying attention to it right now. host: your priorities for space policy? caller: number 1 -- good morning, greta.
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i am a long time caller since the beginning and i love your program. it is the best thing that has happened in communications. we thinky number 1 -- of ourselves as visionaries. we are totally off base. we are not thinking out far enough. what people don't realize is from what we know now, our planet is going to be soaking up the sun and we will become stardust unless we get off this planet, the human species is not going to survive. as far as climate change goes, it is going on forever and the only way we have been able to survive is to adapt and i think that is where we should be spending our money, not on trying to cool the planet down. i would like to see what your guest thinks about my comments
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about the number one priority. guest: that is an interesting point. i don't know what the timestamp is on being sucked into the sun. i think it is a billion years. people see the priorities for space exploration being closer to earth. i am not saying that is right or wrong. they see it, broadly speaking, as important for scientific and technological discoveries, education, et cetera. about the priority is closer to earth today rather than long-term distant space exploration. host: john in franklin, tennessee. you are next. caller: can you hear me ok? host: we can. wants to go too the moon, i think he could play
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enough money to go to the moon playing poker. he has the world's greatest poker face. i am a child of the 1960's and a psychologist. i have noticed always the exception in our international relations with russia around space. at times get hot and times get cool, but we continue to cooperate a lot -- about that and that meet -- that leads me to believe a lot of ways to solve our tension would be to expand the space program to include china and other countries so we all have our values aligned and we are rooting for the same people in space. it kind of representatives of our planet. the second thing. i was in school during those years and one of the things that happened was a tremendous emphasis on basic science education and i can tell you being a little kid in those rooms, it was exciting. science is a mystery and
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unfolded and to this day, it is a big part of my life. go ahead with your last point and then i will ask my question. caller: thank you, greta. the last thing i was going to say is i am not a big fan of commercialization. i think we have made a mess of things here on earth. you have heard the metaphor many times about space -- spaceship earth, how we are a self-contained environmental system and we have not taken good care as a group. it has been kind of every man for himself and i would hate to see that extended out into space with some of the same consequences we have had here on earth. caller: you said you are a child of the 1960's. let me ask you a question the polln if sauce -- ipsos cast. did you ever consider being asked to not?
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being you ever consider an astronaut? we lost him. we are not going to get the answer to that. i am assuming he is a boomer, so 18%. i am sure it was much higher back in the day, but they have gotten on with their lives and grown older and forgotten about childhood aspirations. 23% of americans at one time or another thought about becoming an astronaut. is an age thing. i think it is much less generation and much more age. being an astronaut and going to space -- we look at the stars and most americans have seen one sort of cosmic phenomenon or .nother such as a solar eclipse we aspire and imagine going into space and as we get older, we go
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to school and graduate and get jobs. we have kids. we forget our childhood aspirations and dreams. host: floyd in jonesville, virginia. good morning to you. caller: thank you for taking my call. i think we need bigger and better satellites than the enemy has got. it was be -- it would be good to be ahead of them on that. something i heard brought up yesterday is ufos. they call them ufos, but they are identified in the bible in ezekiel, chapter one. ezekiel identified them. they are vehicles the angels travel in. angels don't have wings on their back, they have those vehicles to travel in. 1-800-613-4645 and
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order the bible. guest: 54% of americans believe in aliens and 29% believe they visit earth. i think he is in the majority believing aliens exist -- that is what our policy as. caller: how did you just -- host: how did you decide what questions to ask? who did you consult with? guest: with c-span. we went over the polls that had been done on the issue of space over the last 30 years or so. we did an initial analysis, sort of a discovery phase. we have done some of this in the past and came together with a compilation of those things we thought were essential to understand space exploration and also interesting. host: let's go to felix in michigan. caller: good morning. i agree with most americans in viewing space exploration as a collaborative effort.
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i also believe this should not be limited to the wealthiest nations and funds should be given to third world world nations to develop their space programs and the human race should have represented of's from every continent on space in the iss and other endeavors. what are your thoughts on that? guest: i think your attitudes obviously,anular, but most americans are in favor of cooperation when it comes to space exploration. the specifics of the flavor of it, we did not ask specifically, but at a 30,000 foot level, your attitudes are pretty much aligned with what people think. host: go to vermont, jason is watching. your priorities for space. caller: thank you, greta, for taking my call. i just think with the amount of money this country spends on taxes and revenue collected, i heard the other day 1% of our budget is given away to other countries and nasa gets less
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than half a cent per penny on the dollar. when you look back 50 years ago, the inventions we still used today ranging from miniature phone,batteries, miniaturized everything, basically, space blankets, the inventions go on and on and i just think the overall attitude of this country is down and something like that could possibly bring us together like it did in the 1960's. host: let's hear from richard in grove city, ohio. 76 years oldlike and i have been an advocate of the space program for decades. the most disappointing thing to me is when they got rid of the saturn five. the next thing we ended up knowing was nothing was really happening for the most part in the next 50 years. it is like we stopped growing
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and stuff like that. i kind of shifted my focus and started making investments in private companies in the space industry and stuff like that and i think that is the way to go. somebody like elon musk is a visionary and the problem with the u.s. government's policy is every time you change administrations, for crying out upd, the next thing you end knowing is one administration does not want to follow so you have inconsistency of programming desires. it is hard to believe 50 years later we still cannot decide whether we want to go to mars or the moon. host: when you make these investments in these companies --
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caller: airlines that fly around the world now, for crying out loud. when an airplane goes down in the middle of the indian ocean or something, now they know where it went down, for crying out loud. companies, ar joint american canadian company and stuff like that, apparently they have a contract to build the shuttle that is supposed to go from the earth to the moon and use solar electric propulsion, i guess. when it comes to propulsion, that is the key to getting farther in space and i think it is long overdue. why don't we have nuclear why don't we have nuclear rockets anymore? -- was already thinking about nuclear propulsion on the top of the saturn five rocket. anyway, yes, i like the
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interchange between nasa and the private companies because taxpayers don't necessarily want to pay the money. host: what do you make of it? i think americans are in agreement that there should be a robust space exploration agenda. it should be cooperative in nature. on the one hand with other countries which you can pull resources. on the other hand with the private sector. that said, they still see space as a public good and that there is definitely a role for the government and it should be central. host: jim from illinois, good morning. caller: i just wanted to say thank you for bringing up this issue on c-span and i think it ofnoteworthy that instead asking to have people identify themselves by their political
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that asion, c-span sees really not being relevant to this discussion. that is because space is still, by and large, a very bipartisan issue, which something that is a real rarity in this day and age. from my perspective going forward, i would like to see more along a path that supports the commercialization of space. most of the advancements we have had are a direct consequence of the commercial opportunities that have presented themselves, particularly with regard to remote sensing. if you go to the website for the united nations committee on the peaceful uses of the united states -- outerspace, they go through a long list of the ways
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in which everyone on planet earth is benefiting from space technology and giving the budgetary pressures on nasa and the numerous studies that have found that when nasa procures items commercially rather than developing them in-house, they save substantially from a budget point of view and windows same items are procured in the commercial marketplace, that actually builds us a stronger economy in that area because the products are then available for other businesses to purchase. host: cliff young, any thoughts? guest: again, a lot of what he is saying resonates, but americans see space as a public
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good. there is a role of government. the most credible actor right now is nasa, but the polls say there should be a broad collaboration with other countries and the private sector. host: a headline in the washington times, even 50 years later, lunar landing skeptics plague nasa. suspicions arose even as the lunar landing was taking place. conspiracy theorists said it was an elaborate hollywood style production created on a soundstage on earth. the polls have consistently shown 5 percent to 6% of americans believe the moon landing was faked. 6%.t: our poll showed it is small in terms of percentages, but volume, 20 million plus americans that don't believe the lunar landing took place. host: take a look at it when you break it down by age. 15 to 34-year-old said 9% of them thought it was fake.
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it goes5 to 49, 11% and back down if you ask 50-year-olds to 64-year-old and over 65, 2%. guest: it is all about proximity. the vast majority of americans believe in the lunar landing. for them, that is fact, not fiction. there is an age relationship. individuals, americans who are younger are not as proximate. they did not live through it or have their parents talk about it. with my parents talking about the landing, i have a picture of from thesigned picture moon of earth at my house. the younger you are, the less likely you are to have that experience. the vast majority of americans believe the lunar landing did happen. host: what did you find out if you asked people if they watched the apollo 11 moon landing? guest: that is interesting.
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going back and callers have been talking about -- either richard jason talk about space exploration being one of the few unifying binding events or things, especially the lunar landing specifically. it is the opinion me of the ultimate example of american exceptionalism in the heart of the cold war. as proximity is decreasing baby boomers die off. younger people enter the adult population, our proximity has increased. 91% of 65+ or baby boomers have watched the date of the lunar landing. 69% of millennials and really .eflecting on this point at least in my mind, lived through it -- that image is
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burned in my memory, my imagination. younger people don't have that experience or proximity. i think that is telling for a polarized travel world we live in today. we don't have those symbols that unite and bind. host: for folks who want to learn more about the apollo 11 lunar landing, c-span will be focusing on it next weekend on book tv and history tv. you can go to our website for more information. remi in texas. good morning. caller: good morning. i agree with the woman from michigan who said that we could better use that money for infrastructure to help our own country first. donald trump said he was going to give a break to the middle class, he never did. he just want -- i believe that
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money could be better spent on a lot of things down here. the deficit needs to be paid -- at least what we owe on the deficit and i disagree with all not going to help the american people. host: let me just end by asking you, if you are a lawmaker and the administration, what should you be paying attention to in these results? guest: if you have a space agenda, and they do, i would be excited and i would be encouraged by how americans value space exploration. i am a professional pollster. i always think public opinion is the most important thing. what i can say and do believe probably his mark when it comes to the agenda, it is probably more of a lagging indicator
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rather than a leading indicator. us topace can do for bring america along. there is a lot of support for space exploration, which is good for any sort of space agenda. host: if you want to learn more about the c-span pole, go to c-span.org. at the very top right hand corner there is a rotating box. click on that and you can find more about the pole. >> on this week' is newsmakers program, we talked to the chair of the new democrat coalition and the select committee on modernization of congress. he talked about legislative priorities. watch newsmakers sunday at 10:00 a.m. and 6:00 p.m. eastern on c-span. looking at the week ahead in congress, on monday, the u.s. senate resumes deliberation on
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mark esper to be the next defense secretary. a confirmation vote is expected tuesday. also tuesday, the house votes on the 9/11 victim compensation fund. house members will vote on savings for retirees and legislation to address border security, and accountability at the department of homeland security. watch the house live on c-span, and you can see the senate live on c-span two, and see both on c-span.org or listen to congressional debate on c-span's free radio app. >> former special counsel robert mueller is on capitol hill next week, testifying in back-to-back hearing about possible obstruction of justice and abuse of power by president trump, and russian interference in the 2016 election. live all day coverage on wednesday, july 24, watch live on c-span3 and online on c-span.org, or listen with the free c-spara

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