tv Doc Film - Mahatma Gandhi - Dying for Freedom Deutsche Welle February 16, 2018 10:15am-11:00am CET
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he's known as the father of india but throughout his life while hundreds could i'm shotgunned evoked mixed feelings he was viewed alternatively as a fanatic or an eccentric a reactionary revolutionary saint almost lawyer or as a man who must be killed. he championed a philosophy of nonviolence only to die at the hand of an assassin. he led a peaceful resistance movement to free india from british rule yet independent india was born as an ally of brazil carnage. amid sectarian killings on an unprecedented scale gandhi risked his life to preach nonviolence until his dying day. on january thirtieth nine hundred forty eight he was killed by a hindu nationalist with three shots to the chest.
in nine hundred thirty one gandhi was interviewed by an american journalist. your concern. and. if you could read. the late brother of gandhi's assassin was jailed for almost two decades at the time of our interview he was eighty five years old and recalled every detail of the plot lord c. but better are not what i'm going to say. not that i'm going to say oh the one
who assassinated gandhi ji then long as. the hero was. nine hundred forty eight i do not get burned. water i mean disappeared to india we've already there to bed persons. to disperse not live. in the indian capital delhi there are several sites dedicated to the memory of the man to whom the poet to gore gave the name mahatma great soul. this somebody the site where gandhi's body was cremated on
a funeral pyre of sandal wood in accordance with hindu funeral custom. the national gandhi museum and a large house converted into a memorial museum after gandhi was assassinated on its grounds. every day crowds of visitors flock there from all over the country bengal and kerala pradesh and money poor. many indians rich or poor still see it as their duty to make the pilgrimage and pay homage. to the atmosphere feels more like a temple and museum. one room has a series of dire honest depicting key scenes from gandhi's life. visitors remove their shoes to approach the spot where the mahatma fell to the assassin's bullets.
press goes photographs gandhi's meager personal belongings his notebooks walking-stick letters even his blood stained clothes everything related to the life of the father of the nation has been preserved. when mohandas karamchand gandhi was born in eight hundred sixty nine india was firmly under britain's imperial young. like his father he seemed destined to. his family belong to the band. hard working from western state. gandhi's marriage at the age of thirteen was a ranged he and his wife would have four children. when
he was sixteen his father gravely ill. described him as a devoted son. gandhi felt that he added u.t. to his father the time he was dying and hopefully he wanted to actually be with him in his death. but on that particular day when his father came critically ill he. felt more attracted to his wife and he was actually in the act of making love to her at the moment when his father died and it's a lot of historians. his life feel that this was really something that colors his whole attitude to his sexuality eventually to his deciding to renounce a sexual relationship with his wife. after passing his bar exams in
london sunday returned to india to practise law but soon went on to take up a short term position in south africa he ended up staying for twenty years. initially. in south africa had lived the life of a rich he'd had a quite an affluent lifestyle he hadn't really. changed become this very ascetic person dressed in. clothes and so on he was wearing western style suits he was living well. but then on a train journey to pretoria a white passenger objected to gandhi's presence in a first class carriage and though he had a first class ticket he was thrown off the train he resolved to stay and fight for indian equality in south africa. when he returned to india in one nine hundred fifteen gandhi was a changed man. the barrister had become
a political activist trading his english suit in time for a dhoti the traditional dress of the indian poor he says how to familiarize himself with the social problems in his homeland travelling by train across the country always insead clouds. the movement for indian independence was gaining momentum gandhi addressed crowds in every town and village he visited he spoke of human dignity justice and independence. across the country nationalists organized bonfire protests to burn textiles imported from england. gandhi launched his charkha all spending will movement. he declared it the patriotic duty of every indian to spend two hundred yards of cotton thread a day and to boycott textiles produced in the mills of manchester and liverpool.
to become a symbol of the commitment of the nationalist corps to every every more. to sit down and to get out your spinning wheel to spin your cotton thread and they became very skillful at it you know they would spend hours every day doing this i'm going the saugus of something which was it was it was almost a spiritual task of spinning you know for the good of the nation. thirty gandhi led to three weeks all to march walking three hundred fifty eight kilometers to the village of dandy on the arabian sea where he defined the british self monopolies by lifting and auctioning off just for love songs.
he and his followers were arrested but it was a victory for the man who churchill contemptuously called the half naked foot here . coverage of the march captured the world's attention. gandhi had an innate sense of symbolism and mass communication. this seems like a contradiction and paradoxical for a man who came across as an ascetic someone who renounced worldly things in search of spiritual salvation. but he was a great politician and a great communicator. said. you can't use weapons with civil disobedience and nonviolent resistance the british countered with truncheons. colonial
repression was often brutal presence. gandhi was jailed seven times for a total of. his party. eight times serving nine years. from the beginning to the end the struggle for independence was led by the indian national congress party. gandhi was a guiding light nearing its chief organizer. the two men shared a deep bond even if they didn't always see eye to eye. candy from a traditional merchant family now and they set it close in a dhoti. narrows the anglicized brahman well dressed and elegant with ideas rooted in socialism something like their brains socialism in the
one nine hundred twenty s. . gandhi was prepared to tolerate that because he believed that there would always basically be dawdle to him. so that he gave narrow sort of certain amount of rope. you know to do go his own way but gandhi would always be holding it i'm able to draw him in whenever he felt you know he was going to to a great and extreme. and there when he was a he knew know that he was it was in his interests to keep him with god but he also had a genuine affection for gandhi there is own father had died in nine hundred thirty one and in many respects you can see gandhi sort of taking over that position of father figure for the area and so they do have a very close relationship despite the differences. that you men were very different
not least in their views on religion. narry was a self professed atheist something rare in a country where refusing to express religious belief is a to boot. gandhi was deeply religious he began each meeting with prayer. life in india is permeated by the values of hinduism which assigns a person's caste on the basis of. that hinduism has been traditionally because it has a tolerant tradition not given to proselytizing. islam had expanded under the reign of the mugu empress in northern india to become the country's second largest religion.
in british india muslims accounted for a quarter of the population. after the country's partition in one nine hundred forty seven that number dropped to twelve percent. hindus and muslims had long enjoyed a peaceful coexistence until political representation was attached to religious identity. the muslim league emerged as a political force in the one nine hundred thirty s. with the aim of protecting the interests of indian muslims. but a new goal in the creation after britain's withdrawal from india of
a muslim nation pakistan or land of the pier. the party was led by mohammed ali jinnah who had known gandhi for years. both. came from. speaking people they were both lawyers have been educated in law received training so in a way there was had a lot in common but unfortunately they came into very short conflict fight after god returned to india. in one nine hundred forty gandhi went to meet jinnah at his private residence in bombay. over the course of almost three weeks sunday tieless he tried to dissuade from his plan for a muslim pakistan. he assured him that muslims would have an honorable place in a secular and democratic india. he even offered him the post of prime minister in independent india's first government.
to jinnah couldn't stand the a faction and i tend. because like many muslims he viewed it as a pattern izing attempt by hindus to assimilate muslims. gandhi saw himself as a universalist he didn't want to be seen as hindu but his indians. going to put out i got me going to do yet everything about his style his dress was typically hindu the menu and. so musical memory is embrace of renunciate are a disciplines and linking of ascetic practice with political aspirations all that created the impression of a quintessential hindu sales. shimla the summit capital of british india. in the one nine hundred
forty six the leaders of the muslim league and indian congress party met here to discuss ways to implement vision of a united independent india. there is nothing diplomacy failed in the face of generous intransigence. after three weeks the talks broke down. campaign centered on a single topic congress was a hindu party with a hindu leader and if hindus won the first elections after independence muslims would face assimilation and oppression to survive they needed their own state of pakistan so in one hundred forty six he decides to take the matter to the streets general had been a strictly constitutional court petition before that and he's been loyal to the
british he hasn't ever been involved in civil disobedience campaigns he never adopted the sort of tact tactics that gandhi adopted in one hundred forty six august ninety four to six he decides to take the issue to the streets he's going to show the power of muslims in india and he has a direct action. jinnah's call for direct action day on august sixteenth nine hundred forty six in support of the demand for pakistan to start an eruption of harrowing violence in calcutta. five thousand people were massacred and twenty thousand wounded most of the. that led to retaliatory attacks by hindus against muslims elsewhere reprisal killings spread across northern india entire families were slaughtered. something hindus now claim their religion was too passive and lacked martial art. to them they into value of tolerance was an inexcusable weakness which had for
centuries allowed first the move and then the british empire is to enslave the hindu majority. they felt the time had come for hindus to assert themselves and for hindu men to reclaim their progress. if they wanted to reform hindu islam and boost hindus moral and physical strength in every town and village where the movement had a local chapter activists convene mornings and evenings for ideological training and physical trials to prepare to fight muslims who were once again the enemy of the more if you don't want. well hindu nationalists massacred muslims muslim league extremists butchered hindus ghandi was horrifying. he began to fast in calcutta which he vowed to continue
until the violence stopped. he refused to relinquish his vision of an india where the two communities could live in friendship and peace. and gandhi was watching all this he was doing his best he went to bangor he walked around the villages which where the muslims have massacred the lord's and he talked to the muslims he really put his life on the line and he went without any protection just a few of his followers walking on foot and they managed to persuade the most. that there was not not right to do this as he walked people would throw glass pieces on the floor excreta in his spot and his on top of that was to even get more of the very simple sandals which he used to bear in order to walk and start walking barefoot this had a tremendous more to impact and the fact is that we like to draw is between in the
christian tradition the crucifixion of christ that is suffering for humanity tormenting the fish in order to make the more of a beat and then there is other retaliation by by muslims in east bengal whether in the majority they turn on him to attack them master commanding the hindus and be hard on. the muslims. and again the do the same in u.p.a. and then in the punjab we see the muslims retaliating by attacking the sikhs and killing a lot of sikhs in march nine hundred forty seven so the whole thing is blowing up in a way that's becoming really completely uncontrollable. in march nine hundred forty seven lord louis mountbatten arrived in delhi as the last viceroy of india he had been tasked by the british prime minister to negotiate an exit deal with indian leaders. batten appeared bent on hastening the end of imperial rule and soon came
to favor the option of partition. again and again. but. once you are gone. but. only after you decide. and. then of course the congress leaders decided that they would accept the partition. was able to stir up so much trouble for them that if they didn't concede for a separate state of pakistan then he would he would cause terrible disruption within within india after independence and perhaps compromise the integrity of the indian nation state perhaps collapse. was appointed ten min of the
boundary commission in charge of equitably carving a muslim majority state from british india. he was assisted by two thousand and two muslims because he himself knew nothing of india that was why he'd been chosen to guarantee objective ety and fairness. most of india's muslims lived in the north the plan called for the creation of one state with two territories east and west pakistan located two thousand kilometers apart. but hindu and muslim communities in bengal and punjab were in extra mixed drawing board this was an exercise in absurdity. on august fifteenth one thousand. forty seven the partition between india and pakistan was made official. as the clock had approached midnight darla nehru the first prime minister of independent india address the nation. to do.
with it to me. and now all the time comes when we showed you the picture at the front of the midnight hour when we were deep into our window we don't like the leader. but the very morning after independence celebrations hindus in pakistan and muslims in india began to flee their homes muslims headed for pakistan well hindus set off for india. enormous convoys of people moving in opposite directions the greatest mass migration in history. ten million people who are displaced many were attacked by robbers and militants along the way a million people lost their lives. no one took responsibility for the tragedy but hindu nationalists accused gandhi of
allowing muslims to steal part of the hindu nation. we went to the delhi headquarters of the rightwing hindu muss about organization. there we spoke to its then president he maintained that his was the only group that sought to defend india's integrity. got it in the ass of love i was the only one major son in india. richard. with the great journey. explorations there. we never. do. one in india so the hindu nationalists claim that this was of a section of india. something that congress had betrayed the indian people agreeing to in fact it was very much a part of their own program to have
a separate state and serve their interests subsequently to have a separate pakistan state which is always an antagonism to india as always a representation of. india's. a few months after independence the new states waged their first war over kashmir a province with a muslim majority but a hindu maharajah the two sides agreed to a ceasefire along what's known as the line of control it divided the region into with one side and ministered by india and the other by pakistan of the three officially declared wars between india and pakistan to have been over kashmir and it remains a flash point to this day. on september the ninth nine hundred forty seven gandhi moved into the delhi home of his friend the industrialist and congress party supporter gunshy. in
january of the following year gandhi began another indefinite fast saying he would only east if he saw a plan to stop the continuing violence hindus who had fled persecution in pakistan with dumbfounded by gandhi's empathy for muslims which was inherent in the second in direct goal of his fasting. going to gandhi's hunger strike was also aimed at forcing the indian government to release pakistan share of assets from the treasury of british india. ligi that's good. in. and said that. straight. i should die and the fifty paragraph should be given then only i shall believe my past
that moment. some yields take me this hour did you die of hunger spray. bullets now. hindu nationalists found it scandalous that gandhi would fast to ensure india respected the financial clauses of the partition agreement and transfer five hundred fifty million rupees to a country that had launched cross border rates on kashmir. saw on the ground did it. or don't do any. i remember say when i sed. there's a deep. sea. not enough the.
sea of its might and. the attack of january twentieth was botched. it was unable to reach the window from which he planted his gun he hadn't thought of bringing a ladder. so hard drive from the river. it was. you and. so. many thoughts. was. in my. near to the wall. here indeed. it was really a police. actions did not take place so probably . the group fled back to
puna to plan that we needed to attack their accomplice who had set up the homemade bomb was arrested. under interrogation he revealed the names of his coconspirators . even now there is debate in india as to why police failed to apprehend the men for ten days. the sit in the monitor as you can see in this picture this was taken on twenty ninth and woody on the evil face of it. he would address people who are visiting here some would be very angry with him that they would think i mean i don't know there was a thinking among them the bottle did not do enough to prove in the partition. on the day of judd gregg. said. i did try to
be a strong argument to the story and vent to the prayer. given in their bio clock are fired maybe five meters. indicates exacts walk began the very most feared by the assassins bullet. in this pond of adam hart muddies this water to grow there he stepped forward. he took three steps before mahatma gandhi and he saw him. with a. and if you see the photograph. of mahatma gandhi with the bullets it's on most you know it looks like a garden and it's almost in a city so good. sassing gollin did mahatma gandhi bullets and i think.
there who it's you know rue banned the movements he held responsible for gandhi he says has a nation. the hindu mass and the hindu volunteer organization the r.s.s. twenty thousand r.s.s. militants were jailed so members do let us forget how. gandhi supporters targeted the brahmins of maharashtra the caste to which the assassin ghodsee belonged and which was closely associated with the hindu. and the r.s.s. . is. as it. the trial of gandhi's assassins was held at the red fought a highly symbolic location it was there that larry had made his first speech to independent india and to this day the prime minister addresses crowds from the red
force on independence day. india is a democracy the defendants had the right with their trial supposedly for the trial of the red forty offered mataram god syria the perfect platform to air his views. he refused legal defense and though he had lawyers he pleaded his own cats but he did do he stated that he had out it to his hindu faith and the back of our gaeta which justified violence. he said he had been compelled to take action for the nation of hindus which gandy had betrayed. he needed to rid the nation of this man who persisted in weakening india's stars of the pakistan. he described the assassination as a salutary act undertaken in the public interest not the rash deed of a lunatic but rather
a deed motivated by political realism which had been well thought out and planned as lacked the simoom more efficient. on the. game properly nineteen forty nine you've had men drug they're not put on go to sleep. myself they have simply been struggling. amid a resurgence of fundamentalism in india nationalist groups like the hindu musser bar enjoying a revival. and its daily headquarters there is a statue of its late leader vinayak download us of a cur a contemporary of gandhi's and a nationalist but one with a very different ideology. her spawned the idea of hindutva or hindu miss a concept that inseparably links the hindu and indian identity not that i'm going
to see him so i've said that i have more love than the big mean forest there is no question that i'm going to belong to. no doubt but you know was our eyes not belong to god. this is a doozy and of michael. has nor part in the murder of bundy there was a very closely between the leader off the hindu and the assassin the main assassin and the mean organizer of the conspiracy off. and. that's what i'm good thing he had been a close associate of father for it is the decade before the assassination and this man thought what good was directly involved not just ideologically or inspiring but directly involved in the conspiracy to border. other care in
a group photo with the conspirators he was also arrested and tried but denied all charges and was acquitted. going to you remember he himself said after the first assassination attempt. maybe the assailant is right maybe i am a nuisance in independent india says the dorset down than the one this is the classical greek tragedy in its purest form where victim and assassin have a secret understanding with. gandhi felt deep despair his method and his course had failed. to me. despite his efforts violence between hindus and muslims continued and despite his efforts india was fractured into. what use was he alive now a cook the. gandhi had envisioned an independent india that was self-sufficient and
predominantly agrarian naris approach was more grounded in economic reality he aims to combat economic stagnation and dire poverty with state scented planning and industrialization that relied on domestic industry after the independents went all out for you know modernization of economic adviser action in developing large industries building. which he. described as the new temples to india which should replace you know the old temples. it's difficult to know how gandhi responded to this had he been alive after nine forty eight and it's likely that there would have come into some conflict over this because mayer didn't really put very much into trying to. maintain the gandhi and.
economic program. to this day gandhi disciples gather on fridays to spin cotton at his commission site the same handwheel the same motions as back then when cotton was spun to create the basis for economic independence. and. today it's more of a ritual than a lesson in economic theory. the perceived need to kill. people scully's principle of self-sufficiency did prevail until the early nine hundred ninety s. . measures like high tariff rules and exchange rate management pretty. to
domestic industry from foreign competition. she. has hit its peak at the buzz over the past few decades the country has really opened up to the forces of globalization. a growing middle class shops at new malls are these the temples of india today. on land or will be if gandhi returned to india today he would be aghast to see how far the country particularly the middle class has succumbed to western consumerism . he preached the importance of self-sufficiency thing each village the defense of the weak and a form of asceticism according to such dictates as don't consume more than you need respect nature. there was a clear environmental subtext to gandhi's message for the collusion going.
on march the twelfth two thousand and five ten months after returning to power india's congress party marked the seventy fifth anniversary of the so much. hundreds of people walked in the outburst footsteps following the same three hundred fifty eight kilometer route for twenty six days. much as done traditional white clothing made of homespun cotton and the iconic gandhi kept. my. great grandson up to her level nehru gandhi was thirty five at the time of the procession and had only recently entered politics. he would go on to become party
president. he joined the marches as they reached the coast in which are out seventy five years to the day that mahatma gandhi shook the british empire to its core by harvesting a handful of salt. there on thirty five millimeter film. or undertow video cameras captured the same scene. globalization has spread to side many of gandhi's principles but the mahatma's fundamental message has endured a message that speaks of the power of peace forgiveness and freedom and can transcend even the hatreds that killed him.
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