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tv   Doc Film - The Gatekeepers of Europe - Outsourcing Border Controls to Africa  Deutsche Welle  September 23, 2018 9:15pm-10:00pm CEST

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theobald fuzz says the country's embattled domestic spy chief will be made a special advisor instead of give being given a promotion and brains speculate how coalition partners revisited the issue during crisis talks following widespread public anger. you're watching the news live from berlin well coming up the top of the hour thank you for watching. and for. the one which of course a. video. anytime anywhere. w. media center.
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from africa to europe hundreds of thousands have tried to flee. but recently the number of arriving migrants has dropped. the e.u. has cut deals with african governments curbing mass migration in return for eight. years development. the e.u. is widening its reach beyond the mediterranean into africa and it hasn't shied away from bringing long shunned dictators out of isolation. being sealed. so while we criminalize and. it's a lucrative new market for the arms and security industry. secure thousands of kilometers of border in libya and egypt without foot patrols technologies exist someone just needs to pay for them. the e.u.
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has allocated more than eight billion euros to stem the tide of migration. today more migrants are dying in the desert than in the mediterranean. but. what impact does the. our investigation begins. we're headed towards libya from. once the main trade route for caravans it remains an economic lifeline. merchants transport goods from. and subsaharan countries all the way to libya on the
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mediterranean. in recent years this road was also the main route for african migrants trying to get to europe. we're only allowed to travel here with a security escort. we agree in the hope of finding out what action the e.u. is taking here to stop migration. everyone here is checked. police asked travellers where they've come from and where they're going. anyone suspected of trying to reach europe is barred passage. that's why migrants now avoid these checkpoints. today we don't encounter any west african migrants here instead merchants from the tribal desert nomads who have moved freely across deserts borders for centuries.
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and all of that most of the ground floor of the four. more lead time for me i want to go to libya my parents live there. are used to be a lot more people here the merchants tell us that the rest station. but people smugglers are still cashing in says our driver a member of the aga it is regional council. the desert is big even if you stop it here it goes on elsewhere the smugglers know all the checkpoints and avoid them if they cross the desert to get to libya. so i do so the business is less official but it continues. to do for me yeah but. it's still a long way to libya. and we're not allowed to continue our journey. the official reason security concerns. mohamed tells us that migrant
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transports take big detours through the desert. they also avoid water supply stations because these are now under surveillance through e.u. funding. but off this main route the risks for migrants increase u.n. agencies say the numbers of dead being found in this part of the sahara is rising the government of. the e.u. which has pledged one billion euros in development aid a massive sum for the impoverished as your nation. and the government is appearing to the e.u.'s wishes with a crackdown. there are one hundred nine seized vehicles on this parking lot of blue going to more than one hundred human traffickers are behind bars or in investigative custody. and the migrants who were traveling in these vehicles have ended up in camps run by the international organization for migration to be sent back to their native countries
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. who i.d.'s of the like. liberia warren may twenty fifth one thousand nine hundred three. with photos. on the radio broadcaster sarah f.m. regularly reports on e.u. policy and its repercussions. we meet up with the editor in chief even him. he shows us photographs of people who have a deadly died trying to reach europe. to see migrant who was found dead in the vehicle of happen because they are blocking the only routes that can be traveled safely she must know our grandparents used to. have you mr selfie why the government of nigeria has refused to let you travel further into the desert. have something to hide crush the sahara has become an open air cemetery scene is
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seamanship i see a way. of increasing numbers of people are dying in the desert because the main route is more strictly controlled a serious allegation. the government in the maze says the stricter controls are designed to protect people. the european union leads a mission in each year to train police eighty europeans work at their headquarters near me twenty are posted in august is. their brief is to train local authorities in conducting more effective controls. the idea with them beach or have an eye on that water point yet and that's what actually the alternatives are doing so they are out there trying to you know go there but also it is difficult because they don't necessarily have the mobility they don't have a calls and. they sometimes stay i think in belmont at the gendarmerie or
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only have one car with a half car so that going more car so thanks to germany so that is very good. germany has supplied more than two hundred vehicles we want to talk to german officers taking part in the u.k. permission in film them work but our request is denied. the chair is a member of the west african economic union eco was similar to the e.u. its citizens enjoy visa free travel across the blocs borders in theory. we've arrived at the border between the fossil it's located on the central migration route from west africa to europe and is therefore of interest to the e.u. . officially the e.u. supports the freedom of movement in west africa but that no longer seems to be valid everywhere. across africa people travel from country to country usually
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between neighboring countries border traffic is nothing unusual. but the people here say it's becoming increasingly difficult. we need some people who are desperate to get to europe this man's destination is belgium. police move i made it's a new juror and then i was sent back by the police. they said would be risking their lives in the desert it's not normal. even if i die i have my dream that's the way it is because the secure market is. sickles on his home country ivory coast is a member of eco us in a blizzard but you don't need a visa supposed to know normally you don't meszaros an eco was member like my country in theory i don't need a visa. in the share the e.u.
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has achieved its goal of stemming the tide of migrants for now. the european union is going to great lengths to advance migration controls in africa. we take a closer look at these new strategies. in recent years some african countries have received more attention from europe than ever before. with more than eight billion euros earmarked for africa until two thousand and twenty brussels is flexing its foreign policy muscles. we propose to use a mix of positive and negative incentives to reward those countries willing to cooperate effectively with us and to ensure that there are consequences for those who do not. this includes using our development to trade policies to create
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leverage thank you very much. so the ear is giving some countries more development aid and expects something in return its focus is on the nations from which migrants and refugees are fleeing and those they cross trying to reach the mediterranean. the e.u. has also cut deals with countries it's long subjected to sanctions like sudan. for years president omar al bashir was an international pariah indicted by the international criminal court on charges of crimes against humanity and war crimes in darfur. when he won reelection three years ago with an official ninety four percent of the vote visiting dignitaries included guests from egypt zimbabwe and saudi arabia there were no representatives from europe. instead of congratulations brussels only voiced criticism. but a short while later it launched negotiations in two thousand and sixteen. secret
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e.u. documents these clearly spell out the e.u.'s objective in cutting a deal with sudan to reduce onward movements to europe. the moral cost is evidently high. the e.u. should carefully consider the high reputational risk associated with its engagement with sudan. we fly to the sudanese capital. it took a long time for sudanese authorities to approve our visit but after persistent efforts we got visas. intelligence agents accompany us at all times when we're on location sudan is a surveillance state government critics face repression. the country was long internationally isolated and ostracized. but recently sanctioned. have been lifted or loosened the west is rehabilitating the regime sudan is the third largest
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country in africa now controls along its seven thousand kilometer long borders are to be more strictly enforced. on the border with libya that protection is in part provided by the rapid support force in two thousand and sixteen at the height of negotiations between sudan and the e.u. the presented seven hundred detained refugees the commander had a clear message. underline the refugees holds no danger to us these people are trying to reach europe. no there was so we are assisting in europe you know a little. general doug low and his division are notorious in sudan the unit was formed from the militias called the gentle weed we're. now integrated into the army the same troops have been deployed by the government to the north as a border patrol force international human rights groups accuse the or asef of
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abusing refugees and forcibly returning them to their home countries ethiopia and eritrea in violation of international refugee laws. the e.u. denies it cooperates with e.r.'s if. the spokesperson for sudan's cooperation with the e.u. is general. not affiliated with the r.s.s. he's in charge of border protection at the interior ministry. here arrives late to our meeting because he says he was held up in talks with e.u. project officials. stresses that sudan complies with international standards in its treatment of refugees. we've heard a geisha and say against are is after and. is there any truth about it or are you
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working on this as well no clue for us because we haven't got any new reports on the. but we have also quoted the national commission on human rights those who have been understood or series of the borders normally we have to check them if there are for use with the exam but to the to the comps but those who are. irregular migrants so in collaboration always there to columbus is the issue of the lungs of the committees and then with the exam bucketful as it completes the one area that we would not go to the board to control his equipment time script so he had outlines a number of cooperation projects with the e.u. . there's a new operations center in khartoum contact with the german federal police and training conducted by the german agency for international cooperation the g.i.c. there is a man implement and then they have core implementers legs. but that's
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not for the years of who's supporting it you know already started with trainings or anything. out of the start of her that was to we train. more than one hundred two officers no. we're not permitted to film g.r.i.z. representatives or their on site activities in writing the g.i.'s he confirms that its new duties include training security forces. they declined to sit down for an on camera interview. the e.u. mission in sudan is adamant that it does not cooperate with the if it only deals with other units and it will not be supplying sudan with hardware. there will be probably when this computer which would be delivered for his we sent or change information to need to get worse and. he sort of
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meant but could move so there when he says that he's waiting for us tonight probably there's a misunderstanding no. no they are trying to. get some things out. to tie into. sudanese. novi. counter effects or there is a lesion for years now and they want to we engage with the international community we want to get some more legitimacy and so we are trying the ambassador believes sudan is on a road towards improvement and that includes its human rights situation he defends e.u. cooperation saying the focus is on development aid in education and employment. one of the authors of a reporter's worry that they engage with here night strengthen
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and dictatorship that's the fundamental question but clearly we believe it's not by confrontations that you will improve the situation when you engage in dialogue we have a bit of a chance to make things and. this certainly is border with eritrea is about a ten hour drive south from the capital border patrols regularly catch refugees entering from eritrea. we accompany one patrol. the secret service military and police working close cooperation here an officer of the secret service tells us. he's in charge here but avoids the camera. these regular troops have also been accused of human rights abuses. at the border
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with eritrea is a six hundred kilometer long invisible line through the desert. it's strategically important five thousand people flee eritrea every month. nine million refugees currently live in the horn of africa sudan has been instructed to prevent them from setting off for europe. we have an appointment with a local police chief. one i learned a few has and who are here legally in the i've always maintained that as long as european nations other refugees destination and suffer from illegal migration they have to pay in the shape of transport modern surveillance equipment modern vehicles even airplanes that can monitor the long borders into ethiopia and eritrea. because of things that the police chief of claims representatives of the e.u. and individual member states had promised him more than. just something. the men
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were owed well they made a lot of promises wholesale i can't say nothing has arrived but what we've received doesn't suffice given the current number of migrants admit here and all that comes to mind right now are a few motorcycles in motorcycles are the bull so you demand little cycles i think that it will grow and that it's on its way it takes time we want to know what happens to the people detained at the border and are granted permission to visit one of the big refugee camps near the eritrean border. it's located in no man's land a two hours drive from the nearest city. officially forty thousand people have found shelter here most of them are eritreans who fled to escape a brutal. story military service that can rob men and women of half of their lifetimes. at times eritrea's border guards have shot and killed people trying to flee. there are food
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shortages in the camp and many unaccompanied minors. we talk to women who tried to get across the border alone. to get school i went. down and there were seven of us. we were being trailed by a band of smugglers. we ran away from them five of us got away i said but i was caught together with another girl. they locked us up for three days and raped us and then they took our money and set us free near the sudanese border all of them one of the women don't want to stay here. yes you can tell i want there's nothing here we don't want to stay in sudan our goal is to flee to europe so we can have a better life for instance by going to school and learning a new language just so we can have a better life a lot of. the refugees are locked in officially they're not allowed to leave the
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camp without a pass but that's hard to obtain. sudan's roads are strewn with checkpoints where guards demand to see i.d.'s refugees say the only way to get through is with smugglers who have good connections to the authorities. they say sudanese and eritrean officers have their hands in the smuggling business. the sudanese interior ministry even at mit's as much and says it's combating such corruption. we spent months trying to obtain a visa from the eritrean government in vain. officials there evidently don't want to discuss why so many of its people want to leave the country. eritrea is dubbed the north korea of africa many refugees say they're fleeing their own government today more than a million eritreans live outside the country. the united nations has documented
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incidents it classifies says crimes against humanity men aren't slaved in the army women systematically raped it's to this dictatorship that europe has restamp list ties. with. the e.u. wants to run programs in eritrea to instruct judges and prosecutors on how to bring suspected smugglers to trial. but how successful could that be. eritrea's intelligence agency is active across africa and that's why this critic will only speak to us anonymously. if they catch people fleeing and the refugees survive the bullets fired at the border and they torture these people to death. they hang them up by the hearns and feet from trees people are tortured to death. or informer was himself subjected to prolonged confinement he then managed to escape to another african country. he's an expert on eritrea smuggling network and level serious charges at the authorities. the safest
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way to escape is with the smuggling network run by the military or the government they organize the excuse and provide the vehicles and their men. usually a commander ensure a safe passage he ensures that you get through the checkpoints and that no one asks any questions. anyone involved in smuggling is arrested and executed except the military there services carry a high price tag from twenty eleven to twenty sixteen the price was five thousand dollars per person today it's eight thousand per person. government employees operating as smugglers can that be true. eritrean authorities deny the accusation. in the netherlands we meet up with a researcher who's published a comprehensive study on the trade in refugees from eritrea clearly young for the
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rise in. the first thing to say is that human trafficking and this kill in a country that is so close and so controlled is not possible without the knowledge of the government in interviews with refugees also speak often office that general mind use i had in eastern sudan and basically controlling. a lot of abductions apparently that were happening from that that office. the eritrean government took from rising to court over her allegations but she won the case. she remains critical of eritrea and the e.u. basically what we are supporting is mafia type organizations which keep local. populations under control but is very strange about the european union policy
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is that for. all those decades the european union and i would say rightly so has put as conditions for its respect for human rights and respect for the more democracy and the rule of law. and now at this moment to actually many africans are thinking that it's very important to build their societies. the european union starts to. kind of put these aside it's to go into very cynical agreements purely out of self-interest but it's a very shortsighted self-interest because at the end of the day that'll come back to us. cooperation with undemocratic governments refugees trapped in hopeless situations bodies in the desert. we want to confront those responsible for the
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e.u.'s new policy with its consequences. were meeting one of the blocks strategists italy's stefano months every easy heads the european commission's department of international cooperation and development. where for years in the opium societies the problem is the pro is why it how we can explain it was a call to do. and european uno. try to contribute in this way taking all shall we say courage could quite courageous a approach if you want so therefore the three things the vision the route let's say structured a bit more input from the sale to the whole second institutional building and capacity of the states in order to be able to manage that their way to fight against criminal network and set the third reintegration of the legacy he's pragmatic in his defense of e.u. cooperation with dictatorships like sudan so therefore there is already
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a reality of camps careful let's read them because you found out a way of stuff about you know that would be another problem if we partially closer because if we leave open call for example work there would be simply divisional traffic therefore let's cooperate with them you know order to have a better management of this this better management however may be having serious repercussions we raise the subject of dead migrants in the desert. all this is not immune from mistaken from unfortunate also people dying but you're not to say that therefore this policy is rotten because it was unintended consequences which are pushing people to this is the chain of causality i denied but it can happen of course but we are taking care of these people. in the fall of twenty seventeen ivory coast hosted a summit of the european union and african union called to focus on youth
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advancement it was meant to be a harmonious affair. but the e.u. arrived with a wish list it wanted guarantees that african states would take back citizens whose applications for asylum in europe had been rejected amid a lack of consensus the issue of migration overshadowed the summit. we sat down with the african union's director for social affairs. just because of european migration on. keeping everybody. on indeed figure will shoot of all these sometimes trying to do one i don't want to use your deliberate but i see just too long intended consequences because there are natural mind it will shoot off keep them out keep them all topped off cost cross in front of us is not a crime much how much we try to make you we all might get it from somewhere. in africa's migration is a motor for development citizens working abroad sent money home. in many countries
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that income is more crucial than development aid from europe. so wausau goal is to see like i said it's our money going to record it. to see if i'm orderly honorable in my traditional a to city been if he's. going to continue to see my boss it's not something may get you on perhaps a ticket to a weak spot to to do not achieve the wheat from the right wing telling us to be able to. africans want more migration europeans less the twenty seven thousand summit ended in discord and with no joint statement on the issue african nations were left feeling that europe was determined to seal itself off from their continent. frontex is in charge of doing just that
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we're on our way to the headquarters of the e.u. border security agency. when it was founded in two thousand and five frontex was allocated a budget of six point five six million euros for twenty twenty it's slated to get three hundred forty five million. the number of employees is slated to rise in the same period from forty five to one thousand frontex can also call on thousands of national police officers for backup across europe. text doesn't just patrol the e.u.'s outer borders in the mediterranean it's also received new duties such as the training of border police in africa. and it has forged an alliance with african intelligence agencies they had a front text tells us. it was really good for. us yes it is our first goal is the exchange of information information pertaining to migration as well as crime or community. two thirds of the more than twenty participating
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countries in the security network are autocratic regimes from texas seeking to increase manpower and technology in african countries. show business and good minds arms i believe it's in the common entrust and of european and african countries. to build on these resources are all supposed to be. building on resources includes investing in technology the industry is ready and waiting in the wings we take a look around europe's biggest event for homeland security many call in paris. border protection technology is the number one emerging segment in the arms industry. one reason technology to secure and control borders is easier to export then military hardware. will be on the wall yeah you know it's all stiff all day well in europe there's
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frontex. we're expecting orders from the agencies and if you're trying to stop the border crossing was there are various types of technology available for surveillance and control and alarm this is one that while the capacity the solution is like a swiss army knife or you can choose the tools that meets your current need or it was a sin which you keep if you set up to have a clue what the media. order management is a booming business with global annual market growth of seven percent. sales in the industry are due to exceed fifty billion dollars worldwide by two thousand and twenty two. one reason is increasing demand in the fight against irregular migration but nobody here is willing to discuss the topic with us air bus ryan matal and industry groups decline or ignore our request for interviews. but we know their lobbyists are busy working behind the scenes
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thanks to the efforts of the arms industry's most important e.u. lobby organization the aerospace and defense industries association or. five hundred million euros of the e.u. budget have been diverted to fund research and development of new military technology. a surprise called former german minister for economic cooperation and development. the first interview with his post political career he now works for germany's biggest arms producer. where he's in charge of global strategy development. you can secure thousands of kilometers of borders in libya and egypt with foot patrols adequate protection demands the implementation of technology to. technological protection doesn't always take the shape of walls or fences technological protection can also comprise a sensor by a surveillance system ground radar or aerial objects.
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as a politician needle advocated a marriage of german industry with development policy. it's in europe's interest and if it's in germany's interests that such measures of protection are implemented then it must also be in europe's or germany's interest firstly to pay for these measures and secondly that the people who have to work with these technologies get the qualifications they need to operate them. strictly civilian technology firms are also hoping for a share of the profits in africa biometrics is the buzzword the dutch company can mount o. is the market leader a microchip storing fingerprints and photos is embedded in passports and verified it borders. just media so this could propagate to remain closed for the person to be called over for control control in some way it's just the european union is funding the introduction of such technologies for instance in nigeria.
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this is this really slowed us down on the african market we have the situation that the market as such is virtually nonexistent while at the same time it's precisely there ipad sports complete systems civil registries need to be rolled out. on our trips we're constantly having our fingerprints scanned in pictures taken. africa's borders and airports are obviously getting an upgrade. pretty soon no one will be able to board a plane here without a biometric passport. like in many african countries uganda now requires every citizen to undergo biometric registration. that applies to refugees as well as a requirement mandated by the government. the machines are supplied by european companies the aim is to prevent refugees from applying for asylum in more than one country in future the data will be accessible globally that would aid the e.u.
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in its efforts to repatriate rejected asylum seekers to their home countries. we want to find out what impact the e.u.'s new africa policy has had here. the need for foreign aid here in uganda is great but the money it receives doesn't amount to much. one point four million refugees live in the country. the north is home to the biggest refugee camps in africa. uganda depends on international aid and u.n. agencies in particular to provide these people with basic necessities but there are problems. that would be felt is not ten out of my dad would these two do that don't now finding that comes in and that's the reason as to why oftentimes they're able to bring in what they have. and that even though uganda's refugee policy is
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considered exemplary these are not camps in which refugees sit around idly these are settlements. refugees building materials are donations they can move freely around the country they are allowed and encouraged to find work. but the situation is deteriorating there is a shortage of everything food schools teachers doctors the e.u. is one of you can't his biggest donors yet it now spends less on each refugee here than it used to at the same time the transit countries that lie under a few g.'s route to europe are getting more funding under brussels new policy. uganda feels it's losing out. there is too big i'm calling to be according to. the funding is a. preschool season alongside to five percent the european union's key about. increasing accomplis he said. we continue to appeal but
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we don't walk to. the un refugee agency is also feeling the pinch as a result of brussels new policy in africa. negotiating with the. view to optimize refugee policy is the job of this man. you can look at the situation from different viewpoints it's wrong to say that the problem is solved because fewer people are arriving in italy or produced more because more people are leaving libya to return to their home countries. that is just the heart of the problem the problem of waste the problem remains because it controls of become more strictly enforced and some borders on route to libya that it's now become much more difficult to get there and the smugglers take a much higher risks because there are more people being left stranded in the desert we now have a lot more people dying in the desert probably more than we have drowning in the
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mediterranean and i meet you on the saltwater. says africans are the main losers of the e.u.'s new policy. see it domes you wait the more money is being spent on border protection would have done an effect of development in a particular country that unfortunately was perceived as certain invalid's d.c. we talk a lot about controlling and preventing illegal migration but what we don't see is any funding of legal migration small dipping cecil i mean but every side needs to take compromises. the policy cannot come down to expecting africa to shoulder all the burden without offering people any opportunities. at. illegal entry into europe for more than just a few thousand selected refugees is something the african union is also demanding and it has its own plans for inner african migration. one hundred eighty five percent of my response is within africa. that's an established product however up
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starting from china you seen. it continent we've been putting in place if you know if free movement protocol which is in three parts of foster this abolishing of research the next one is recipes i mean domestic crysis right of first operation so. now we have put in money meant of migration on the continent in a more legal framework. to watch if. it's it's like it's in cuba on our european partners with the our own experience to also support us but not strong to mind it out because of disparate policies to keep people out. but the e.u. steadfastly rejects this claims. he seems to me quite the complex reasoning the if we are managing and helping them in order to loose a man as their space you know for their own purposes not only our shop it's his i'm
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paying their their project if you say i work with africa's he or she is handsome from the coal industry or from the offical. my african friends. we want to say the e.u. diplomat stands by his position he sees migration as a threat to europe's future. if turned into a permanent feature. the geographic. will remain subject to the same pressure. the e.u. has achieved its goal the number of migrants arriving in europe is falling. the consequences of. the e.u. . it's becoming increasingly difficult to seek protection and work.
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you know next this week slate i. play is on the boys said the kind of full dream of up for sale in. brothers and this divorce from this garden. makes till now full said. patty ca of the end. of the road in thirty minutes on.
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an unusual friendship. is the story of paul and. is a student from cameroon the other a filmmaker from germany he's read about likely never be able to say whether he chose me or i chose him this is the story of how we met. on europe's most dangerous . lobby. what began as a documentary. the broken soccer fans everything for. a story about those seeking refuge. and those ready to help. when paul came over the sea from cameroon to berlin starts oct fourth on t.w. .
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this is the news line from berlin germany and governing coalition partners reach a new deal on the fate of the country's embattled domestic intelligence chief build mosques and he will be made a special advisor to be interior minister with the same pay as before instead of getting a promotion and raise political editor how what it all means for chancellor merkel's government also on the program pope francis pays tribute to victims of oppression in the baltic countries in the ukrainian capital vilnius france's one and all those who suffered and.

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