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tv   Doc Film - The Business of Poverty  Deutsche Welle  October 21, 2017 5:15am-6:00am CEST

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go the busy every weekend on d w. the markets of industrialized nations in europe and north america are saturated so multinational food companies have set their sights on the developing world aggressively expanding their presence in countries like kenya. they found a vehicle of growth in small packages of western style processed food conglomerates promise healthy high quality food for all but the products are high calorie nutrient poor foods stuffed with salt sugar and flavor enhancer. in brazil the result is plain to see lifestyle diseases are undermining a society already burdened by poverty and among.
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babies and more and more that these epidemic which has huge consequences for. cruising. power that in america's economic powerhouse many lower middle class families get by on less than two hundred euros a month still they are a key target for nestle the world's biggest packaged food control merit because they view convenience foods a status codes the company has devised the perfect strategy to extend its reach nestle say nestle comes to you. thirty seven year old
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patricia is one of eight thousand nestle vendors. i was desperate so i approached a vendor she said it wasn't a problem i could work three times a week or every day whatever suited me i was unemployed so i called. in brazil door to door vendors have long been a fixture of rural areas a remote urban neighborhoods but it's hard to reach supermarkets on food. and this lady's best selling items are dairy products like ya get some desserts most with the high sugar content. local distributors deliver the goods they're the link between the company and vendors like patricia. she goes out every day she's a very good salesman and works really hard i take my hat off she's not lazy she's always out brain washing. petrie's he has no
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choice but to work all the time the business risk is all hers nestlé is guaranteed it's profit but with you know it's self-employed and each month has to buy a specific amount of stock from the middleman regardless of whether she can sell it or not but we see his daughter jessica helps out. but to this she knows her target group that her friends and neighbors. the door to door sales system is good for people who have no money because they can have a tab with us. has to allow customers of two full weeks to settle the bill. and she lost them with the latest products that she delivers to the doorsteps of sao paulo's working class for the swiss food giant.
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these guys must work in a sewing show. the women have known each other for a long time that makes it hard to say no. when wooing the poor social pressure is a key ingredient in nestle's recipe for success it's also why multinationals along scene brazil is the perfect testing ground for new products the country. as a large population and a large consumer market even the poor here are better off than in other developing countries with the capital of disposable income of up to one hundred euros a month. brazil has a population of two hundred million around forty two million are poor in recent
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years increasing numbers of climb to the lowest rung of the middle class but this group has health problems rates of obesity and diabetes are rapidly increasing. congressman taro is a professor of nutrition and public health at the university of some pollo and a leading advisor to the world health organization his research has documented a nutritional transition in brazil. and the problem is that the products or the process products they are. increasingly being consumed by brazilians so then in the last twenty years the proportion of calories that come from these products. so then what we project is that if they don't do anything. the few years. the situation will be
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much worse in terms of the diet. brazil's poor are increasingly susceptible to obesity and diabetes the government is trying to counter the trend by getting people to improve their diet this health center in a favela on the outskirts of sound paulo is involved in that effort. eileen brandow trained as a nutritionist small team covers a neighborhood of thirty thousand residents she uses a playful approach to inform the women here many have almost no formal education and have acquired most of what they know from television and advertising. multinational corporations have aggressive marketing strategies to advertise industrial food products. they promoted as healthy food. supermarkets stocked these huge selections of dairy products such as yogurt that
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are all marketed as healthy the people are seduced into buying them as if you could buy health. regular how schools are another important part of a strategy to check with the people who actually implementing the things they learned that. we want to make it easier for people to buy natural from then processed from that's our biggest problem. the mothers here often have jobs and have little time that's why they're often used pre-prepared foods that's what's on the menu. lankin maria de silva is family she works as a cleaner her husband is in early retirement since they have very little money they keep their food costs low and buy cheap processed foods. gloria's not the only one
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overweight so too are her daughter but her granddaughter her family substitutes and time meals with sweets and snacks. eileen has been visiting the family for a few months now she tries to raise their awareness on the importance of nutrition drowns into the cupboard shows she's still got a long way to go. these are all products with a high sugar content. people have adopted these food habits and replaced meals these products aren't just unhealthy they're also comparatively expensive. even though the ingredients are cheap for the manufacturers sugar salt fat and gaba hydrates but consumers can't get enough of these products out there yet how often
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did i go to the supermarket and see so much i couldn't buy i used to wish i'd been able to afford it one day it's satisfying to be in a position to offer my family food like this. the favela where maria de silva lives is remote shops are scarce a look around the only nearby store reveals the dietary restraints locals face. we see lots of industrial food products here it's difficult for the local population to get fresh produce because almost everything here is processed food or snack items only the eggs and fresh because these foods are allegedly cheaper people eat these things once or twice a day or more they seem cheaper because they only cost fifty cents but at the end of the month people complain because there's no money left to buy healthy food.
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with around a thousand products of this type nestlé is the market leader in brazil the growth of these products is much higher among the low income people so our that's a high income people here. have more consumption that is still increasing but in the really we see much more increase among the low income families and of course. when you see the market of these products in the low income people is a very very special. the kenyan capital nairobi although it's a developing country kenya is one of the funsters growing economies in africa with a steadily growing middle class it's an appealing market for multinationals which good to have more sides of the poor as a target group. kenya has a population of around forty five million nineteen million a poor almost half the population lives on less than two euros
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a day. keep it or he's a nairobi slum that sermon to an estimated five hundred thousand people living in close quarters for food companies it's a target group with potential the middle lack of storage and refrigeration space locals buy small quantities up to three times a day like sell esteemed who lives in a simple shack with a forty. children. we used to eat roots and millet pirate for breakfast but then margarine and toast came along it tastes sweeter and is easier to eat. celestin works as a day laborer she's going out to get breakfast if she has enough money to buy food for lunch too she can't afford to stock up the shop is more like a kiosk and functions as both a store and home for its own account will lean. countless tiny packets of products
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hanging from the ceiling for monitoring to washing powder and spice mixes here too only the eggs are fresh almost all the products on sale a manufactured by unilever and cost only a few cents. the most popular. these ones and you then they must be all right because many people in this area they just through our funds to buy see saw and be used very cool. to leave this week to test yeah. silverstein can spend around a euro a day on food. she buys the popular stock cubes and the spice makes by the unit leave a brand royko industrial bread and brand of margarine called blueberry and come in
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small packages. that. i don't like you ok i know these are my favorite products i can buy them in small packages i couldn't afford bigger ones. silverstein comes from the rural west of kenya when her husband died she moved to the capital to offer her children the chance of a better life now forty three she works as a street vendor she earns four to five euros a day at best. it's a little life has really changed here in recent years. we used to eat potatoes and other healthy things. but this city so expensive we live in a slum we can't afford anything fresh in and i don't think that's why we eat royko and other products like that was in the small packets cost between eight and forty
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cents. anything more expensive is a luxury. lube and mondrian was developed especially for the african market it doesn't require refrigeration since she moved to the slum celestin has replaced much of a family's traditional diet with processed food poverty is just one reason. to be honest and even if i lived in a better neighborhood i'd still eat bread and blue band margarine i'd just buy a bigger packet we've really got used to this product but if i bought traditional food such as maison beans. still season the month right we couldn't go without these products anymore. most of kibera us poor residents feel the same that's hard for
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a million people spending up to one euro every day. cliff would be condemned is a nutritionist he accuses multinational corporations of appropriating longer stablish trade methods. the buying power is a sort of a you know that came up in kenya something called the don't you economy they got a good economy so it had something like it it's more pocketbooks it's like. everything that was was down there and they did produce them in small pox not that the poor can afford the money they are but it. is what they buy it's more things when. it's very evident what people buy here incubator the area is littered with countless small empty plastics are shades. this side pollution there's another downside to the small packaging business model. to buy stuff in small pockets one of his eventually being to be more expensive for them so it's
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actually it's more expensive to beef and to live in the slums and to and to buy the less smart part case that's what markets. you don't want the. small packets are available in industrialised countries too and here too they're comparatively expensive it's just that the people in these countries usually have a choice the peeping kibera don't. the standard the deft way multinational corporations target the poorest consumers we meet former members of a campaign that unilever rolled out a year before when kenyan slumps. these women would destined to become door to door vendors they were told they could earn money to feed their families. he was here and was wanting charge of such campaigns he says the real benefit to unilever is the access they give to the poorest of consumers. they can't afford
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a television to see an idea but they can't afford a radio to listen to an advice they can't afford even fifty shillings to buy a newspaper or to read a lot of act of giving of a product so that's why they chose to use women because it's believed that women are the most. who uses uni but for the next. twenty women here all trying to become vendors but they never got to drop and a deeply disappointed. market. they tested but they never they they haven't come back so we don't know what they're planning to do did. we take them through the course how to use the product of a liver but they did not come back to say the way forward. from today that went to date when they watch these they will start thinking back and come to. the training
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sessions teach women how to use unilever products so that as vendors they in turn can teach other women for a job like this is often the only chance an educated unemployed women get to earn some money. and they're funny oh. the women learn sales pitches the tailored to customers in the slums. and the. music you know so we have. where. you need such as i want to talk to you about healthy eating let's look at some unilever products here . the women learn that blue band monitoring isn't just popular it's also healthy because it has been fortified with five different vitamins. i mean me. i mean that. they
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also learned that they can use blue band module to prepare food for children it's that healthy next up their advantages of really coastal q. . and a right for you. when you cook for your family royko will help you give your meal a rich flavor. day you start using royko will be the day your husband will come home on time he won't cheat on you come straight home. yeah. finally as a recommendation to replace fresh foods such as vegetables with royko to save money for the women here it's a plausible argument. three right said three cents each cost two nine cents but when you go to the market to buy tomatoes and onions you pay forty five cents
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so you save thirty six cents with reichl we can use that money to buy something else. these sums old very small but it's still a worthwhile business for unilever. unilever portrays itself as a leader in efforts to empower women in poor regions maybe that's why for four consecutive years the company was voted kenya's top employee. we asked unilever to respond to the course participants accusations and for an interview on its corporate social responsibility and marketing strategist. but we would turn down with this explanation. unfortunately we are not in
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a position to punch take in this exercise due to potential commercial sensitive it is that may be invoked. women in kenya in the slums dream of having a job like thirty seven year old patrice here who goes door to door for nestlé in sound paulo but the job comes with financial risks she has to give customers a full month to pay for their purchases. and i. sometimes people don't want to pay but i have to pay the nestle distributor on the fifteenth and the thirtieth of the month if others don't pay it comes out of my own pocket. if she sells a lot the trays here can earn up to three hundred euros a month that's hardly mold on the legal minimum wage in brazil. under this business model best selling deborah products and dessert so organized in kits depending on
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size and contents the kit cost between four and twelve euros it's good for everyone the vendor sells more and customers pay less as a bonus the regular treats for children let him have some so he grows up to big and strong hard. but. so demands. today's children's day a public holiday in brazil most families don't out sweets and have a nice me. maria de silva is family is no exception this is one occasion on which this poor family goes grocery shopping at the big supermarket for many years maria has put i'm healthy food on the family table she slowly trying to change the eating habits but it's not easy. we'll see i've developed an awareness now but you try telling your
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children they're not allowed to eat sweets anymore. don't drink cola don't eat bread with margarine though that's all we can afford not. that's why we buy processed foods and because it's cheap. it's a market with huge potential in europe on the other hand growth a stagnated for years. industrially processed food accounts for around sixty percent of food consumed in western europe and north america and brazil down figures only twenty five percent but it's rising not only seo is fifty six maria is forty nine there are untrained as clean as they've managed to improve their family situation a little. all
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the children are allowed to tuck in and enjoy the sweets but to get there as a local treat the chocolate proline made of mangia rains sweetened milk cocoa powder and chocolate sprinkles many of stresses that today's an exemption but the family is finding it impossible to wean itself of cheap processed food. my said when the children see these foods in ads they want to eat them we end up buying the cookies with the filling the children want all of these things including all the sweet milk products we know it's unhealthy but we are swayed by the advertising that the consumer protection organization idec tries to counter advertising to adverse impact on apollo blames the economic power enjoyed by food come from roots brazil has strict consumer protection laws but companies circumvent them you know advertising for example for. people this kind of promotes are linked to to.
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social level that they are willing to me and willing to be a part of it so when you can buy just kind of products it means that you are part of this group. today nutritionist eileen brown dao is out with a group of women from the favela at the market she's teaching them to compare prices for vegetables and processed foods she uses the nutritional guidelines published by the brazilian health ministry as a teaching tool not all nutritionist received the book we only got a few. i only have to because i took part in advanced training workshops you can download the book online too but poor people don't have access to the internet. because again this is the one thing that the guidelines drew international attention but the target group it was designed for hardly heard about it eileen
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wants the women to recall the traditional recipes they grew up with. and we want to get these women to return to traditional ways of cooking and give them a new perspective on what we eat every day and they are responsible for the dietary habits of the people around them they have a big influence on our families the women are poor they often have no education drugs and crime. i'm compound the problems faced by many families a healthy diet is not a priority. they are standing at this fruit stall and they believe that one euro thirty for three pieces of fruit is too expensive because they can get an entire packet of cookies for thirty cents they think it's more cost effective to buy the cookies. the companies appear to grasp that the products that peddling are contributing to a social problem. in the country of two hundred
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million forty million brazilians are overweight fourteen million are diagnosed with type two diabetes this state has initiated its own health program in schools in brazil it's overseen by the nestlé foundation the nutria program is designed to teach school children how to eat a healthy diet the teaching materials a colorful and embarked with the company logo. their relation of the brand with the materials in the school is a mallu for the company you know the thing is more respect for they are things they can be seen as more. trust. and they do have. a mission there they are contributing to solve the problem this year the program was recognized as a public policy and then when he said and ford in addition security if there is one
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. for the next four years nestle will be integrated into sound paolo's public education policy with its one thousand three hundred and seventy five state schools the program is listed as a privately funded. but why is the city of sound paolo cooperating on child nutrition with a company that according to experts is held. to compound health problems in brazil . we've been invited to a school taking part in the nutria program most of the eight hundred children between the ages of six and fourteen come from nearby favelas the principle behind a new trail sounds good the dame's to familiarize children with unprocessed foods and help them develop an awareness for healthy food through the mystery foundation funds information events and organizes a healthy eating competition. a representative of sound paulo state school board has come to meet us. the foundation came to us offering the program.
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so we took six months studying the implications of the program especially because the name of nestle wasn't always behind the foundation so we took we took this very seriously you know. the principal has signed up a school for the nutria program for the second time schools compete against each other teachers and students have to solve questions about healthy eating. i can explain to the numbers here two hundred sixty five schools seven hundred three teachers one hundred eighty five thousand one hundred kids the numbers you know life right numbers. there's a fourteen hundred euro prize for the school that wins the competition. last year
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this school came third generating a lot of praise for the school board and the headmistress. now but. and i don't need their foundation i mean this then if the foundation is sefl nation and we are not the working week that comair fell apart and they are not aligning us to use it in this clip and that's. an end in sight there are no nestlé products in the school canteen the clean image of healthy food is undoubtedly more effective advertising it's clear the children here need help. and mistress tells us that school lunch is the only proper meal of the day for many here. this boy tells us he doesn't get food like this at home
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he's never eaten fruit salad anywhere else. on. a spoon and don's program is also part of the project the parents from the surrounding favelas are happy that the school office something to the children that they themselves come to afford and why counts who's teach children about healthy eating without corporate help. the point is that the products that these companies produce they don't have anything to do with us on the country most of what they do is to replace real phones there's a contradiction because they say they are interest to teach children to like real food and buy they don't commercialise real food i mean most of they then can commercialize our fake food as a public relations strategy. nothing more then there's the nest a foundation sees it as an example of social responsibility we want to learn more
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about the goal of nestle nutria we are granted an interview but a not amount to film it the representative emphasizes that the company is in general open to change in all areas but people can see. you can't make changes to production overnight you have to get consumers accustomed to alterations if you simply cut sugar in a popular product people would stop buying it. this late will do nothing to threaten sales after all brazil is a four billion euro market its fourth biggest worldwide. africa is not nearly as lucrative for now unlike in brazil diseases such as obesity and diabetes have not reached epidemic proportions but african
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nutritionists say it's only a matter of time they're calling for timely action. if you have the afghani did you know it's been established so this is so. i'm not unless i may have some copy here i mean. so one of the most important things about this african but it of course is that you have. all that need to mix most of my commitments that the most african families will be looking at unfortunately this one is some of the forth about you know about going on the families of them to go to other foods. why they are vegetables disappearing from the city how much sway do multinationals hold over rural areas as wants of agriculture to the north of nairobi. we meet family wilson he grows tomatoes and other vegetables everything for the market in the nearby town he has roughly half a hiker of lamb this is typically
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a small scale from one of the telling just that his family's going through it starts. even setting these things to the market is being exploited because. the prices are not the government by if they had their mind barabbas on i mean much. in kenya many farmers relinquish much of the profits to distributors who control and regulate the market and there's a further uncertainty fluctuations in supply and demand can leave the farmer stuck with his produce. so the farmers do all the work but the middlemen make the profits i should get four euros and thirty five cents for thirty kilos of tomatoes but the middlemen keep two euro sixty so i only get one euro seventy five. they're to blame for all predicament you know wilson cane would prefer to be a contract farmer for a major international company it's a system gaining traction in kenya farmers produce for
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a single company which guarantees it will purchase their entire harvest. unaccounted for i mean it's going to be secure that is going to gets some money. and now. plenty. he does not seem to understand but there are some politics so explain to somebody buy buy in a company. sammy will come aboard he's a contract farmer he grows beans for a major kenyan export a couple cheap isn't really free he says the prices are determined by the company and they're not good but he still doesn't want to go back to traditional farming. is on with of time because of those who are planning to buy their bio at that price and you are listed out the months in and he. is twice. since the
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big companies pay better farmers are increasingly opting out of the domestic market right behind samuel's field is a huge pineapple plantation it belongs to the mounting supplier of fresh and prepared produce and the biggest employer here in the area catherine works the fields for the mountains six days a week twelve hours a day like most of the people here she owns a piece of land and though she can't live off it she does farming on the side for extra income and the ingredients for a traditional done catherine never buys processed food. here we have beans and main. we've always eaten madly and. we grow everything that we eat including.
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could catherine afford the pineapple juice that's produced on her employer's field . i can't afford del monte juice i don't earn enough i'd rather buy an orange for two or three cents delmonte products start at seventy cents a liter of juice costs one euro eighty i don't have money for that. catherine lives frugally so she can support a daughter who lives in nairobi she can afford that because a monthly earnings are around one hundred ninety euros three times the amount field hands make on small farms. del monte has a reputation for paying the highest wages in the region. but the flip side is that traditional agriculture is only worthwhile for subsistence farmers like katherine. she grows beans maize root vegetables and yams.
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these things are important for us they're healthy they haven't been sprayed they just grow without fertilizer or anything else that's even on a. subsistence farming is still fairly prevalent in kenya. in the mega-cities sound paolo there's very little space for the people to grow their own vegetables but there is some does a little paradise on the some power lines in this poor eastern neighborhood house dita temple has created a community garden here he runs the aid organization cities without hunger planting
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vegetables on the news than private plots of land he started it ten years ago today homes teach attempt overseas twenty five and gardens in some paolo. it was a completely new concept to produce food in a file. when i started when i wanted to use line for communal gardens everyone always said it wouldn't work and that i was crazy. but they soon changed their minds. especially when they sold the vegetables and it's good and it. tends deed to help the poorest of the poor people without an education or the job cities without hunger and companies them for a year and trains them in urban agriculture the goal is that the garden begins to turn a profit after twelve months providing the people who farm it with a livelihood the vegetables on just for personal use they're also designated for
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sale in the local market finding new pope. this is the biggest obstacle this one is located above an oil pipeline it was once used as an illegal garbage dump and a hangout for drug dealers it took seven months to clean it up and prepare it for gardening. it's very intensive at first it's a lot of work and the land is heavily litter. we have to do a lot of work before the land is ready to be found. along. the gardens old farmed organically no artificial fertilisers or insecticides are used onto the on and a family of being with cities without hunger for eight months there's still receiving intensive supervision. i'm whole family works here
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we've changed our eating habits. i used to weigh eighty nine kilograms now i weigh seventy. i mean a feed of i don't eat processed foods and more i try to eat nothing that's unhealthy occasionally i let my daughter has no junk food because she to child and wants to try them. i think she'd afford the gardens of cities without hunger contrast stokley with the products sold by corporate food giants maybe this model will catch on. i'm not against drugs national corporations buttress national corporations control the production and the whole market of these products that are . increasing in increasingly. well healthy and what is worse they are replacing a dietary pattern which is healthy so then does work in public health. i cannot
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