tv Doc Film - Germany 68 - A Year Like No Other Deutsche Welle July 13, 2018 11:15am-12:00pm CEST
plain nine hundred sixty eight was an important year for this man students were protesting in west germany. love love love my pub sing a hunch i had his first became it was. the slope of the mood was explosive a lot of people were restless but i was at the opposite end of the spectrum. the song mama hit the charts on january fifteenth nineteen sixty eight. on the same day thousands of students demonstrated in braman against a price hike the tram tickets it led to the new his first street battle between junk people and place. a love her i. told him. was.
it germany sixty eight the start of the transition to a modern society and a year of stark cultural social and political contrasts as average germans enjoyed the music of high and students took to the streets with their demands for change last year hines human celebrated fifty years on stage with a christmas concert to la. times such. as it is fired at one thousand nine hundred sixty eight was his year i think kind she had for number one hits on the german charts george hit back and my mother like all middle aged women of the time love time just on our she wished she could have a son like i'm sad for her and she is why and the missile would have to zero. stan has always been a bit of a rebel nowadays he works as a yoga teacher and fifty years ago it was the protesters not cruncher who impressed
and influenced him for the not so often this is the one nine hundred sixty eight was a wild time device in your heart i was thirteen years old then at that age you question everything people were saying to think for yourself think outside the box to start behaving and being practical quite hard to let a thousand flowers bloom that's bloom box and. as hunches music played on radio stations across west germany demonstrators held protests against the government coalition and demanded social reforms. you will. find siemens grew up in many of poverty in the netherlands the student protests were completely foreign to him.
i was raised in a small town and people didn't talk much about all that money and when they do they're clearly good like my they didn't understand what was going on and they had no time for god and it's arguable. west germany was a prosperous country at the time. they lead a quiet life she likes to knit he enjoys handicrafts still working. in the west german countryside there were few calls for radical change most residents of up of the variable skeptical annamarie be sure later became a conservative m.p. in the state parliament but in one nine hundred sixty eight she wasn't terribly interested in politics me here. is a bit we discussed politics at home. my father was a district of a. and officials and the local ma as it was i thought politics was kind of a bore and so on the thing it reeked. annamarie was nineteen at the time and
studying home economics at school with germany's new emergency laws general strikes street battles in france and the viet nam war were not on her list of top priorities but these issues were certainly important to a lot of other people. if i did side talking so much with we started wearing buttons and badges that had a political message like i'm against the vietnam war people didn't join the big political parties but they didn't want to be part of the political structure they paid a sign and hit the streets and i thought it was a refreshing approach. efficient finish. up the sun and it seemed like those people were against everything. we worked and they protested and do they went to university but they got all upset about things we started causing trouble. and we didn't understand it was this hope of a confessional my father my father was
a coal miner we let a fairly quiet life we were isolated from all that want. some local residents would see young people sitting around and say if they had jobs they wouldn't come up with all these stupid ideas within. fifty years ago barbara costo would not have taken such comments kindly she was studying sociology at the time and was drawn to the protest movement many of the student demonstrators were concerned about the country's nazi past. when it says my parents were not seen as ideologically at least above i was always arguing with them about it and sometimes it got nasty that i get so mad i'd be red in the face but i do it anyway. if i did screw up you know the day it's all we have to. do was attracted to the socialist german student union or s.d.s. a left wing opposition organization the group was especially upset about what it
considered the rigid structure of west germany universities. it used to it and i but if they would stand up during a lecture and interrupted you'd be sitting there and someone from the s.d.s. would get up and start asking questions that would put a stop to the lecture they called it blasting and i thought it was great fun after . i was soon joined the s.d.s. she supported the organizations message but didn't care much for the messengers. this includes me they weren't classy guys who drove around in sports cars and they really didn't appeal to me as men as the hamlet as before they were rather scruffy . on the other hand they looked like intellectual or most
people's image of intellectuals they were smart and they were captivating speakers or at least that's what i thought at the time in the other tool they gave us coming at us with. pretty detailed was a prominent s.t.s. spokesman demanded radical changes in west german society. of. our countries undergone a process of restoration since that in forty five it is there but there has been no process of democratization in all sectors of our society. and that is why we can't speak of a democratic authoritarian state the fascism of the past does not exist today but it has crept into various institutions and continues to function there because the people who work in those institutions have been trained to blindly accept social realities of. accepting as it is. the main thing was this anti if they were tearing
down concept this movement opposed to thorough any kind in family in courts of law in lecture on us between the sexes. that was basically the concept oppose authority . that included the authority of the police. those who fail to comply will be subject to arrest and possible prosecution. was a police officer for more than forty years in one nine hundred sixty eight he drove around west berlin in a patrol car like this one. i joined the west berlin police force in one thousand nine hundred sixty. back then it was a very respectable job of what it says or a museum. was. but in one thousand nine hundred sixty eight students saw the police as representatives of state authority and confronted them you know noise
more not often safety there were demonstrations almost every day in one nine hundred sixty eight behave and happen then were not peaceful therefore has the police reports show. but i think this all started the year before in one nine hundred sixty seven for. things really started heating up on june second one thousand nine hundred sixty seven when the shah of iran visited west berlin stuck for nine months in or not as he once asked us to explain to you when he shot was all or if i was one of the officers assigned to the shah's motorcade and those. who don't know. i was students protested against the shah's visit they said that iran was a dictatorship that allowed the use of torture in prisons so the police responded with force to demonstrations that turned violent i one protester benaud on us or
was shot and killed by a police officer was one of our club that was a real shock shock i thought it was going to be open season on demonstrators and see its deplane once all. the foreigners old's death was mourned throughout west germany he became a martyr of the protest movement as it continued its campaign against state authority. where with the talent we have been subjected to police brutality as well it's a good and its future clashes with the police will be expected to intervene soon and perhaps even the military. we will have to respond in an appropriate way that's fair then invoking loosen in the ivy quietly for. many young people rejected authority when they didn't want to fifteen in societies
throughout the western world the winds of change was sweeping through politics fashion and music in britain some angry new bands were making exciting music and. they have been freezing up from prim and lived through here in london and photograph some of these bands like the who. said they. presume it was amazed by what she found in britain especially the fashion design. the callous and i learned while others in london anything was possible and nobody got upset about. that some people were very conservative and some were really bizarre but they seemed to get along on this need by land yes things were changing in britain no it isn't but west germany still lags behind so i provided people with the fashions that had to write here yet this is not new stuff. since you know i can do pretty ingrained in nine hundred sixty seven.
we knew that we'd made the craziest clothes you could imagine for men and women my father thought i'd lost my mind about it and that i could not possibly go out dressed like that i thinking god. is good and trousers were becoming tighter and shorter given enough of the very aware and the memory of be sure you lived. and you know it was that was the start that we saw that right away. but we were more moderate than people were in the big cities we did things more slowly. so we might shorten our skirts by stunts. some things that. i. can still remember how men would get excited because women are wearing these short skirts even their own partners. are going to
fall. i don't want to see anything like that really no absolutely not is the name. has been up there is cause i'm just people would come up to me on the street and call me a prostitute because i wore a short skirt and smoked cigarettes that's just wrong when you're twenty one things like that affect you. at first you're shocked and then you decide to fight the package like they did to me not since as i guess is finished. it was even easier to cause a scene in east germany in one nine hundred sixty s. in the town of show. me for example. in fashion and music managed
to penetrate the iron curtain for students got together and founded a group called the rolling stones club shows. we felt like we didn't fit in because we like western music so much and we tried to express that in the way we dressed. shouldn't because some people applauded others just shook their heads up but. we attracted attention to ourselves in school but we didn't back down especially in civics class with others as we were all. he's together and made quite an impression on the local residents as well clued. in to tina vague not also like the steins the singer songwriter was just twenty years old in one nine hundred sixty eight her best known song is kinda.
dark my need a lot of god in. the song can be seen as a protest against authoritarian oppression big not a mother of three grew up in a spending money they don't like her parents she is a committed socialist big man and her parents became increasingly dissatisfied with the situation in east germany and started speaking out. government needs our. own divine engine i'm just we were trapped in a communist system. we would like to have experience communism socialism would have been fine to. but without censorship rules so that you can decide for yourself what you want to read and so forth. they'd never trained as a librarian but she focused on her music and even sang until.
i. made. them in my time. in the east german communist party ruled the country with an iron hand. made about to break had been party leaders since nine hundred fifty. for a good reason. in this totalitarian regime there was no freedom of expression or freedom of the press and i don't buy that nurtured one party control even extended to daycare centers and kindergartens. or to school groups it was pure indoctrination but i didn't get anything like that around i think but i did in kindergarten and later in school. there are all sorts of slogans like we are the better germany there are no nazis here course. you know that was
a lie. in the nazis but. the communist party had less influence in the town a share of this vulgar need the czechoslovak border the catholic church saw to that . for the kids in the rolling stones club it was a mix of music and religious faith. but because our parents told us that the government lied all the time to make itself look good but the church gave us a place where we could experience truth while we could talk to each other without being afraid. of what the church stood for freedom of expression and also for western youth culture. freedom of expression without fear or without having to keep quiet or stay out of sight.
young people were rebelling against the political and social system that was then in place. lines written. in the rules that only. was a steelworker didn't nine hundred sixty eight heinz was a trainee at steel giant. working class young people were also fed up with our stuffy society we wanted new opportunities across the board. people were demonstrating for change even though the cultural center also quote i couldn't take part because i was working at a crop i was a trainee clerk so i had to wear a suit and tie. that's the way it was a group of. heinz began his training in the middle of a crisis in the steel industry there was less demand for coal in the one nine
hundred sixty s. and west germany was producing too much steel tens of thousands of steel workers would soon lose their jobs including three thousand in bochum alone by december nine hundred sixty seven written mine had had enough. and that's when they shut down the blast furnace and all the workers were crying like they just lost a loved one. the situation turned me overnight into a left wing radical and i didn't have to read karl marx to do it so when i wanted to change the world and i wanted to keep those still jobs the company could not treat its workers like. there were strikes and protests much in sixty eight saw an increase in tensions between the generations and between economic and social classes and those tensions spilled out onto the streets.
in january school students in bremen protested an increase in the process of trying t. cuts they occupied the city center for a week and blocked the tracks the police were ordered to crack down on the hot. students head up at evin prison as fashion boutique before the demonstrations the phrasing of it was about more than money thanks this kinko's plenty it was a matter of principle the students didn't like being patronized they said this can't go on we won't stand for it. thank you i i think the protest was a success graeme smith cancelled the fare increase.
meanwhile students and trainees in bochum also protested against fare increases. took part in the demonstrations. thus was the only it was the first time we've done anything like that i've already talked to us that for two or three days and it was over boy but it gave us new and such we had to deal with police violence but we also learned that we could change that. of us mom and change was in the air even in eastern europe gives him us but after all nine hundred sixty eight was also the year of the progs springs some people felt that things were about to change is what's the best for him and is today for us alexandra de check took over as the leader of czechoslovakia's communist party. in january nineteenth sixty eight and soon tried to implement some cautious reforms people in other east bloc countries were paying close attention to these developments. don't look at.
the third way and socialism with a human face that was really something that people were excited about it just like they welcome the new youth culture yeah look. it was great i don't feel what we hate that his reforms would spread to east germany and that they would take hold of me as well as the east german authorities put a stop to that in a hurry that was the end of our hopes and not just the hopes of young people in other third. you know it's this issue on today are tired of the thinking at the time among our parents and others was be careful guidance as in a politician we could talk about politics among ourselves yes but they never would walk the new york tonight. but some west german students were more concerned about the situation in viet nam in february the s.t.'s organized the international conference on the war it was held at the instant nickel university leftists or to
condemn western imperialism in general and u.s. policy in viet nam in particular five thousand people packed the whole this time it was professes they disrupted the event. yes maybe we have jeju what's going on here the conference is over i may think. there followed a demonstration through the streets of west berlin led by rudy about fifteen thousand people took part to show solidarity with the communist fighters in viet nam. police officer peter beattie who was on duty that day he couldn't quite figure out what the protesters would try. to achieve. two news congress normally who should have a form at first they just wanted university reforms and put it to you then they started getting political with lots of socialist and communist rhetoric so this. is
where it is a core decision that. for the people of west berlin didn't care much for that is really and neither did i on you or me or the most west berlin and saw the us as their main defense against communism counter-demonstrators attacked the protest as they considered rude you did get a troublemaker for days later more than one hundred thousand people gathered outside the town hall in the shine of the district to show their support for the united states and to express their opposition to the student demonstrators especially to check out my thoughts. on a still weekend it was shot in the head by an assailant reported to be an anti communist died years later from complications. such cuttack. we knew there were going to be protests.
no wiser if i was on duty for five straight days that's. the course we were where we saw the pictures of the students in west berlin links arms the march to the yacht was. the. zero zero zero zero zero. zero zero zero he built citing what you're dumb on the newspaper build when top sentiment against the students and the summer said this contributed to the attack on gotcha. built up with good shots and. this led to the easter riots demonstrators marched to the headquarters of the spring a company which published build some wanted to stop the delivery of newspapers others wanted to break into the building there were clashes with police
a student and a press photographer were killed four hundred other people were injured right before. it was tough for my wife to see all the violence and so far as a bit hot on life finally got off duty at three in the morning on easter sunday. and i went home to change my clothes my underwear. student anger had been building up against the spring of publications for months there will calls for the government to take over the company which was. later mentioned we were being used but i didn't think much about it this slogan expropriate springer today it's a big deal someone else will take over but we didn't think like that at the time there was no way that i wanted to see a communist takeover but i was right out there shouting communist slogans i guess we didn't have anything better we could say five. hundred news of the student
protests spread to east germany the kids in the rolling stones club made tape recordings of western radio stations mostly music but also news reports on the demonstrations they couldn't understand why the students were so angry with us when we couldn't figure out why people who had freedom would get so upset that i couldn't anyway i didn't find out what it all meant until much later. bit of it because the good. bye i thought they should come to the east germany and study. my office on. this spring a company was not broken up and the newspaper continued to sell but demonstrators in munich stepped up their campaign. visit josiah we went to the spring our headquarters in munich and to our great surprise we actually managed to get inside . you know as well what were we going to do now i had no idea and neither did
anyone else see that it's not like you discussed it in advance i think we didn't put up a flag or anything but we did get inside as i was you valentine. in the end the protests against springer didn't achieve very much. and the west german middle class seemed blissfully content. they watched peter alexander and all she class on t.v. and too few realized that the country was descending into political and social chaos. back i watched a girl i was too young to understand what was going on so i went to school and played football i figured if they want to demonstrate blood of.
the villain vich them took a very different view of that he is a fence otherwise he wouldn't have become a yoga teacher inventor and the victory card to the mobility of the spine indicates how well do you feel. there was more to nine hundred sixty eight than just confrontation. does it exists i believe the events of that year went well beyond politics of. the messages of nine hundred sixty eight for me which were go to san francisco and put some flowers in your hair and all you need is love all you need is love. residential communities usually consisting of perfect strangers well organized in big cities it were. an indication that society was becoming more open and commune
served as an alternative to traditional family structures. that's why because if you looked at the same girl twice you were already part of the establishment in a commune so you could sleep with anyone that was actually quite sexist the women didn't have the choice but all we didn't necessarily want to open. one guy told me that he hated that because he was in love with his wife oh but he was only there on tuesday but otherwise it was anything goes that just doesn't work can force and yet. still it was a popular phenomenon in rural communities young people withdrew from consumer based society and the conventional social framework. that's what i feel exploited people experimented with different lifestyles and some
tried organic farming or meditation or political work or social work people tried out different structures but i don't know whether it worked for them or got a few votes if you could come up. with i mean while the s.d.s. continued to try to change west germany's political and social system. in many nine hundred sixty eight they took to the streets again to protest a series of emergency laws that gave increased palace to the police and military they also demonstrated against the grand coalition government of chancellor court. i think. the more i hear this kind of screaming the more i realize how important it is can maintain order in our country i the protests didn't achieve much but people in east germany were watching these events closely.
zone. we did like to be able to demonstrate to you. but everyone knew that we have been charged with unlawful assembly impact off to jail. so you feel that for i was or the owners are we knew that we'd never be able to do it. but we still watch the protests with interest in it and with some sadness and hope. of he already has a huge but the demonstrators in the west didn't care about us at all as a viewer when sammy cared about them. we watched on t.v. as they occupied their universities and this was that. we actually dreamed about doing that. meanwhile the communist authorities were moving ahead with a massive renovation project at leipzig university volatile albright is said to have personally ordered the destruction of the historic church simple on the university campus martin luther led the dedication ceremony at the church in
fifteen forty five and yohann sebastian bach served there as a music director from seventeen twenty three to twenty five. meanwhile some two hundred kilometers away in sugar's father the four members of the rolling stones group were outraged. that. they found out from a clergyman that the church was to be destroyed. as you're with a local clergyman told us about it was sort of all we knew right away that we had to do something so we decided to make some posters of a small as it were if we drew a silhouette of the church our church. then the question had they ever heard of the university church of light tickets for lunch and that it holds had already been bored in the walls for the explosive charges. then the main point what allied
bombers had failed to destroy was about to be obliterated by our own government yes what our church be next it was striking we wanted to get people's attention. i just got out to. a small protest in a far away town had no impact on the authorities in leipzig on may thirtieth one thousand nine hundred sixty eight the church of some pull was destroyed. back in sugars filed a police question the four young men brothers mathias and andreas were publicly criticised at school and expelled. from the local headmaster came in and all the other kids said we don't want that guy in our class. but the headmaster said a few words and i left the room i was close to tears. and i played football and
other sports with those guys the but is not one of them stood up for me i guess they were afraid of what might happen to them if they did so we had to change schools and just go to new fields there wasn't a vote until it reached the. us we were humiliated right there in the classroom with them all they need them in the hour long and then we had to go to the auditorium and fall i understood their condemned us for slandering the east german state this time but surely felt he said. at the same time in west germany the demonstrations against the emergency laws will reaching their climax. students in frankfurt occupied the university campus. barbara post was then. thank you and hope the border is just like the rector's office was located in the
main building of the protesters broke down the front door it was made of glass. and after they broke it down they ran inside. thank you i thank. if i was there in fact i broke down the glass door to my i'm glad the statute of limitations has run out i broke down the door. i tore down a plastic send it through with through the glass which i the occupation continued for two days then the police moved. there were also protests in boston and students and workers joined forces the students broke into the local office of the german confederation of trade unions
the protesters said it was part of the authoritarian structure but for some workers the demonstration went too far. i could or. could not get off someone said oh my father's retirement files are in their mentor throwing out stuff out the window so now he's not going to get his pension oh but we were fighting for issues that were important to us the workers didn't seem to understand that i mean these men that led the split between their losses of. the fight at. the emergency laws came into effect on june twenty eighth the protest movement was starting to lose momentum international events now took center stage. in all this the soviet union supported by four other warsaw pact states invaded czechoslovakia this marks the end of the proc spring and the hope of the free social. between a big now had just given birth to her first child she and her
friends were horrified by the invasion and held protests against it. for in the form of throop let off some of my friends handed out leaflets and were arrested. and then i thought if someone else hands up the leaflets maybe my friends won't be held guilty or. spy your mind on house or. under someone who believed in socialism i decided that i have to do something. the list of what must be. vague now rushed her own leaflets by hand and then distributed them. at the same time in czechoslovakia communist party chief alexander to check urged his people not to resist the warsaw pact invasion his support among the population was so great that the citizens in page the occupation
troops and political discussions and street fighting. soviet leaders tried to get to change to roll back the reforms. matina vigneault was arrested convicted on charges of slandering the state and sentenced to a year in prison. for three additional octave range jewish children in court the judge asked me whether i'd thought about my child's future i said i had to admit i did what i have to do for the child's sake and that this was a major political and moral decision for me. that what if my son at the age of twenty had asked me what did you do to resist then i could tell him. protests in west germany against the soviet invasion didn't attract much attention some radical german leftists even expressed support for the soviet union. to give
you what you just d.s. was a unified movement for just a short period of time i bought into a thousand smaller groups more good for both of these s.d.s. women's council i support in one thousand nine hundred sixty eight and took up the cause of women's rights part of it because that many s.d.s. members claimed that their male counterparts didn't take them seriously and also complained about gender discrimination within the organization activist helka sanda took action to help not only. our initial efforts to correct the situation failed so we've called. out of the s.d.s. and of started over an organization. in november one thousand nine hundred sixty eight the s.d.s. organized a big demonstration in west berlin to coincide with the trial of a protester who'd been arrested during the easter riots the demonstration soon turned violent the debate over whether it was appropriate to use violence created
deep divisions within the student movement some activists favored a more radical approach these included some future members of the red army faction the guys for sixty eight meant different things to different people the art and that is if the embassy there was absolutely no justification for the way that some people express their anger and other emotions of the elephant in the thirty fifth pick the level of fear wasn't a revolution as such but it did lead to some form for a distortion of space and i learned that it's important to speak out of to back this up. and. fifty years after he first hit the charts his comeback album went straight into the german told. me it was.
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