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tv   Doc Film - Apocalypse - Never- Ending War 1918 - 1929 Part 1  Deutsche Welle  November 11, 2018 10:15am-11:00am CET

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when against iraq since november twenty sixth seed. you're watching news coming to you live for berlin and to join us again at the top of the hour aware we'll be bringing you live coverage of the commemorations of the one hundredth anniversary of the end of world war one american evan stan thanks for watching. state by state. the most colorful. life. the most traditional. find all that any time. check in with a web special. take a tour of germany state by state. w dot com.
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for four years from nine hundred fourteen to nineteen eighteen and europe seemed on course to destroy itself. on august the fourth one thousand nine hundred fourteen germany invaded belgium. most of the world's major powers was soon drawn into the conflict. by the time the war ended almost forty nations in europe africa the middle east and east asia were involved. the so-called rich war was fought with unprecedented destructive power the turtle of more than sixteen million people were killed.
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parts of belgium and northern france were devastated. the austrian writer. said the war had affected him deeply. all the pale horses of the apocalypse have stormed through my life including revolution starvation and epidemics. nationalism has poisoned our flourishing european culture . in france alone at one point four million soldiers were killed. the allied powers including the british empire france the united states belgium
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italy and serbia had defeated the central powers the german empire also. hungary and the ottoman empire. when the armistice was announced in one thousand nine hundred people in the allied countries took to the streets to celebrate. the french writer i'll bet seymour now described the scene in paris. and the crowd young factory workers and fashionably dressed ladies hooked in kissed each other. everyone hopes this would be the war to end all wars
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a former french soldier who we baptise described his feelings in a diary. i was free from the clutches of the military i learned to hate the military and i will teach my children to hate it too. i'll teach them that words like fatherland glory and honor merely hide how terrible ugly and cruel war really gives i . think greece empires of europe were falling apart. the wars that have killed millions prompted new demands for independence. in april nine hundred sixteen irish republicans in dublin launched an insurrection against british rule. but the uprising was poorly
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organized and was put down quickly by brits. troops once again in the union jack flew over the irish capital. the austria hungary an empath a truly multinational state had ceased to exist by early november nine hundred eighteen. the empire is larger ethnic minorities including czechs slovaks croats and slovenes demanded independence and hopes that america would help them achieve it. u.s. president woodrow wilson sought to create a jury of peace as part of this effort wilson announced that from now on the peoples of europe should be governed only by their own consent he described self-determination as an imperative principle of action. empires collapse i i people rose up in revolt
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i. x monarchs fled the last austrian emperor charles the first step down from the hapsburg throne he and his wife tito were exiled to madeira in one nine hundred twenty one. in one nine hundred twenty two turkey's new parliament expelled the last autumn and sultan messmate the six several new states would emerge from the ruins of his empire. but some monarchs was celebrated as here it was. during the war belgium's king i'll bet on the first had fought alongside his troops his wife elizabeth served at the front as a nurse i germany's occupation of belgium ended with the armistice that was declared on november the
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eleventh one thousand nine hundred eighteen i. i. belgians honored canadian troops who had played a major role in the last great offensive of the war known as the hundred days that operation canadian unit suffered more than forty five thousand casualties. in the flanders region of northern belgium scottish troops seized a german supply train filled with hand grenades. as german forces retreated from northern france they destroyed everything that lay in their path.
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after the armistice life in europe slowly began to return to normal. the end of the fighting was announced on the morning of november the eleventh the eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month. the armistice remained in force as negotiations on a final peace treaty got underway the talks would be difficult not least because hatred continued to smolder throughout europe. french writer only summed up the situation. i fear that we are hardly more prepared for peace that we were for war the most critical phase begins right now fortunately we won the war. how did germany react to the armistice and the peace talks. the germans were ordered to evacuate the territory they dock your pride in belgium and france
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including the regions of a sas and law again german troops pulled back behind the rhine river. the right wing french political movement action fast says organized a big rally on the plaster caught in paris. so just scattered soil brought from to celebrate the return of the region to france. in eighteen seventy one after the end of the franco-prussian war france had been forced to cede out of sas and part of love again to germany. invited sus troops that had been defeated nearly five decades before now demonstrated their loyalty to france. i think. that it was. i mean if. i
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was. schoolchildren kissed the french flag. but not everyone in the region shared that enthusiasm catholics a nice us felt more secure in the german empire than they had of the second french empire considered by many to be hostile to the church in addition gas stations had come to appreciate the efficiency and order that characterized german rule. french president more point was born in law than. one county believed it would be impossible to achieve a lasting peace with germany given the kaiser's aggressive approach to foreign
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policy so he sought a license is with russia and britain and works to strengthen the french military. german troops returning home after the war found that society had been severely disrupted. the. emperor of the harem the second stepped down as german emperor and king of prussia on november the ninth one thousand nine hundred eighteen as required by the armistice agreement. he spent the rest of his life in exile in the netherlands many germans saw the abdication as a humiliation. in
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germany troops were often welcomed home by large crowds many germans didn't believe they had lost the war on the battlefield but the data being stabbed in the back by politicians. later that old hitler would use that claim to advance his own political agenda. on november the ninth one thousand nine hundred eighteen a german republic was declared by philip showed a man a member of the new cabinet. i thought. that. the marxist agitator was our look some borg wrote bush was the size he mimics order peace and the rule of law but it is wading in its own blood filthy and a sonnet the russian revolution was the honorable salvation of international
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socialism. russia november nine hundred seventeen the bolsheviks pledged by vladimir in each lenin seized power the country to send it into a bloody civil war between communist and anti communist forces. british french and us troops were sent to various parts of the country to fight the bolsheviks captured allied soldiers were shown in propaganda films. lenin denounced the foreign intervention. but would. like one like that.
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i. the russian revolution divided europe bunch later the entire world. communist activists established a soviet republic and hungary from march to war guess nine hundred nineteen during that time a group of communist paramilitaries known as the lenin boys executed several hundred people suspected of counter-revolution reactivity. in august nine hundred nineteen french and romanian troops occupied budapest and put an end to the uprising. revolution was spreading throughout europe now it was germany's town. in january nine hundred nineteen an armed revolt led by the german communist party
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shook berlin a week later the rebellion was put down by paramilitary troops known as the fi cause. they arrested and executed the communist party leader holds and looks on board and. some germans may have continued to idealize the early days of the war but now the majority of them simply wanted the country to return to peace and prosperity. none could have imagined that twenty five years later germany would be involved in yet another major conflict. nor could these people have foreseen that the same regime that started that conflict would also organize the murder of six million jews.
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on december the first nineteen eighteen belgian british and french troops occupied germany's rhineland region in accordance with the armistice agreement. the river rhine forms a natural boundary between france and germany and also symbolizes the two countries complex history. at first many germans welcomed the. arrival of french troops but their optimism soon turned to resentment and hostility. among these german children is the future film director max or fearless. in his memoirs often said he was saddened by the way that french troops at harris stand abused the local residence. a number of soldiers from french african colonies fathered children with
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local women starting in one nine hundred thirty seven the nazis forcibly sterilized several hundred of these mixed race offspring. gave. occupation troops from the british empire including those from canada were not especially popular with the rhineland residence. i think war had strengthened the canadian sense of national pride and then loyalty to the british crown. of the united states provided an estimated two hundred and forty thousand troops nearly one third of the total occupation force. most of them seem to get along well enough with the local residents. we fought against the crowds
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but they didn't invade america or lay siege to new york we had no need to retaliate . we just wanted peace and many of us have german roots. in december one thousand nine hundred eighteen would. wilson became the first sitting u.s. president to visit europe his delegation included franklin delano roosevelt assistant navy secretary and future president. wilson attended a series of preliminary negotiations ahead of the paris peace talks. wilson and his wife edith arrived in the french capital on december the fourteenth
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the city gave them a tumultuous welcome i. we will build a prosperous world in which all nations will enjoy the freedom for which france america england and italy have paid such a high price i must say caution editor of the socialist newspaper humanity at the time i listen is committed to the working classes is the only politician who has discovered the language of good will and justice i. will some a democrat was first elected president in nine hundred twelve and reelected in one thousand nine hundred sixteen during his election campaign he promised to keep
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america out of the european conflict. but after german submarine sank several american ships in early one nine hundred seventeen the us declared war in january nine hundred eighteen wilson presented a fourteen point plan for postwar peace in part it proposed self-determination for ethnic minorities and the creation of a league of nations to guarantee the political independence and territorial integrity of all states. in paris wilson met frequently with the french prime minister. george clooney also had been appointed prime minister and minister of war in november nine hundred seventeen and called for a complete victory over germany and the return of isis and logan two fronts. clearly also also demanded that germany pay huge reparations for the damage it had
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caused during the wall. but the british and u.s. delegations were concerned that reparations would ruin the defeated powers financially and could lead to domestic tensions and even civil war as in russia. president wilson spent the last five days of nineteen eighteen in britain and on january the first travelled to italy for talks with king victoria emanuel and the prime minister. wilson also began preparing for the international peace conference due to open on january the nineteenth. he continued to push for the approval of his fourteen point program including the right of self-determination for minority people as. wilson was warmly received by the
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italians but that had more to do with america's participation in the war than it did with his peace plan. italian nationalists fear that wilson self-determination proposal could lead to territorial losses one of their more prominent spokesman was a journalist benito mussolini the future italian dictator called wilson a bandit of international pluralism. the paris peace conference was intended in part to conclude peace treaties with the defeated states set up a shared tool of reparations payments to be made by germany and draft international borders that accurately reflected ethnic pound ribs. a total of twenty seven states took part in the conference but the negotiations
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were dominated by the big four allied powers. president wilson french prime minister also british prime minister david lloyd george. and italian prime minister vittorio emanuele orlando. for the next several months the participants negotiated the terms of peace treaties with the defeated powers the german delegation was not allowed to take part in the discussions. they hoped that the final treaty would be based on wilson's fourteen points and would not involve any loss of territory. the germans were deeply concerned that claim all so would take a hard line and weaken the new german republic so as to eliminate its ability to
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threaten from its i. at the end of six months of discussions the various delegations arrived at the palace of versailles to sign the main peace treaty. the ceremony took place on june the twenty eighth one thousand nine hundred nineteen the date was no coincidence. exactly five years before on june the twenty eighth one thousand nine hundred fourteen the heir to the australian gerry and throne archduke fun. ferdinand had been assassinated in sarajevo his murder had plunged europe into a wall. the choice of that sun i was also symbolic it was here that the new german empire was proclaimed in eight hundred seventy one following france's defeat in the franco-prussian wall.
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klim also had four severely wounded french soldiers posted at the entrance to the main hall so that the german delegation would see them when they arrived. the germans took their places at three in the afternoon they had never minutes to read and sign the treaty. the conditions opposed by the allies were harsh germany's army was cut to one hundred thousand men tanks submarines and military aircraft were banned the size of the navy was sharply reduced germany was also ordered to hand over its former colonies and to pay reparations the final amount was later set at two hundred sixty nine billion goldmark's. on july the fourteenth france's national holiday people took to the streets to celebrate their
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country's victory in the war and the tough conditions imposed on germany by the treaty of versailles. but it was also a sad day for those who had lost family members in the conflict. and . many veterans were still having a hard time coping with the effects of the fighting. one soldier wrote that the paris festivities were inappropriate. you don't celebrate when millions of fallen. on the same day claim also organized a huge parade on the lazy i troops from the. all the allied armies took part.
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american journalist eldritch baldwin was on hand to record the event. the ample sidewalks are densely crowded people have climbed on to step ladders balconies and roofs. cannonball it's echo taken up by the cheering crowds of us here comes just for the victory of the man and for commander in chief of the allied forces. the commander of the american troops pershing looks stern and marshal a bystander shouts smile. the belgian soldiers do smile they say more relaxed british troops receive a warm welcome. people cheer when they see the japanese the greeks the poles the portuguese and the serbs but where are the russians. not the bolsheviks but the
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allies that sacrifice two million men to make this day possible. and marshal picked up the hero a very done on his white horse he seems younger in person than his portraits. a french journalist will be able to flash read this account for the daily paper. all of the uniforms have the same color sort of blood. mutilated soldiers who've lost her legs. and the glorious survivors. it was all well and good to celebrate a military victory but what was to become of the eleven million allied soldiers who were wounded in the war those who had lost arms all. legs those who were subjected to poison gas attacks or who were blind.
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what about those whose faces were shattered by shrapnel. oh i actually mean it was a swiss red cross now says. i've never seen anything so horrible
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they were about twenty men they no longer seemed human frightening expressions were edged on their faces. muscles cappie worked for four years in an ammunition factory replacing men who'd been called up to the front. of the war has left us nothing but cemeteries and ruins. by this time women in france were demanding the right to vote a privilege that british women had won the year before and now they were losing their jobs to returning veterans. after the war cappy became
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a pacifist. the so-called peace treaties are potential sources of conflict they are punitive and guided by the principle of injustice and they have plunged europe into chaos the treaty of versailles is absurd. that treaty and its alleged injustices were used by at all fittler to promote his nationalist agenda this footage shows hitler as a right wing demonstration in one nine hundred nineteen. at that time he was working as an informer for the german military many germans consider their side treaty unfair and hitler speeches played to their worst fears. dress i was a disgrace to sticks hated pieces plundering our people it's outrageous france our mortal enemy has its hands on our throats. hitler drove home the point that many germans were now living in poverty. but the shaman hatred
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of sixty million germans turned into a sea of flames. the treaty require german soldiers to hand over their weapons in return they received financial compensation. provides the destruction of the german aircraft and tanks. many senior german officers felt she merely ated by all this the military began training what was left of its army into an elite force that would one day perhaps be able to take its revenge on france and.
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the new weimar government was constantly under threat by right wingers and militarists austrian born soon emerged as one of their most prominent spokesman. as early as nineteen nineteen german fried cause started painting swastikas on their helmets. officer at onst you know roach this war is not the end of violence it is the beginning. war veteran feedly hinds. when we heard that the war was over we just laughed we were the war the flame of war continue to burn in us. a lot of germans still backs the military later many of these same people would
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support. some industrialists made fortunes during the war by selling weapons and military gear. they came to be known derisively as africa's all money grubbers. the war profiteers lived in luxury while many average germans had been reduced to poverty. in france the trenches were now empty bird sang again. but the allies were struggling to demobilize millions of troops. military mail was still censored until individual soldiers returned to civilian
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life. one of them expressed his frustration at the delays. why don't they let us go. the war's over. why can't we go back to our families. the french saying on the stand get dedicated to show us all to the women who had been reunited with their husbands. now i thought it was cut up that it was. pushing on at the end of a yacht i'm one of our. own god help. the one i was. thirty foggy gilia he shut the door on the ledge hundred. feet. in front five million demobilized soldiers needed civilian clothes but there was
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a shortage of material at first some men simply tried to die old uniforms that idea was quickly abandoned and the government gave each man a clothing allowance. many of the veterans were farmers and they returned to their fields but in the factories jobs were few and far between. france also cut back on new weapons and women who had worked in war production facilities were sacked to make room for returning veterans. the demobilization process was a serious problem for troops from australia and new zealand. many were stranded in filthy transit camps they didn't have much to do except sit around and kill time until they could leave. some of them entertained each other with
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skits like this one about death. meanwhile a deadly influenza outbreak known as the spanish flu was spreading around the world and soldiers were among those hit hardest. between nineteen eighteen and nineteen twenty the disease killed at least fifteen million people. as the soldiers returned home they had to readjust to civilian life as well sutherland from toronto in canada explained in a letter to his mother. i'm going to marry a girl whose father was german please don't criticize me for that role there is a lovely girl who has been very good to me please don't judge her before you meet her.
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the tenant altshuler plans of canada's twenty second infantry regiment was pleased to be heading back home to quebec. my heart is overflowing with joy i thought i would never see this. country again. several members of the plants family died of flu and his neighbor's husband had been killed at the battle of amy ridge in one thousand nine hundred ninety. many veterans found it hard to make the transition. they've been subjected to military drills and obeying orders for so long that many have lost their sense of self. canadian military hospital set up physical therapy programs to help wounded
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veterans. the word impossible does not exist here the future success will depend on the energy and diligence that they put into their recovery. little. more than four hundred seventy thousand american troops were now on their way have . put before they left europe they were thoroughly disinfected to eliminate any diseases they may have picked up in the trenches or in brothels medical officials also try to combat the spread of spanish flu. many afro american soldiers had mixed feelings about returning to the u.s. in europe they hadn't experienced the racism that was widespread in america
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particularly in the deep south. and at this time the white supremacist ku klux klan was at the height of its power. life on the southern plantations had changed little since slavery was abolished in eight hundred sixty five this spiritual was popular at the time even. last. that law. hour. but in some parts of the northern us the return of afro american veterans was celebrated one soldier james reese europe remembers it this way.
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cheers came from the windows the roofs the streets numerous people joined the parade. a total of about three hundred fifty thousand black troops served on the western front one of the most famous afro-american units was the three hundred sixty nine thousand foot tree regiment known as the harlem hell fighters. civil rights activist marcus garvey demanded racial equality. we believe that blacks should have the same rights and privileges as other people. but president wilson favored a policy of racial segregation at the same time that he was promoting the right of european peoples to self-determination i will some campaigned across america on behalf of the peace treaty and the league of nations. the treaty would
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have to be ratified by the u.s. senate but wilson could not put together. the necessary two thirds vote. of the majority party the republicans who are opposed to it mainly because the league of nations would limit the senate's power to declare war. public opinion on the treaty was mixed with most of the opposition coming from republicans ethnic germans and irish catholic democrats. wilson tried to win them over. if we reject the league of nations we will break the world's heart. on october the second one thousand nine hundred nineteen wilson suffered a debilitating stroke and was no longer able to carry out his duties as president. the senate ratifies of a side treaty and if not would the league of nations be able to function
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effectively without the united states. ever. nineteen. in our program. did america november focus. one hundred years or pounds since the end of the first world war. what is around kind of learned from your ass great disaster commemorating and remembering the ceremony with chancellor angela merkel in paris watch it live next d.w.
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. scars cover don't forget women in russia have to live with violence sexism and oppression love the same bed finalizes know my brush on. their putin speech rooms today women's rights were already gaining traction a hundred years ago. people here don't have a clue about feminism but there are women who want to instigate change in their free to push for justice and equality. under the skin of russia's women starts nov thirteenth on t.w. .
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and. the call to remember those whose minds it names were lost a century ago when the war meant to end all wars the last post sounds at the mitigate memorials of the missing soldiers from the battle of the post in belgium.

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