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tv   Doc Film - Che Guevara - The Faces of Che  Deutsche Welle  October 6, 2017 3:15am-4:01am CEST

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make your smile to be smarter with a smile. what you want when you want it. up to date. extraordinary. that. you decide what songs.
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i don't want to w. john. and i and i. am always thinking. about. it's after the hero dies that the legend is born. the legend of her nest.
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better known by the name chain is no exception to the rule like all legends it is based on reality a reality that has gradually slipped into an imaginary universe in which the hero is no longer a living being but a myth a life in the public eye and an early death were enough to make cheney a legendary icon of revolutions. you know fast effective going off. so did they had a poor childhood. his parents were very much what we call today. ahead of their time. his father was somewhat of an eccentric in an anarchist and
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his mother was brought up by nuns so the family was really very bush yet they didn't have a great deal of money they left to set a pole in the sierra de cordova an arid area in the middle of argentina on account of their eldest son's asthma his name was ernest oh he wasn't yet in estonia cheik with our. kid he was a very few nice skinny child and he never went out and. met her. his mother used witchcraft to try and save him as medicine was not enough. that she would search for black cats and lots of other things that she'd put in his bed. and then at the age of about five or six they'd say he's done for we might as well let him go his sister told me that they let him go like a bird from his cage. and instead of falling from his cage he managed to fly he
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took advantage of life he did sports rode horses and started to shoot and swim and . he was so tenacious and had such strength that he dominated his asthma and you have to understand the place as much occupied in his life. he was living on extra time because the as momus killed him when he was very small and all his life he suffered terribly from that so by dominating his as my he became someone with extraordinary tenacity knew could go on the internet she takes all the mail. while he was in secondary education and he moved in high society circles even though again he didn't have much money but his parents were so well known that he always had lots of invitations everywhere about it. and then when he'd finished his secondary studies he returned to buenos aires where he plunged himself into studying medicine. i've remembered it before he'd even finished medicine school he decided along with an older friend who was older than him. to take
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a major trip around latin america. the upper level people i mean he could appeal i mean they could very well have gone to see the pyramids gone to paris or done something other than discovering their own continental talk and you know let's get down to this on what's interesting in their case is that they remained in their homeland in latin america that a touch of mama a mother land of the incas. there were two high points of this trip which proved to be rites of passage which would be dramatically peashooter because it was there that he was exposed to pre-columbian civilization and as a spanish descended on he thought a great deal about those past civilizations that had been destroyed and he was
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angry with the spaniards for destroying those civilisations and after the truth you come out he was angry with the americans for in slaving his latin american contemporaries. they were shocked to discover the terrible endemic poverty as you know mine called. northern chile. a place where people were born and died almost at the mercy of their american masters in terms of slavery so there were the beginnings of shock and the reflection they kill or yeah when i was after it damages it as soon as he got back to buenos aires he finished studying medicine passed his exams and within a few weeks left again for a second trip this trip resulted in him leaving argentina. he had gotten to know where young politically committed a peruvian woman she was rather plain looking but very militant and she developed
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a sense of marxism which became very strong. at one point he even intended to go to mao's china and very nearly well. but he stayed in guatemala where he witnessed american imperialism on a very real scale. that you were to the second got him in one nine hundred fifty four a left wing nationalist member of the army set up and i rarely reform but it was fought by united food a major american banana producing company. this agrarian reform led to the toppling of bents. the united states landing. mr given was there at the time. and witnessed the landing of the master
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supported by the united states. appear valid as you knew. he tried to organize the resistor. with the guatemalan communist party but the balance of power was much too in favor of the americans. very important lessons about preparing an effective revolution about preparing for a united states military intervention. he learnt about the need for training. but he remained in hiding for a month at the argentine embassy and. then organized his departure from mexico where he took refuge. here again met with the cuban exiles he had met in guatemala who had traveled from guatemala to mexico and. these cuban exiles first introduced him to roll castro
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then a month later to fidel castro who had been granted amnesty and it just arrived in mexico. in mexico he immediately try to organize a team of commandos to return to cuba to bring the revolution their. fellow. started referring to. as for them not all argentine started their sentences with the word. for che his first meeting with fidel was utterly and wonderfully decisive for him. he felt that fidel possessed all the qualities of a real war leisure. and the necessary determination tenacity and intellectual potential to successfully carry out such an improbable adventure
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you know. it's staggering to think that eighty two men went in conquest of an island that was protected by over fifty thousand men heavily armed with the help of the united states. their adventure started when evening in november one thousand nine hundred fifty six when eighty of them crowded into a small secondhand boat fidel castro was so impatient to arrive that he mordred the wrong place where he was not expected it was more of a shipwreck than a morning. get out. of our was slightly hurt and at one point he had the choice between taking a bag of medicine and a box of our. he couldn't take both so he chose the arm. from then on he declared that instead of being
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a doctor he would become the revolutionary militant and the guerrilla he'd always been a. distance athlete was waiting for them they were bombed and there were many deaths but they managed to escape with the help of people who waiting for them. a dozen or more members of this expedition reached the sierra maestra which is a small mountain with such thick vegetation it was very difficult to spot them. it was in the sierra maestra that the revolution and the struggle were organized around fidel castro and her nest changed with our. change became an emblematic figure of the revolution that fidel castro used to his advantage that. you.
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will feel it was also in the sierra maestra that the legend of che was carved out a popular figure of the revolution in progress he became the most famous of commandant this you. feel dirty to feed your child when you confidential made shea the first commander of the cuban revolution with well he placed him ahead of his own brother rose which was an extraordinary mark of respect did you know it was so courageous and fearless it was almost too much. fidel would tell him they needed him so badly that he was not to go and get himself shot that he should hang back a little and calm down he'd tell them. as time went on and the rebel army started winning a military comeback it's against the test as. it also carried out in parallel
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a very efficient and interesting policy in the mountains. the policy was led by che guevara and consisted of setting up schools in the sierra maestra mountains and hospitals to doand in reality they were tents but the peasants were treated there and taught to read and write wherever possible. the rebel army paid great attention to their relations with them that's how little by little the guerrillas proved efficient against the dictatorship it's also how they won social support because protests were. impelling now these successes fed the development of popular mobilizations in the towns. vera left at the head of the guerrilla collins going to take a central town on the island of santa clara so it was a real street because he had never been there before the very first time he went on to santa clara he applied a military tactic that enabled him to capture the identity from then on but
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everything fell apart for that it is only in december fifty eight the dictator fled . and the revolution was victorious for years. this is rebel radio from cuba and american free territory. victorious the revolutionaries the liberators from the teesta dictatorship wrote into law have on tanks cheered on by a static crowd from then on nestor che guevara occupied an increasingly important position in cuban political life becoming minister of the economy the minister of industry. or a dream you had to. go on che arrived in havana bearing the reputation of
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a great commander. fidel cast. i had always been wary of anyone who might have too much prestige. christie stick it out showing him there are there's something there i thought it was the outcome so we ask of our other to look after the fortress of like a banya which overlooked the port of havana and where previously the first revolutionaries had been imprisoned and then following the victory of the revolutionaries but easters entrances that. say give our fidel castro in charge shake of our with the task of organizing trials for the prisoners of the tasters regime just. so it wasn't just another episode in shades history. it was probably the most indelible task you could have had. to be so much a business. you know cuba who were on the receiving end at
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the time and family members of those who were shot called him. the little butcher of like about here. this is all under his orders dozens of prisoners were executed following ridiculous trials lasting anything from a couple of minutes to an hour to. people were shot in the night only. solution if you don't he wasn't a tall bothered if you would send people who hadn't been tried in court. he was in charge of carrying out execution is on those who had been sentenced. at first they were people who had been involved with liberties to regimes. involved with repression but soon it was counter-revolutionaries while i was.
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there resistance fighters are violent in my point of view is legit. from the french point of view it is also legitimate because they are always singing the praises of john law and the other resistance. stop. the violence by resistance fighters is one thing but when you are in power shooting three hundred people is a crime. said. the like a bun your episode was to reveal chains darkest side although he was driven by strong values of social justice he did not hesitate to have hundreds of sentenced opponents shot from trials the execution of the former head of batista's police was an example. some authors claim that fidel castro was already a communist but i don't think he was. give there on the other hand
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had a real knowledge of marxism but without having been a member of any communist party back in the news. i mean isn't. all right. well. castro still didn't know whether he'd become communist or marxist he became marxist particularly on contact with change during the sierra maestra and he asked for the support of the cuban communist party because the cuban communist party was organized on a vertical discipline system which was not the case with even fidel castro's troops . so his posts this. is from fifty nine in the face of attacks washington was preparing the revolutionary
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leaders in particular castro and give era we're looking for support. experience in guatemala i was very important. they were looking for support in the face of what they quickly understood was going to be a swift and inevitable break with the american government. and they were to find this support in moscow that you wanted to. tell them which is mop way and it was only after a year of diplomatic economic and political guerrilla tactics with major u.s. companies that the veil was lifted. and castro declared himself a friend of the soviet union and a partisan of a system of collectivist socialism that the americans very quickly branded communist. castro has just thrown a huge spanner in the works of united states cuban relations in
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a speech he gave despite his illness to the first latin american youth congress he announced the expropriation and nationalization of american companies in cuba this decision will affect businesses such as the cuban electrical company as our standard and texaco which are worth one billion dollars this marks a new episode in cuban american tensions. you see the united states decided to finish with this dangerous individual and it organized badly a landing in cuba persuaded that the population would rally around the counter revolutionaries that were landing. back castro and give our war on all fronts which led to the famous fiasco known as the bay of pigs. the
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us realized it wasn't quite that easy to get rid of fidel castro and fidel castro from then on deliberately turned towards the soviet union to ask for their support . lemon yellow and in the way in which the economy was treated in cuba was. it was like the sorcerer's apprentice is. lenin's watchword into his head to industrialise the country. for him sugarcane signified a sort of slavery and also a fatality for a single crop producing country. cuba needed to get industrialized except there were no real materials. you don't taunt in the name of they were around thirty years old when they came to power now that's ok to be in power at that age
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if you're talking about just one person but when they're all that age you need older people to balance things out in government so things weren't always that easy . so he became an economist overnight although he was more of a poet more of a donkey or than the owner of a bank. should. it wasn't easy for him but he gave it his all very. full. of this unbridled revolution that so exasperates the americans confuses the soviets. there was major debate over the principles that had been adopted in the soviet union and those that he was developing. the debate was one of material stimulus versus moral stimulus. the
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material stimulus principle that had been adopted in the soviet union and that the most realist of the cuban communist thought they could adapt. was to give either more money or consumer goods to the people so they'd work harder. disagreed arguing that people should simply be given moral stimulus that's what moral stimulus meant they'd be given a little pennant or medals to show they were avant garde workers and that they were leading the first free territory of latin america. of course it didn't work. for. the cuban leaders luckily didn't have a great deal of responsibility during the missile crisis. the cuban leaders with fidel castro at the head wanted to send as a preventative measure a nuclear missile onto
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a major american town. that's what he wrote black and white to nikita khrushchev. it was an error on the part of the soviets because it was the soviets who set up the missiles but when they saw where it could lead they said we're going to withdraw the missiles. but che totally subscribe to the plan to fire a nuclear weapon onto a major american town and to provoke a worldwide holocaust it was clearly in line with his beliefs but was above all in the line of fidel castro's beliefs he was merely following his mentor. launch from again in the western hemisphere as an attack. on the united states requiring a. response. but especially castro were extremely upset to see that discussions between khrushchev
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in kennedy took place without him. on the. set that. as a result relations became more stilted with the soviet union but from that moment on the cuban economy started to take a downturn. and had to count on economic aid from the soviet union and eastern bloc countries and you also had to get a beta test. only a few days i only had a concert fidel was obliged to compromise whereas who in the beginning was so impressed by the soviet union with a sort of undying admiration became disillusioned.
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in defeat i asked some. clear but gradual difference developed between fidel and cheney intil cheney who is the spokesman of cuba. launched into a diatribe against the soviet union or almost against soviet period listen. on on t.v. so here. we have billion isn't a soviet that was the day che guevara went too far one could hear him backstage bowing to sylvia delegate he said something a socialist country or a country on the road to socialism had never dared to say. socialist that socialist countries had a duty to pay in arms and resources like third world countries seeking freedom and want conversion in delhi in on the. they shouldn't sell arms as was the case for
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the soviet union in the eastern countries to be the best van there is. once back in cuba chased trance turned to suspicion when he finally met with fidel castro and as now those articles the cuban president he kept his head lowered. behind the smiling decides the tension was palpable castro tried to make contact with him with the son he disappointed but she looked away under the weight of the mute accusation. but you know this war from that moment on give our disappeared totally it was give ours last public appearance and from that point on give our understood that he no longer belong to and cuba. said till i was sure no he was a revolutionary did all he wanted to carry the revolution throughout the world so your it was his mission in a way his urgency his life so he was sent to the congo into
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a fairly neutral zone not straight to south america but to a zone where he wouldn't bother the russians. it was only a war which is why he went to the congo on a totally grotesque mission as no one there was prepared for guerilla warfare borne . there were a few skirmishes and finally the belgian rangers helped by the americans who had informed them cornered them requests they realize that the only solution was to escape that this guerrilla war had not served any purpose. so yeah. the so. people started wondering where's che what's happened to him. to get rid of the problem that fidel
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was to do give our a disservice by deliberately or not to still and that of debate. in october one thousand nine hundred sixty five he gave a public reading of a farewell letter the che had left him. yet i still don't like allowing a little silly me smile they still said what. joke would lausanne look at baseband they got a lot of correspondence i believe that but i think they called it all out on the ship out of. say plastic and why but when i made the l.a.p.d. i don't know. if they want almost all of them he says but i'm sorry that one's daughter you know must get evil and let me say that good either. so. the letter was rather strange in parts. it stated the chief formally resigned his positions posts and ranks and his cuban citizenship. and this is
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in the can call something it praised fidel very directly it was a bit like the victim praising his executioner he was a consenting victim. when you analyze the letter in greater detail you realize that the terms used in it are often similar to those used by the victims in the moscow trial. the public reading of this letter condemned j. to return to legs. and duty. in the usual flood for fidel people can make mistakes yet if they continue to be devotees he would forgive them and that's what happened he forgave cheney and allowed him to return to cuba and organize his expedition to bolivia and where he died as a martyr. it was the finest gift he could have given him move room remove the need.
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i think recorded with fidel support he formed a team of commandos of sixteen people seventeen including himself from executives of the cuban communist party previous ministers deputy ministers etc they were to form a school of guerrillas who in turn would carry word of the revolution to peru brazil argentina and chile. although know all that and you'll go where source he ended up in the uncle was so i've been there myself it's a deserted place there's no one there just a handful of scared peasants he'll stop the oil like he thought the peasants would follow him in bolivia too but not one single peasant joined the guerrillas not one . when you don't believe you will see bolivia was another country that had undergone agrarian reform which was the basis of chase political programs it did
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for my. leaping his own the peasants supported the government in a way. they were real normals and then be given the country to experience could it us in fact it was the latin american country with the highest rate of them an army that the city what was irrational in a country as politicized as believe the area where the unions were so strong was to believe that because their little group of guerrillas was hiding in a forest things would spread the way they did in cuba. but it would have the cuban experience firmly in mind. he had arrived in a country he didn't know nor did he ever know about all of the previous political work that had been done by castro in cuba i guess. i can buy it about your mom almost a million more to get to know so i got one smart young man jay who was secretary of
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the bolivian communist party had received orders from moscow by letter from the party didn't want that guerilla warfare and it was doomed to fail but it did where they shut their hoping that we were developing this revolution in latin america if it succeeded would have been very good for cuba but it was also a way to get rid of che. he was becoming or could become troublesome and if he died that would create an exploitive oh here a week but. that's a yes i think you think the cia knew he had been in the congo and quickly understood he was in bolivia which they became certain of when de brézé was caught with the argentine painter seato bush does. it was only when the presence of the small expedition was picked up by the bolivian
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army and by cia agents that chase guerrillas were forced to move. and they started to circulate in the region. a region they didn't know where there was practically nobody to convince since it was the desert. it was an extremely hostile region and between december one thousand nine hundred sixty six and october one thousand nine hundred sixty seven they were like guerrillas without an enemy. they didn't try and enter into contact with enemies and when they did look for them they didn't find any intil the day they got denounced by peasants. their destiny was sealed it was over almost it if you need i think things were over the moment moscow told mangia to let che get bogged down in the matters to leave things alone not to get any more guerrillas not to seek out the guerrillas from the
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other side. then things were played out on the ground it was over but i've been there it's bare there's nowhere to hide it was uneasy they were extraordinary all the same hiding in the ravines they held out as long as they could. so how did che let himself get caught alive. it's said that his gun was broken. he most probably gave himself up. in my view that doesn't make him a coward but a human being. he was no longer a hero. he no longer wanted to be a martyr. he wanted to live. and he was convinced he was going to survive because photos of him that had been taken immediately after his capture were circulated in which che was clearly alive also because he debray in syria the
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argentine painter were both on trial at community in bolivia for which there was international media coverage. there was also government intervention on a worldwide level including by general de gaulle of france. when he was captured che thought he'd get away he thought he'd get out alive i think che wanted a trial in which he would have developed all his theories and his profession of faith. but the bolivians didn't see things that way i don't feel you have to differentiate between the cia and the bolivians. the cia didn't want to kill che. they knew that if they killed him he'd become a martyr. you know. the bolivian military couldn't care less about that britain.
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had a prisoner. in their jail they would have had a very significant political problem if you remember what happened with the register brae the international press and. then they decided to kill changes on the. law they don't eliminate the order was given to eliminate him then they had to decide who would pull the trigger. they decided to give a present funny present but that's how it was put to him to a young sergeant to run on his birthday. they told him he could have the guy went in but couldn't bring himself to pull the trigger so he went off and had a few drinks then came back and shot him but it didn't work so there was a guy from the cia there and he supplied the final shot. he was executed in the village and transported by helicopter. where he was laid out on a bench in
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a laundry. dead. body was put on public display like a trophy people came to see the corpse of the infamous revolutionary these images were to tour the world. from their face has continually been symbol of revolutionary struggle raising his character to the rank of a veritable master of marxist leninist ideas. for us che's death was a huge event. without boasting we were the only ones to hold
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a huge meeting in the mutuality hall in two thousand people came to honor che so it was really important for us. that he died in bolivia there was the internationalism of it all. we still remember che's attitude explaining that to help vietnam one two three four vietnam's had to be created he had a new way of talking that the old communist stalinist bigwigs didn't have so that was another reason our generation talked to him especially as at the time we had started to oppose the leaders of the communist party we were being kicked out and we were against stalinism who we thought they were too nationalist not internationalist enough so for us was the real model of it. see going to remain mine is a myth that he himself tried to create from the beginning. he saw himself as a hero of the liberation of latin america. but above all it was fidel
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castro who very quickly understood what he could do with che dead. that he was no longer interested in a living chain me he wanted to get rid of him but dead now that would be extraordinary quokka see legendary by these things i think if cheney hadn't existed castro would have invented him. hard you effing up che was far more useful to castro dead than alive whole mark of you. you must but i did a huge portrait of che that now overlooks revolution square seems to invite cubans to make ever more effort and sacrifices. although the dead he lives on. at the entrance to the tiniest village you can see his effigy
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a naive colors his face can be seen from on high on a huge panel among the field. he. has this fixed impeccably organized image. to. schoolchildren all over cuba start their daily siding said the most common as we will be like. we can transform into an icon a hero of the revolution three pesah notes are printed recalling the era in which he was president of the central bank of cuba except we sell t. shirts he rings there's a whole world wide market even a chain lottery the image of che by korda has toured the planet and is as famous as the image of marilyn monroe. you can talk about the myth of che in the past he's still alive he's everywhere not just on demonstrators t. shirts but also on people who dance salsa wears chain never dance salsa in his life
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he's become the symbol of cuba even though he wasn't cuban he's been cast in the wrong role. that icon fits the one dimensional period we live in the only thing that matters is image and there's nobody behind that image. out of the hordes of young people who wear the t. shirt because when i see them wearing them i ask them it's very rare to come across someone who knows who i was but if i ask them why they're wearing it they reply it's the revolution if i ask them what revolution is they answer stirring up shit it's not very thought out. and sixty eight people live with portraits of lenin marx starsky and stalin their reference was the one nine hundred seventeen russian revolution. today if you look at young demonstrators in paris berlin or rome one portrait still remains. and for the good reason that he embodies so well the idea of revolution internationalism and the refusal of bureaucracy which for me are
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really good values very fair that these values are so good in fact that as usual capitalist try to trade on them and you can now see che all over the place but i hope that will backfire on them. at all it will be. gotten to. the me to. kick off like we take football personally.
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when as all is money coming from. towns that are affecting football. the beautiful game big business still fun family test. thirty minutes on w. w's program guide to the highlights. the whole. w dot com highlights. on the steps of central asia. an expedition in search of an ancient denizen of kazakhstan the saigon antelope species since mammoth time. or year ago scientists found evidence of a mysterious catastrophe i saw with my own eyes the first at saigon's like that. which killed so many of them and or those that are alive endangered psychos in distress find out more in our interactive internet documentary at d w dot com site
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gus. physics. medicine. chemistry. literature. economics sign says. thinks. the world awaits the twenty seventeen and the seventeen nobel prizes. who will follow in the footsteps of the greatest minds all that time . the nobel prize is twenty seventeen. this week ended up in years. spain's government has rejected cut a line calls for mediation in the region's bit for independence the prime minister's office issued a statement saying it would not negotiate over anything illegal and would not
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