tv Doc Film - Gustav Stresemann and the Weimar Republic Deutsche Welle October 8, 2017 5:15am-6:01am CEST
see if this year's grapes is better say the wine makers thanks in part to late september sunshine at business point be easy for the answer in between it's a big challenge for individual produce and says i'm always in don't lose money you know question the prize because international competition is to face for them to raise prices including out of it with up their course. he's still a fan of the twenty seven thousand i am not so we can review. those venues and germany is a strong country. and we have achieved so much we can do this and if something hinders i say we must overcome it india. going where it's uncomfortable global news that matters t.w.
made for mines. was also good news i'm on a kiss to try to rescue democracy. a peace that was nothing of the kind. was. the first german democracy was on the edge of bankruptcy and of civil war. he had to assert himself against the enemies of democracy and above all against one of them i don't think we're talking about the right chancellor gustaf strays i'm on. november nineteenth twenty three the leader of the national socialists tried to topple the. government in berlin. you know you're just asking.
that very same night chancellor strays a man called a crisis meeting yeah listen to what it's like if you can which bush did. the president is to. believe you would believe this is a. greatest nation just perceives. it. the president and the chancellor hébert and strays and how to act. on the night of the eighth and ninth of november nineteen twenty three the future
of the german republic was at stake and he of all people had to come to its rescue . strays among. a man who during the world war had been an aggressive nationalist who wanted a world wide german empire who believed in the monarchy and lamented its collapse. and now he had composed an appeal for the republic and against hitler. in this hour of just any of the german people we exhort all friends of the fatherland to commit to the preservation of the unity of the right and to german freedom is it as bad as that. yes. we don't know what the next day will bring. but i will not give in. he knew the. hitler wanted him out his wife feared for his life kate and gustav
strays him and had been married for twenty years and once before his turbulent korea had nearly come to an end. it's had gotten off to a dream start at twenty eight strays a man was the youngest member of the rush tac the german parliament like the kaiser he dreamed of a world wide german empire. when war broke out in one nine hundred fourteen he demanded conquests in east and west when it was clear that the war was lost he too wanted to restrict the power of the kaiser but he didn't welcome the republic that was proclaimed on the ninth of november one thousand nine hundred eighteen. one.
was a brazen man found himself marginalized meet him says with the end of the imperial regime a man's whole world collapsed. for him personally the end of the war brought a hiatus in his career. and february nine hundred nineteen the freely elected german national assembly met environment the city made famous by good turner and schiller strays him and was the chairman of the newly formed german peoples party which wanted a constitutional monarchy but now it was the social democrats like friedrich hébert who had to say. that there was nothing there that i thought that i have either but. i think you are right. here.
in the national assembly the advocates of a republic had a two thirds majority based on the social democrats the left liberals and the catholic center party staff strays a man and his german people's party mourns the passing of the old days as a result many saw him as yesterday's man. made him feel snubbed could anything from god as this to understand. for the first time women could also vote and stand for election when it's come and you. can communicate. with the. strays a man had gone to weimar with mixed feelings to his wife he wrote today was the solemn opening of the german national assembly or rather should have been in my heart when i live in the old days and it hurts to see how everything has changed
and. these feelings were not shared by most. of the deputies in the next six months they created the legal basis for the new state the constitution of the weimar republic the government was no longer responsible to the kaiser but to parliament for the first time in german history sovereignty lay with the people. the new constitution and to take up where the failed revolution of eight hundred forty eight had left off reviving the ideals of the national assembly that had met in the polls kisha in frankfurt the colors black red gold stood for the tradition of freedom in germany and now they were the colors of the weimar republic.
but the shadow lay over the new beginning. in the spring of one thousand nine hundred nineteen the victorious powers of the first world war met in verse signed the germans hoped for a soft peace now that the kaiser had abdicated in vain. unlike america and britain france wanted to weaken germany decisively for its own security . the hall of mirrors in the palace of sign. it was here that the german empire was proclaimed after the victory over france in eight hundred seventy one it was here that bismarck declared a united germany. half a century later france had its revenge in the same hole now the germans were the defeated party. the representatives of the weimar republic had no choice they were
forced to acknowledge germany's sole guilt for the war and accept harsh peace terms . the new republic was forced to take on the legacy of the old empire. here to stray them and oppose the government. because in we may be lost if we do not sign the peace treaty of using such will certainly be lost if we don't. stray ziman was unwilling to accept the consequences of a war he had welcomed under the terms of the verse i treaty french belgian and british troops occupied the german rhineland as a guarantee of security germany was forced to pay reparations and lost one seventh of its territory in the west alsace and lorraine was ceded to france in the east posen west prussia and part of up asylum easier to the newly constituted poland but regardless of course there were
a whole lot of stipulations in this treaty one might criticize but these problems could have been overcome with the patients and skillful diplomacy among t.v. however that was difficult in view of the nationalist undercurrent is used as an answer not just to clean. germany was shaken by attempted coup d'etat the extreme right blame the representatives of democracy for losing the war. foreign minister volatile ratan i was assassinated as was the former finance minister my ts aunt's bagga. the accusation was that the victorious troops had been stabbed in the back by democrats and socialists. fake news. i wonder if the difference between environment and day lies in the political culture in those days it was usual in many circles to create fundamentally opposing
positions and to resort to violence relatively quickly. the nationalists propaganda had an effect. in the first elections to the new rush tag in june one nine hundred twenty the party is supporting the republic social democrats left liberals and center lost their majority the opponents on the fringes gain votes including strays a man's german people's party who share went up from four to fourteen percent making it a force to be reckoned with and the potential coalition partner but for whom strays and sense that extremism whether from left or right would drive the state over the edge he realised the republic was a compromise but one worth defending for the sake of internal peace and that rejection was no solution. treason mondeo and similar to meet
him at the end of the war in one thousand nine hundred eighteen it looked as if there is a man was finished but in one thousand nine hundred twenty he was back in there i stuck with this party and straight away they helped the key to the weimar republic because the actual supporters of the republican social democrats left liberals and catholic center no longer had a majority yet. they were dependent on one of the parties that had originally opposed no there's a public option just like strays a man's people's party. but the crunch didn't come until nine hundred twenty three a year of crisis for the young republic so far only the rhineland had been occupied but in january nine hundred twenty three french and belgian troops marched into the room officially they only wanted to secure a guarantee for the payment of unpaid reparations berlin urged passive resistance
two million workers in the ruhr came out on strike. the states paid their wages it didn't actually have the money so it simply printed it which sent the value of the mark tumbling. the resistance was welcomed across party lines the rule was germany's industrial heartland. whoever controlled the roar control germany's economy the french were well aware of this and fear of their neighbor might become too strong once more. but now the machines were standing idle. in february nine hundred twenty three strays and went to dortmund to firm up support for passive resistance in the occupied territory for papi. the prominent politician had to reckon on being
arrested so he travelled on false documents. long for the here comes. this you know show. and school. alike if and if as he holds. only. the situation in the rule was coming to a head. because of the customs posts food was scarce the french military set up soup kitchens to gain support but these two were boycotted. by the north of the russian and. after i got kind of life i churned. out. the mood was explosive there were acts of sabotage clashes deaths. in berlin to the situation
was tense in august nine hundred twenty three the government stepped down because of the rule crisis. president friedrich hébert had to nominate a new chancellor it was a tough decision only a broad coalition taking in both the people's party and the social democrats seem to have any prospects but for that he needed strays a man on side a vote hesitated. development money is divine the fansite is off never. having missions that is what i'm getting. feeding a sheen is this i keep pointing to his exploits. on the thirteenth of august nine hundred twenty three hébert appointed strays i'm
an chancellor and she's a money vice consul of wednesdays a man became chancellor it was a political suicide mission the weisz was in its most serious crisis since the end of the war the rua struggle have been going on for seven months the economy of the ruin and the rhineland was at a standstill hyperinflation was raging and no one knew what would become of germany wednesday's man said his acceptance of office was political suicide he didn't just mean it metaphorically. we mustn't forget not to now and. politicians were being murdered in those days and not a lot of. money was being printed all the time to finance the rule of crisis the currency lost any value it once had the influence you he's on him inflation became an elemental german trauma. that. people had the experience that everything they had saved including the war loans they have made to the state was simply lost. when
this had serious effects on people's confidence in the state and in god and surely of course for the. strays a man had to act to end the inflation he stopped the passive resistance policy in the rule. but he also had to answer to parliament. the law is just the only thing we have left in the collapse we have the experience. to preserve it now is the jew we have to fulfill. it was a brave speech the right accused him of treason and surrendering to the french once again they said the republican brought the nation to defeat but he had no choice. to beat. he was answered with shouts of coward one deputy said it
would cost him his head let's hope so shouted another. others thought he was abandoning the people of the rule. as for the ending of passive resistance the courage to take this step is perhaps more nationalist than the slogans directed against a time employed i know that i'm putting my political future. maybe even my life on the line but what do the german people lack. only lacked the courage to take responsibility. strays and ending passive resistance was the moment when he took responsibility for a most unpopular act. and in that sense it was the high point or high point because it showed statesman like qualities knowing that he would be accused of
signing a second versailles. there were rebellions all over the country in cold blinds there were attempts to set up a separate rhineland republic in saxony entering year there was an alliance between communists and social democrats a red revolution threatened strays a man sent in the army but the main threat came from the right in the south of the republic. in munich the bavarian government mobilized against berlin taking control of the troops based there joined forces with the so-called fatherland associations extreme right wing bodies including hitler's national socialist german workers' party they intended to march on berlin.
the chancellor was well aware of this he could deploy the army against the communists in saxony entering year but would it put down a right wing coup counter. on secrecy. i've been. thinking of. going to transit was a bit in your thoughts. thank you. general hans von seek to was the country's top soldier was the army prepared to defend the republic against attacks from the right. the situation of the various explosive last saw and hitler may strike at any moment i see the army must be ready. and mr chancellor we cannot fight on too many like you needs if you know you do not have the confidence of the troops that. she
felt like so you refuse to follow my oldest. ok because he will leave it at that for the most. very well. a disobedient general why didn't strays him and fire him. so he's a monster and in order to nine hundred twenty three of our age seem to be going up in flames strays a man was under enormous pressure at that moment he couldn't enter into open conflict with the high command so he played for time the next to my left side. in munich the opponents of the weimar republic were mobilizing.
on the eighth of november the varian states commissioner go stuff own car held a rally in the borgo bro a be a hole. in his speech he sought to whip up opposition to berlin he spoke of shameful treaties. but one man there was tired of words he wanted action hitler saw his chance to strike he demanded that the hesitant bavarian government should join him the host and all those present were taken off guard. but his words were lost in the hubbub witnesses later reported they regarded the whole thing as a pantomime. the nazionale evidence showed his. yes i was just talking about sex on that show we have afghan men on visits.
and as i was. but the hot head from the national socialist german workers party was serious it was. business and the stuff i did not like don't get inside and comes. you know such it's going to give me the feeling that joe. got shot i say. you know you just. shortly before midnight the news reached berlin stories him and immediately called a crisis meeting president a but was present both were aware that if it came to the crunch only one man could suppress the coup. get out. what would be the attitude of the army if hitler marched on berlin up ahead of the battery in troops . the army is behind me.
and i fancy mine isn't it oh oh yes it was so what should we do know. without the army we have no chance. it was still totally uncertain who was really behind the coup. in munich the authorities hesitated to join hitler there was confusion in the whole. show is that that's had happened often in touch with. fiddler now revealed his trump card the retired general lute and off during the war he had been head of the high command and was still very popular now he was prepared to be the figurehead of hitler's insurrection. thank.
you very strong emotions two hundred diseased involved and that's only. off to berlin roared the crowd. the generals appearance clinched the matter one car and the officers present joined the coup attempt. which is no monarchy almost golf and she was deemed as you know i wouldn't offer other hitler another fun russell. general von law so an enemy of von secrets was supposed to become the defense minister in the new government. this is all this is our chance i don't like these last on hitler he won't take orders from the loss of. his rival naso was to be his boss.
mr president and gentlemen we have to act the coup must be suppressed. gentlemen i propose to give general fund zick to extend. emergency powers. yes. my son doesn't need any harness and i was into his everything he always wanted he has power. as he will ever give it up . he's a soldier to the bone. even tried to topple the government. and that's how people run out. of times out of others as on the one hand he's giving fun zick so much power was
a risk on the other hand it put the ball in his court he could no longer avoid doing watched days a man wanted in that sense it was a climbing. munich on the morning of the ninth of november at first confusion reigned in the city but gradually wood got around that good stuff phone car and general phone law so had distanced themselves from hitler they claimed they'd been blindsided. but hitler unload and off didn't give up with a march through downtown munich they hoped to win popular backing. at about midday they arrived with some two thousand armed supporters at the felde head and hala where they found their way blocked by the bavarian police who had been ordered to stop the march by every means possible.
and i thought excellent can i tell you don. it was never established who fired the first shot. one village only narrowly missed hitler the man next to him was killed as were fifteen other marches and four policemen. luden doff was on injured but was arrested on the spot. hitler escaped but was apprehended four days later.
after hitler came to power on the attempted coup which had been an abject failure was imbued with a heroic status every year on the ninth of november the dead were commemorated as martyrs it was above all leniency on the part of the courts that allowed hitler's career to continue luden doff was acquitted and hitler released after thirteen months. after the events in munich things quieten down just a week after the be a whole porch strays him and took another decisive step. the now worthless mark was replaced by a new currency the renton mark a trillion old paper mugs could be exchanged for one renton mark ending hyperinflation at a stroke. strays
a man had steered the republic through its toughest crisis but he came under renewed pressure in the reichstag into the city. the social democrats withdrew their support because he'd sent the army into red saxony entering. the german national party wanted him out because he ended the passive resistance to france strays him and called for the vote of confidence. the result of the vote is as follows for the strays among government one hundred fifty six members no confidence in the government two hundred thirty one members thank you thank strays a man had been chancellor for just one hundred days president hébert who had been at his side during the crisis criticized his own party the social democrats that's always fun last in consulates. in five guess. i don't write.
these months illustrates a man was perhaps the only man to emerge from the weimar republic as a hero of the currency was stabilized but the ruthless but necessary introduction of the antonov. the put and put down i'd like to put my vine my standards those words shoot success in the team but in politics ingratitude is the root cause in the but not the exception i was. the first strays and thought of retiring from politics completely and of course acting because much tools from at least from coming in from certain site. stories a man was suffering from great. disease a thyroid dysfunction that damages the heart and can lead to a stroke. and concentrate in history as a man's onst comes partly to my physique too and. as you must know if you're a man asking. this man and it leaves even i was.
born in the east. and shorty long i know how much she's in and that's you trying to. pull him out that's and has been. an activity makes a constant. sound even though it's been in the national. park sometimes i didn't come to my exam i got to the station the end. strays a man was given the post of foreign minister in the new government. and. the republic was on the road to recovery people began to talk of the golden twenties the quieter political situation the new currency and us loans allowed the economy
to grow quickly cultural life boomed as well the foreign ministers official residence became a center of social life kate stories a man came to be seen as the first lady of the weimar republic chancellors came and went but the foreign minister remained in his post. he even had a suit named after him the strays a man and stripes trousers grey waistcoat dark coat a trademark the minister set the tone and once he even appeared on the silver screen one of the first to try out the new talkies at a speed to much the roaring twenty's. the heart of the family have to wonder if i did not. right now you need to go back by not being on the right and i make a million and let me. i'm never going to happen and i can give it back i have never gotten out but i'm going to get back at it ok then we're going.
prism and also sought to leave his mark at the international look on a conference in switzerland in one thousand nine hundred twenty five. he wanted to improve relations with paris not least by renouncing any claim to alsace and lorraine once and for all. it was a goodwill gesture that went down well with his french counterpart aristide brilliant who also wanted a new beginning in return them and hopes for a speedy end to the occupation of the ruhr and the rhineland. after the ruling occupation forces must now be completely removed from their mindset otherwise there will never be real peace between our peoples the german people want peace but the best site tricky does not give them room to breathe don't go on or you'll make us all a cry please. i admire your boatless like you must give us time he says the french public have come nowhere near as far as you see of him i know i
know this but i don't know if i have time as. she is among the hot i know not in creek and a few years after the war is among realised that germany could only be successful in its foreign policy if it also looked at things from the point of view of the other powers and cooperated with. meeting under the mission pretty much. geneva one nine hundred twenty six germany became a member of the league of nations the previous sesar of the united nations from which it had hitherto been excluded. and in strays a man had cleared the way eight years after the end of the war. the defeated germany had been accepted back into the community of peoples the conciliation policy had gone down well in the wider world together with brianne strays and was awarded the nobel peace prize the first german ever to receive the honor.
in one nine hundred twenty nine the two foreign ministers succeeded in another breakthrough paris said it was prepared to withdraw all occupation forces if berlin would settle the reparations question once and for all but strays omens opponents saw only the costs not the benefits the far right started a hate campaign. your making a slaves for three generations they said. the campaign was led by alfred hugenberg a reactionary publisher and head of the german national people's party he was supported by france the leader of the style helm of veterans organization. this. is a man gets pushed in. strays another one comes out and get him back.
and they had another ally the leader of the failed pooch of nine hundred twenty three. hitler. given that for its. own a gun didn't get into your mind's eye noise of funk and. he's again the culture. i'm. now hitler had a powerful patron he had reorganized the national socialist party and a party rallies like the one in nuremberg in one nine hundred twenty nine he demonstrated a power which he didn't yet have but sought to grab at all costs the nazis still had few men. as in the reichstag but that was soon to change. strays a man was aware of the danger. he felt that slogans of
eternal slavery were more effective than appeals to reconciliation but his strength was fading he was dying. and i guess to. open the back track from the sun. to put it on. the one day he wanted to be clingy and. missed his hair short and he'd have only visited the young mattress with what isn't available. i'm afraid because. as for the.
temperature of the issues easy but in the interim to have to get his hands in the holiday season is really statistically genuine for supervision of the seated shared exuberance of years you can see it is not feel about new doors as we get mines up until. this point this bit is going to feel nor does he want to talk if you buy the cessna's but for some people you tissue love it that's the gun he. shines he. was easy. to live is tough long slow seventy eight asked if he is rich and deutschland only because.
most. of. us. in the early morning of the third of october one thousand nine hundred twenty nine strays and suffered a stroke and died at the age of fifty one. his body lay in state in the rice stack in berlin where he had made many passionate speeches. one quote of the time was his death is more than a loss it is a disaster. his state funeral was a public event could he have prevented the failure of the republic he certainly would not have surrendered democracy without a fight. mustache there is a monster is a man is still of role model for today that he never thought of giving up just
because some people criticized by friends he literally fought to the end to those. less than four years after his death strays a man's enemies triumphed over the republic. by the time of the rushed out fire in one thousand nine hundred thirty three democracy had long since been dead. when the end of the war on leased by hitler's germany the victorious allies stormed the ruins of the building it was both an end and the beginning. but first just one half of germany had a second chance of a democratic new stuff. only with the collapse of the communist dictatorships did those goals become the reality for that strays and hurtful to the united germany living in freedom and peace with its neighbors.
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