tv Washington Journal Alex Nowrasteh CSPAN August 29, 2019 11:19pm-12:06am EDT
[applause] the house will be in order. been 40 years, c-span has providing america on filtered of congress, the white house, supreme court and public policy events from washington, d.c. and around the country so you can make up your own mind. c-span is brought to you by your local cable or satellite provider. view ofyour unfiltered federal government. welcome alex nor roster -- alexour guest
nowrasteh, an immigration policy analyst at the cato institute to discuss a new rule impacting immigrants who make use of public benefits and welfare. the acting director of immigration announcing the so-called public charge rule earlier this week. this is what he had to say. >> through the public charge rule be trump administration is reinforcing the ideals of self-sufficiency and personal responsibility and making sure immigrants cansupport themselves and become successful in america. our rule events aliens who will likely to become a public charge from coming to the united states or remaining here and getting a green card. become -- can't support themselves and become successful in america. our rule events aliens who will likely to become a public charge from coming to the united states or remaining here and getting a green card. public charge is now defined in a way that make sure the law is meaningfully enforced and that those who are subject to it are self-sufficient. explainex nowrasteh, public charge and how the rules is interpreted in the past of what the changes are? guest: the idea immigrants who
come here should be able to sustain themselves, support themselves financially, either through their own hard work or through support of family members but not through the support of the federal government or state and local governments. the origin or the rule -- of the role was in the 16 40's in massachusetts, and inherited law in england but they did not apply to foreigners but nativeborn british subjects and if you went to another county and seen as being a public charge, they could move you back to the county where you came from and i can a public charge or a dependent on these programs -- inyou were in and all a government supplied institution where they pay for all of your food and basically supported to entirely. that was the definition. the 1880's and in 1882 congress passed the immigration act of 1882 and that said that those likely to be a public charge are not allowed to enter into the
united states, meaning that if they were live in an arms house, the entirely of the welfare state, they would be a public charge depending on services and would not be allowed to come but in 1881 the government passed a law that says if you immigrate to the united states and you become dependent with any first year of being here they can deport you from the country. the first time it was used in deportation. 1999, the government created a rule at that time that set what it needs to be a public charge is a majority of your money income comes from the government. a majority of it. the current rule now states that, if you are likely to use a government benefit in the future, nonmonetary or monetary, medicaid, food stamps, cash benefit, if you are likely to use one of those benefits for 12 months in a 36 month window in
the future according to a formula -- a non-formula, a list of standards by a black box then the government will deny you a green card on that charge. host: who gets to determine likelihood? guest: there are numerous characteristics that deregulation puts in place to determine this. age, health, assets, how you have used benefits in the past. they did not create a formula. they did not wake the different categories typically and who guess to decide it are government employees and the department of homeland security and the department of justice and the department of state. department of homeland security for those already in the united states on another visa and seeking to adjust their status to a green card or another visa. ,f you disagree as an applicant you can soothe them because you are in the united states and if
you're oversea seeking a green card you will deal with the department of state and if they turn you down you are out of luck. there is no legal recourse. host: more from ken to tonelli more on the rule.che >> public charge as an individual who receives one or more public benefits for more than 12 months in the aggregate within any 36 month period. receipt of two different benefits and one month counts as two months. prospectiverge is and looks at whether an individual is likely at any aint in the future to become public charge as we define it in the regulation. public benefits are defined as federal, state, and local, and tribal cash assistance, income maintenance, and a small list of
non-cash benefits. some examples of the public benefits that are part of the rule are general assistance, ssi, snap, most forms of medicaid, and certain subsidized housing programs. the rule does not consider many forms of government assistance that protect children and pregnant women's health as public benefits. generally this includes emergency medical assistance, disaster relief, national school chip,programs, ship -- medicaid for people under 21, or pregnant women, as well as foster care and adoption subsidies, student and mortgage loans, energy assistance, food pantries, homeless shelters, and head start. host: from the white house on monday. alex nowrasteh, how does this change the face of immigration
in the future? guest: not clear how this will affect it because there is no actual formula or waiting theme in the regulation that government employees have to follow and we can only presume, based on the intent of the administration and how this rule is more strict, more people will be denied green cars going forward. to give you an example for -- or historical context, between 2000 and last year 1% -- likelihoody high that this will increase going forward. host: the public charge rule that was announced this week, you have probably seen it in the news, our topic for the next half hour on "washington journal." alex nowrasteh is our guest. 1 if you are republican. 202-748-8000, if you're a democrat. an independents call
202-748-8002. illegal immigrants call 202-748-8003. alex nowrasteh, as folks are calling in, you talk about how much welfare and public assistance american citizens use versus noncitizens and what the costs are. guest: another area of the law that is important is most new immigrants to the u.s. do not have access to welfare programs immediately when they get here with some exceptions like refugees. a result of this and the fact immigrants have a higher labor force participation rate and other reasons, immigrants are less likely to use welfare programs than nativeborn americans and when they do it is usually at a lower dollar value. a per capita consumption of welfare programs by individual immigrants compared to individual natives who are -- foreign-born
immigrants use about 39% less welfare, including the entitlement program, social security and medicare, the largest portions of the welfare state, and the means -- and medicaid for those in poverty. host: the difference between illegal immigrant you sent those to go through the legal system? guest: and the united states on a legal visa or have a green card now and on a legal visa, you are generally not allowed to use most welfare programs for the first five years you are here but some states can create different rules and some states allow legally present immigrants who are on a green card to get medicaid earlier than other states. the difference is that states have to pay for the difference in money themselves because these programs are funded by a combination of state and federal government. to expandte wants these programs for immigrants in the state not eligible under federal rules, they have to pay the difference. host: how do they do that -- how
many states do that? ,uest: 15-20 have earlier depending on the welfare, some medicaid earlier and some -- host: that is for legal immigrants? guest: yes. illegal immigrants usually have no access to welfare benefits but a recent change in california is the expanded medicaid to some illegal immigrants who qualified and the state of california has to pay for the benefit. illegal immigrants have access to wics, some emergency medicaid, and other support. generally it is a small fraction of all welfare state spending in the united states. host: let's talk to callers. jerry in new jersey you are a first. -- you are up first. caller: i have two questions. one, i heard democrats over and over on c-span say that the illegals do not get welfare and
benefits. evidently that was not correct. it seven -- it sounds like trump a merit-basedo system which is been talking about for a couple of years. people, are these illegals, supposedly paying taxes if they cannot get a security number? how is this working? this is such a fraud. how are they paying taxes? where are they getting social security numbers? guest: great question. generally democrats who say that about welfare and illegal immigrants, true but some small exceptions but true some illegal immigrants have some small access to welfare programs. it is important to understand that the rule put in place is not about stopping welfare in
the united states by immigrants but about reducing the number of cards,who can get green but reducing the number of people who can immigrate to the united states based on the judgment cards, but reducing the number of of a mostly non-reviewable judgment by a government bureaucrat. host: legal immigration number four year in the u.s. -- per year in the u.s.? guest: about a million people a , morenter on a green card than half have already been here on another visa, less than half have come from abroad. host: ties that a consistent from the obama administration through the trumpet nutrition? guest: it has been -- trump administration? guest: it has been consistent since the 2000's because of statutory design and partly because of chance because a large portion of the immigrants who come into the estates of green cards are three non-cap and immediate relatives category, spouses and young
children. in terms of the taxes that you legal immigrants pay, --illegal immigrants pay, between 55% and 75% of illegals immigrants have pay deducted from their paychecks and there are ways to do this, one is by using a stolen social security number, and the other way is by an identity loan which is where an individual will let another -- immigrant use their legal identity for work purposes. often time somebody will retire and give a nephew or friend their social security number and set use this at work. generally, that is how it is done. host: does the money still going to the system for stolen so security numbers? guest: yes, money paid into the system but the illegal immigrants who are doing the
work do not have access to the benefits. if they're using somebody else's social security number, that person will eventually have access to the benefits but there are other issues with fraud and stolen social security numbers, prevalent taxes, it is not a victimless crime to do that but made necessary unfortunately for a lot of people because of the i-9 restrictions that prevent the hiring of illegal immigrants which is a government form, when we get a job we shall government id and fill out a form that says where legally allowed to work in the united states and that creates an incentive for illegal immigrants to steal somebody's id for employment purposes. when the laws were put in place there was not that much identity theft that there is now more because illegal immigrants are incentivized to do that because they need the identity to work. is next in ohio, republican, good morning. caller: good morning. host: go ahead. caller: somebody i know moved to
ecuador and when they moved there they had to get an fbi check, police check, fingerprints, they had to provide all kinds of papers and they had to prove that they could take care of themselves. over there you are entitled to zero. you get nothing. these people come to this country with a shirt on the back and expect the american taxpayer to take care of them and the family and the so-called unaccompanied children. this country is a debtor nation at when they called in our debt, we are bankrupt, the people on welfare here, better wake up. guest: the welfare state is a problem. the way to deal with this is not through a public charge rule that is designed to limit legal immigration but instead by building a wall around the welfare state, not around the
country, a large report we did about how to do this in the united states and lawful immigrants in the united states have to show, they have to submit police records and security records. the caller makes a very good point and that is that the united states fiscal problems are very bad but they are not going to be solved by tinkering with immigration on the edges, they will be resolved by getting the fiscal house in order. host: mark krikorian will be on next to talk about e-verify and he was quoted in the washington times today about the public charge rule change, this is what he had to say. this rule is taking a principle that immigrants should be able to pay their own bills and translating it into the modern conditions of the welfare state, we should have done this before and it brings a basic difference of perspective about immigration policy, the purpose of immigration policy to benefit americans already here or is it to benefit the immigrants coming here? guest: that would make sense if there was a value determination
to the welfare benefits that these folks are receiving. at --le as it stands and it will be put in place is not the value of the benefits you use but whether you are in a program or not. if you can about the fiscal impact and economic impact of these folks and what they could have, there would be a value determination, how much welfare are they using? if you had 97% of your income that is coming from your own work at 3% from a welfare program, it doesn't matter if it is 3% or 70% as long as you use one program. that is a big problem. the value of welfare benefits is more important than whether you are using a program or not. i want to reduce all of it. host: judy in delaware, democrat. good morning. caller: good morning. can you hear me? host: yes. caller: i would like to clear up what the definition of illegal immigrant is. most people get the image that
an illegal immigrant is coming from one specific area, more than likely south america or mexico. would you expound on the fact that there were other illegal aliens coming from europe and other places? guest: yes, thank you. the majority of illegal immigrants presently in the united states are from mexico and central america. mexicans for the first time dropped below a majority of those who are not legally present in the united states, central american numbers are going up and caribbean numbers, but there are several hundred thousand from south america, from africa, europe, and asia, as well in the united states. somebodymmigrant is who is not lawfully present in the united states or they overstayed their visa or entered illegally and they can be removed and imported once they come in contact with immigrations and custom
enforcement in the united states . a lot of people do not know their immigration status because the laws are second and complexity only to the income tax. it is a simple definition at least on paper. host: janet is a legal immigrant in tucson, arizona. caller: good morning. my question is, how does this new public charge rule affect legal residents wanting to become u.s. citizens? how will the public charge rule affect them? i also wanted to clarify that legal immigrants can be issued a tax id number to the irs so they do pay taxes. my question really is about the citizenship situation. host: where did you immigrate from and what has been a process for you? caller: i came from columbia at six years old, we came here
legally and we had green cards and i was not even aware of the immigration issue until i moved from florida to arizona. in my line of work i deal with a lot of legal immigrants who have tax id numbers. based on the most recent changes with the tax law, these people do not even get the child tax credit or additional child tax credit as they used to get before and they are now paying significant amount of money into the system by not receiving any of the credits that legal immigrants are u.s. citizens. there is a huge misconception about that. --t: are you in the task tax-preparation business? caller: yes and a paralegal. i deal with a lot of small businesses. food vendors. people that clean houses for a living and they have tax id numbers and they pay the taxes. thank you for adding that about tax id numbers.
the other side of the taxes you is you cannot avoid paying excise taxes, sales taxes, property taxes, all of these other taxes that fill the coffers of state and local governments. thank you for adding that. ,hen it comes to naturalization the public charge rule will not affect whether you decide to become a citizen or not but it will affect whether you decide to get another visa or a green card, which is the first step to eventually naturalizing. host: jesse in new albany, indiana come independent. independent. caller: i am glad she called from arizona and shine light on the tax id number. there is so many workarounds and when the cato institute or think tanks come up with these numbers that illegals are paying their fair share of taxes and are not on welfare illegally, but they
have no idea, that is a falsity as it is hard to track something that is not being tracked. in other words, nobody is really looking at the underground economy that exists in these communities. i live in a rule area, i am right outside of louisville. have appens is that you community of illegals and they work within that community, some goats, raise chickens, that type of thing. it is all done outside of the usda and it is all done without paying taxes. we do not see any of that revenue and that is not counted. host: that is jesse in new albany. this is the report from the cato
institute come immigration and the welfare state from may of 2018, one of the authors ours you -- is you. issue of welfare use, we lose -- we use government debt and did not create any data, we looked at the individual use by foreign status of the government's data and i think you raise a good point, which is, a lot of immigration, a quarter of immigration in the united states are not legally present and ,llegal immigrants, as a result it is difficult to understand what they are doing for the same reason you said, they do not want to be found and surveyed. that is a problem with any black market in the united states and the solution is to legalize that black-market. we have other indications, we do have excised taxes, a lot of them pay property taxes, all of the other taxes that are not tied to your individual identity whenever youou pay go to the store and buy
something or whenever your property assessor comes by or whenever you have to pay property taxes in your state. it is virtually impossible to avoid a large number of those taxes. we have a pretty good indication of this and the amount. these are just estimates, i would love to have perfect numbers but we do not have that for anybody. host: where'd you get the numbers from, what agency? guest: a lot from the u.s. that is aother survey supplemental income and program participation survey that comes up every four years in ways, 2015 number seven been released. that is another source of information. host: speaking of black markets, are there other black-market should be legalized? guest: immigration is my specialty but generally i think legalizing drugs, moving that black-market, moving a lot of
rules when it comes to black market firearm ownership and making it easier for people to legally owned firearms in the united states. ways to reduce radically the size of black market, especially drugs, and my colleague wrote a report about how marijuana legalization in a handful of american states has collapsed marijuana smuggling across southwest border. it has decimated it. that is a large benefit, the law and order and we should do that with other drugs. host: cato.org. alex nowrasteh, an immigration policy analyst. taking your next -- your phone calls for the next 15-20 minutes. doug in florida. caller: good morning, how are you doing? host: good. caller: i had this one question, donald trump's in-laws came from another country and are now citizens.
where do they work or do they daughter who lives off her husband who lives of the government, don't they have to go? guest: no. they are american citizens. they were naturalized a few years ago. i may be wrong about that but they do not have to go. i do not think it is right to make them go. i want to apply better roles to everybody. -- rules to everybody. i could not tell you the specific details but i do not think they should go. host: sandy in washington come independent. -- sandy in washington, independent. i wanted to put a little twist here. i am 72. i was born and raised in an agriculture part of the state in idaho. in the 1950's and 1960's when i was in junior high and high school, we had harvest vacations, two weeks every fall, and the kids went and worked on
the farms and whatnot. very low money. hard work. that 1960's time and will say0's when, i this because so many people do not seem to remember how this whited, quite america -- america come agriculture, big companies, get wealthy white men, they decided they would bring illegals in. in the early part of that, some of those farmers got caught and were fined. i remember a few that were jailed for a time because they were bringing in illegal mexicans to do this terribly hard work for next to nothing. prior to all of that, we had
migrant workers who came from the florida places and they came to do the heavier agricultural acorn and the grain -- with the corn and the grain. when you started seeing who i personally think, mexicans are some of the hardest working people i have ever seen, and some of the nicest people. i get so upset when i listen to c-span's people of the united states of america, i cannot imagine where their heart or mind is, because, if you want to blame anybody, you have to start at the very top, the government rich mena, the white, of america, they have abused and exploited the mexican people. host: that is sandy in washington. guest: very important come immigrants come to united states
because we want to hire them and rent to them and sell to them. we want them to be our customers and family members. unfortunately, federal government rules are so restrictive that the majority of those who want to come here cannot do so legally. you talk about your experience in idaho as a young child working in agriculture during that time. there was also a guest worker visa program for mexicans that allow them to come up and agriculturein agriculture during the late 1940's, 1950's, early 1960's, go back home when they're done which created a circular flow and cut the number of illegal immigrants in the united states 90% in two years and drop the flow of illegal immigrants into the u.s. by 95% over two years, it saw the illegal immigration problem because the government created a way for people to enter legally and to work.
what we need now is an expanded way to do this. on the news now people are talking about the migrant surge at the border, central americans, talking about salvador guatemala, el , not talking about mexicans and the reason they are not talking about mexicans anymore, even though mexicans dominated illegal immigration for the vast majority of american history, it is because they get a large number of temporary guest workers now call the h2 which has crusty illegal immigration from mexico by channeling it into the illegal market. comeed to create a way to here legally and perhaps temporarily go back and that would solve the black-market problem once and for all and put me out of a job. ohio,juanita, cincinnati, a democrat. caller: i have a few things to say. grandfather,de, my
-- he did not answer the latest question, he talked about illegal immigration from south america and north america come he said europe -- america, he said europe. i have been to south boston. i am 60. i do not feel safe there -- i am 68. i do not feel safe there. host: i am -- i assume she is talking about illegal immigration from places besides central america and mexico? guest: 80% come from central america, south america, the caribbean, more than 80%. several hundred thousand from asiae, africa, china, east but the majority are from our hemisphere. that is because it is easy to come here from the western
hemisphere been from elsewhere. one of the main checks from illegal immigration is not allowing a visa for them to fly here. that means that mexicans and central americans and people from the caribbean and south america have another option which is walking across the board are. a french illegal immigrant cannot walk your, they have to go to the visa waiver program or get a visa and very few want to become illegal immigrants or immigrate here because europe is developed with a high income and the economic benefits of doing so is fairly small. a mexican who comes to the united states expects a threefold increase in wages, adjusting for the cost of living , while europeans will not expect much, a lot smaller difference. host: 10 or 15 minutes left with alex nowrasteh at the cato institute. for --al phone line,o,
fore line, 202-748-8003, legal immigrants. undocumented immigrants and taxes. can you put a number on what undocumented immigrants pay in taxes? guest: that is very hard to do. i can talk about specific programs which generally pay $10 billion a year into social security funds. we all know social security has serious physical problems and legal immigrant workers will not fix it but they are contributing positively to the programs and overall to medicare. the big positive side of this is they generally have very little access to welfare benefits but also generally make low incomes. they will not pay lower taxes in a place like california because of how high the progressive state income taxes, but in florida or texas, which do not
have income taxes as they were land property and sales taxes, they do very well they and the state of texas did a study for 12 years and estimate illegal immigrants pay 400 -- $400 million to 500 many dollars more to the state than a takeout. host: jupiter florida, john, good morning. caller: i would like to segue into the previous subject. the immigration problem is affecting rural hospitals in a way they do not have insurance and by law the hospitals are forced to treat them. how could any hospital stay in business with this sort of setup? it will not work. what destroys the communities in these rural areas, and various other ways also. guest: there is a problem with u.s. law about getting medical care in hospitals. 1986 says the hospital
has to stabilize you before transferring you to another hospital with killed the charity hospital industry in the united states and emergency medicaid which basically covers anybody who shows up at a lot of these hospitals. the government cost is in the billions of dollars per year, low billions of dollars but it is a problem and primarily affects places along the border. that is a fairly simple legal fix, repealing portions of that act. that is largely a problem with the welfare state. we can fix that through very small reforms of the welfare state. that will not be remedied by tinkering are trying to tinker with the legal immigration system because the majority of these folks are illegal immigrants who are much less likely to consume health care in the united states than anybody else and have better health outcomes. host: louisville, kentucky, dean, independent.
about --ou talk [indiscernible] when we built the statue of liberty, they came in humble, the poor, they had to have a work ethic and support themselves. they could be sick. they send people back to europe because they had health problems. tb. guest: there are health checks currently on legal immigrants but people who sneak in not legally do not go through them and it should be easier for people to enter legally so they can be checked out. having children in emergency room's or in hospitals, for poor people, a lot of the benefits are covered by the u.s. government's new emergency
medicaid or the women infants and children program, a lot of the costs are covered. that is a problem with the welfare state but you have to take into account, not just the money spent by the government, but also taxes this new american citizen will pay throughout the rest of their lives. one of the main problems with social security and medicare now , besides the fact their unsustainable and not well-designed, we have fewer people than anticipated with the birth rate being lower and having more young people in the united states who will grow up and be workers eventually, that in the long run will at least put a little bit more money into these programs and maybe give congress more breathing room to reform them. host: fred in maryland, republican. good morning. caller: thank you. excellent program and thank you for c-span. if some individuals in the united states illegally have stolen social security numbers to work, they essentially have
stolen identities. is it possible they could use those credentials to vote illegally? guest: yes, that is possible. there have been investigations in texas to try to look at this. and the number of voter fraud cases by immigrants is very low. but that is another flag. immigrants doal not want contact with law enforcement or the government very much because they will harass them and deport them. that is one reason why immigrants, legal and illegal, even though some of them have access to welfare benefits, they do not usually access them because they are afraid, they do not want to get in contact with the government and voting is something you put yourself in direct contract with the government.
people do not come to this country to vote but to work, especially you legal immigrants and they do not want to --illegal immigrants and they do not want to increase their chances of being apprehended and that is why evidence suggests illegal immigrants are less likely to commit other crimes like filings and property crimes. there are a handful of cases of illegal immigrants voting illegally but the numbers are small. host: continue discussions about what services illegal immigrants use in this country. childrenrings up the illegal of immigrants and schools and emergency rooms, could you speak to that and the cost of that? guest: as the public schools, the person is right, under the 1982 supreme court decision, states cannot discriminate against illegal immigrants when it comes to access to public
schools, you have to let them in. children of illegal immigrants who are born here and american citizens have access to the welfare benefits and the public school. andosts between $10,000 $30,000 per year per student in the united states. depending on how you count it. there are large outlays for everybody. that to theompare taxes that these folks will pay throughout the rest of their working lives. if you just look at because when they are young, that will get a biased sample and if that was the way you look at it it would never make sense for anybody to have children under any circumstances ever but that would lead to a lot more than a fiscal catastrophe but a catastrophe. host: rich, easton, pennsylvania, democrats. caller: good morning, john. i have a person who worked at
the social security office and in,told me that people come maybe with their son, who is a professional, and they bring the parents from say like india and they come in with their suitcases still with the tax on onm from the airport -- tags them from the airport in the first thing they do is sign up for social security. are they able to collect? she said they collect $700 each. i know people that do not get that after working most of their lives. guest: in order to get social security, you have to pay certain amount of taxes into the social security program for 10 years, 40 quarters and generally the eligibility for medicare, more means testing so you have paye poor but also have to in the system for a long time, 40 quarters to get access so my great-grandmother who immigrated
, she eventually did get social security benefits after she worked in the u.s. for about 15 years but would have not been able to even though she was elderly during much of that time to get the benefits because she did not pay into the system. host: salem, missouri, ronald, republican. caller: it is very disingenuous the way you portray the illegal alien, when they arrived to the assets they apply for an asylum and get temporary legal status and the idea of them not eligible for social security, and is part of the program they are eligible and do not have to work one day and can draw out of that. it amazes me, you sit there and lie. guest: asylum with illegal status, some of the people getting asylum will become illegal immigrants in the future
but are not illegal currently and we should only count illegal immigrants when they are actually illegal immigrants. ssi, that comes out of it but the caller was asking about social security retirement benefits but there are a limited ability for ssi, some immigrants do have access for these payments but it is more restrictive than you make it sound. when it comes to social security , most of the benefits are retirement benefits and that is the reason why the government is running from a deficit within the social security program. and is the big enchilada what we need to focus on and i believe that is what the caller was talking about. host: tom in harrisburg pennsylvania, independent. caller: i have to agree with the last caller. we lose way more money than we get. look at landscaping, they get into an accident,
infrastructure, who pays for that, us. the biggest lie, and the chamber of commerce will tell you this, they do jobs nobody else wants. total bs. they have been saying it for years. technology on these farms, there are plenty of jobs for just americans here legally. number 3 -- host: let me let him respond because we're running out of time. guest: if you want to check out the research look at the peer-reviewed academic research, the overwhelming finding by skeptics of immigration such as short for half come immigrants -- having more people here working as it benefit to everybody, and increases specialization and production and output. this country is whether because of immigrants and will be -- wealthier because of immigrants and will be in the future and thanks to other americans hard work. ,iscal benefit, you are right
some of these costs and programs are a problem. you have to compare it to the taxes that these folks pay over their lives and other americans pay because they are here, as well as realize the problem with these benefits, the problems are the benefits, the welfare state, the other rules that increase the money spent by the government and taxpayers on these programs. if that is your actual concern, you should target these programs and be concerned about welfare and not about immigrants. host: alex nowrasteh is an immigration policy analyst at the cato as a two and you can see his wo education policy and school
safety issues. watch c-span's washington journal. why that's an :00 eastern on friday morning. join the discussion. tonight on c-span, richard trumka discusses the labor movement and 2020 elections. after that, a panel of supreme court experts review the court's most recent term and preview the next term. next, richard trumka discusses the labor movement, the 2020 elections, global trade and tariffs and the trump administration. this event is hosted by the christian science monitor.