tv Doc Film - Apocalypse - Never- Ending War 1918 - 1929 Part 2 Deutsche Welle November 18, 2018 8:15pm-9:00pm CET
for many families this promise holds little hope they might have certainty about what happened to their loved ones now but they are still left wondering why it happened a tool. you're watching d.w. news coming to you from berlin i'll have another update for you at the top of the hour in the meantime you can always get the latest news and information on our website just go to you dot com i mean i haven't seen from all of us here in berlin thanks for watching. what we were. when we were. in the percent of americans at some point in our lives will experience hardship listening. audience.
for four years from nine hundred fourteen thousand nine hundred eighteen europe seemed on course to destroy itself. on august the fourth nine hundred fourteen germany invaded belgium. most of the world's major powers will soon drawn into the conflict. following the end of world war one europe began the long slow process of
reconstruction. parts of belgium and northern france were devastated. austrian writer. said that the war had affected him deeply. all the pale horses of the apocalypse that stormed into my life revolution and famine terror epidemics and the nationalism that has poisoned the flowering of our european culture. an estimated forty million people were killed in the wall entire towns and villages were destroyed some farm fields were polluted by poison gas. large amounts of unexploded ordnance posed a real threat to life and limb. these materials including artillery shells had to be removed by hand.
these farmers are clearing away munitions in the peak of the region of france. people simply tried to make the best of a bad situation. the . french authorities ordered captured german soldiers to clear minefields a clear violation of the hague conventions that outlined the basic rights of prisoners. during the war france captured more than
three hundred thousand german troops. pen which of course was sent to a prisoner of war camp at sweet near there done. they seem to consider me a criminal. but it's clear enough that the french hate us and they want us to pay for. many of the prisoners were suffering from hunger and disease. all of them just wanted to return her. life was also difficult for many french civilians for example post-war inflation drove up the prices of basic foods. volunteers arrived from america to help in the reconstruction effort. philanthropist and morgan and dr anne marie dyke set up
a civilian relief organization called the american committee for devastated france . about three hundred fifty american women signed up to serve with the organization morgan wrote to her mother that she enjoyed her work. ethic. the people here need us they've suffered under german occupation they don't have much food and they sleep on bare floors but now they're doing better. half if. there were now an estimated six million war orphans in europe. these polish children eventually found new homes with families in the united states
. in france the authorities made all phones like these and more mounted wards of the state and looked after them until they became adults. there were millions of orphans or abandoned children in russia this led to an increase in juvenile delinquency across the country. street children who didn't have enough to eat often stole food the bolshevik government set up a number of all from the edges but not nearly enough to deal effectively with the problems. britain sense and large numbers of walthamstow to live with families in rural
canada some of the children were put to work on farms. a canadian m.p. j.s. woodworth sharply criticized this policy were using children as cheap labor. was many found a better life in canada than they had known in the slums of britain. was was that. many british women emigrated to commonwealth countries including australia the media claimed there was a shortage of men since seven hundred thousand british troops had been killed in the war was. throughout europe relatives mourn the loss of family members in the conflict. list
you anian poet author milosz describe the emotions these people experienced as they filed past roots of crosses. over dead. but the dead are not as dead as i am. many families wanted to remove the bodies of their loved ones from mass graves so that they could be given a proper burial. the remains were often excused by military personnel. the bodies of an estimated two hundred thirty thousand victims were recovered in this way and returned to their relatives. nearly one point eight million syrians as a buried in france alone seven hundred thousand french seven hundred fifty thousand
germans three hundred thousand british including sixty thousand canadians and thirty four thousand americans many desperate relatives turn to the occult. to try to find missing soldiers. spiritism had become increasingly popular in the previous few decades. underneath it was a prominent french spiritist philosopher. countless souls float above us eager to communicate. those who died in the war want to show themselves to their relatives. many critics dismissed spiritism as a fraud were. monuments to soldiers who died in the
wall were erected in many cities there are an estimated one hundred seventy six thousand world war one memorials in france alone. they include a park a dedicated to soldiers of canada's royal newfoundland regiment. this bronze statue represent the regiment symbol accountable. the unit suffered heavy casualties in the battle of the song. around the world sculptors worked day and night to keep up with the demand for war memorials. was. on november the eleventh nineteen twenty king george the fifth unveiled a war memorial in central london it's news the senate charts which means empty tomb
in greek. this cough and containing the remains of an unknown soldier was then buried at nearby. westminster abbey the senator has since become the focus of british remembrance and commemoration ceremonies. efforts to create a similar memorial in france had been underway for several years a friendship piece said it was the right thing to do. take your rightful place so that we cannot say that the lands you have saved has forgotten its greatest heroes so it weeping mothers who have no place to mourn may near let your grave and say. my son you are here.
france's unknown soldier is betty to the uk to cheer once in paris the grave is marked with an eternal flame. a similar memorial was unveiled in belgium in one nine hundred twenty two. king i'll bet you took part in the ceremonies. america's unknown soldier was laid to rest of the national cemetery near washington national family known for the supreme allied commander during the war attended the ceremony. a crow indian chief called plenty coups also took part several decades before he had joined forces with the u.s. army to defend his tribe against enemies including the sioux. plenty coups paid
tribute to the unknown soldier by placing his war bonnet on the ceremonial stuff on the great. vosh told general pershing that he wanted to visit the western u.s. . i want to see the indian tribes. in late november one thousand nine hundred twenty one first traveled to north dakota where he met the suci fred tomahawk at a ceremony the chief presented for sure the peace pipe which the two men then smoothed the chief gave for sassoon name which translates as charging son. on november the nineteenth one thousand nine hundred nineteen the american president woodrow wilson now partially paralyzed by a stroke was handed a serious defeat by the u.s. senate which refused to ratify the best side peace treaty those who voted against
the treaty believed it would limit the senate's ability to declare war at the same time many americans simply wanted to get on with their lives and to stay out of future european conflicts. was i many young women rejected social norms and sought greater independence they were known as flappers. zelda fitzgerald the wife of author f. scott fitzgerald wrote about them. they walked from their lethargy bought their hair put on their best earrings and with a great deal of audacity and rouge went into the battle. a flapper flirted because it was fun and were a one piece bathing suit because she had a good figure she refused to be bored because she was not boring. and she knew that she was doing things that she had always wanted to do. i i i
. the senate by failing to ratify the treaty shattered wilson's dream of u.s. participation in the league of nations i. would be held its first session in paris in january nine hundred twenty and later that year moved its headquarters to geneva. the organizations main goal was to preserve world peace but could it do so if the united states was not a member. of. several posts that aside agreements change the map of europe and the middle east. a nine hundred nineteen treaty formally dissolved the austro hungary and empires and created an independent state of austria on one nine hundred twenty treaty set up
the independent state of hungary to new states appeared on the map for slovakia and a nation that would later be known as yugoslavia. the new boarders paid little attention to ethnic distribution germans were now living in poland and czechoslovakia on gary ns in remaining year and salads croats and slovenes in yugoslavia these ethnic groups have lived together more or less peacefully in the australian garion empire. the ottoman empire had been home to a diverse mix of ethnic and religious groups including arabs. the treaty of sever signed in one nine hundred twenty outlines the breakup of the empire and the creation of a new state that would mainly include as nick turnips. form autumn and territory in the middle east would be divided between france and britain
france was given a league of nations mandate to govern lebanon and syria. a similar mandate for palestine trans-jordan and iraq was awarded to brazil. there were huge reserves of petroleum in iraq and they would now be controlled mostly by britain. the treaty also provided far enough thomas kurdish region in the new turkish state. jewish communities had existed in palestine for centuries. beginning in one nine hundred twenty large numbers of jews most of them from europe began immigrating to the region. zionist organizations demanded that a national home for jewish people should be created in palestine. during the war britain had said that any new jewish state should not disrupt
existing arab communities britain made these and other promises to win arab support against the ottomans. the british officer t.e. lawrence better known as lawrence of arabia served as a liaison between the british and arab forces. in november one thousand nine hundred twenty one the jewish agency for palestine was created to oversee jewish interests in the region. zionist leader and future israeli president high in vitamin noted at the time palestine will be as jewish as an england is in english and america is america. the seeds of the conflicts between palestinian jews and arabs had been severed. in one thousand nine hundred twenty tensions were running high in constantinople now nana's istanbul. immediately after the armistice allied troops occupied the city by this time
a nationalist movement was already taking shape. the end. the movement was led by general mostafa. who had led off from an forces to victory in the campaign. the nationalists were opposed to the partition of the country as outlined in the treaty of said. if we accept the allies demands there will be no end to their greed. came my organized a new army its primary goal was to drive out greek troops that had occupied the coastal city of smyrna in may ninety ninety and then taken over much of western turkey. to mass forces launched a counterattack in all this nine hundred twenty two. they pushed greek troops all the way back to the aegean coast. on
september the ninth one thousand nine hundred twenty two commands troops reoccupied the city of smyrna. four days later a fire broke out in the city's armenian district and spread quickly at least ten thousand people are said to have died. evidence indicates that the blaze was started by turkish troops jamal later denied any responsibility. for tens of thousands of ethnic armenians and greeks fled to the docks to escape the flames at least one hundred fifty thousand were evacuated by british and american ships. meanwhile officials at the league of nations were actively working to repatriate prisoners of war and to improve living conditions for wall refugees. one of these diplomats was
norwegian explora humanitarian and future nobel laureate future of nansen in one thousand nine hundred twenty one now. ansen was appointed the league's high commissioner for refugees. in one nine hundred twenty two he began issuing refugee travel documents that came to be known as nuns and passports. an estimated four hundred fifty thousand of these documents were issued to people who could not obtain passports from their governments the recipients included russian french artist marc shall die and russian composer sergei rachmaninoff and eagle stravinsky . many of the refugees wanted to emigrate to the u.s. and made their way to the french quarter shell board to book passage on ships. many of them were housed at the newly constructed or telecom on t.v. . the facility could accommodate and process two thousand refugees at
a time they were given a thorough medical examination and disinfected if necessary the refugees were housed in the hotel's dormitories until they were cleared to leave. at this time the united states still welcomes immigrants all the restrictions would be imposed in one nine hundred twenty four. the statue of liberty served as a beacon for many of them a poem written by emma lazarus is inscribed on a plaque inside the statues pedestal. give me your tired your poor your huddled masses yearning to breathe free the wretched refuse of your teeming shore. in montreal a rally was organized to call attention to the plight of ukrainian jews famine and anti semitic attacks were widespread in ukraine. an estimated one hundred thousand jews were killed in ukraine joining the russian
civil war mostly by anti communist forces the war would continue until nine hundred twenty three. the bolshevik red army defeated a coalition of opposition forces known as the white army. soviet rule was now imposed across the country. the union of soviet socialist republics was officially declared on december the twenty second one thousand nine hundred twenty two the new states now covered nearly one sixth of the us land surface. there was a major famine from one nine hundred twenty one to twenty two one major cause fields already seized commodities from peasants to feed the cities and the military . an estimated five million people died in the famine. food supplies donated by europe of the united states soon started arriving.
will scheffer also an american relief worker described the situation in one region . people hit we spec stored ground bones tree bark and clay they also eat meat from horses dogs cats and rats and each strong. there are macey and dozens die every day. the stench is appalling. by the end of the civil war an estimated one point five million russians had left the country. many of them settled in france often in paris only just.
wealthy emigres continued to lead lives of luxury. among them was prince felix you support who had coordinated the murder of russ cotton in one nine hundred sixteen. how can you not feel comfortable in paris the city brightens the mind. that you support was a close friend of grand duke dimitri a first cousin of tom nicolas the second dimitri had a brief relationship with fashion designer coco chanel. there are conflicting reports on how chanel came up with the idea for the distinctive bottle for her perfume chanel number five some say she got the concept from dimitri. in the bottles design has remained essentially the same to this day.
the. russian emigres idolized son nicholas who was murdered by the potion makes in one nine hundred eighteen you superfriends of the russian community in paris was thriving there are russian shops and restaurants we have all four docks structures training schools and retirement homes paris is a natural destination for immigrants. life in paris was harder for those who had served in the sars army and didn't have a lot of money. many of them ended up driving taxi cabs for a living. the last of these drivers retired in one nine hundred seventy at the age of ninety two. the emigres were concerned about the spread of soviet influence throughout the world. the economic and social dislocation was
caused by world war one prompted many people to join communist parties they believed communism would bring about equality for all. support for the communists grew in london berlin new york minute and drove. one of the founders of the italian communist party until new gramsci travel to moscow in one nine hundred twenty one to study the soviet system. one lives for the party. in italy many anti communist veterans joined a movement led by war hero gabrielli done once you've. done a good show opposed the treaty of versailles because it ordered italy to hand over territory to the new yugoslav state including domination and the city of fuming now told being. our
victory has been ruined. the news who sought to make italy a first rate european power. italy your time has come under for years lie ahead i hear the thunder of eagles tearing through the night. in september one thousand nine hundred nineteen done shows troops occupied few. i. i italian government kept trying to drive out of the city and he finally left in december nineteen twenty. klunk she wrote that europe was in a state of transition. the old world is dying and the new world has not been born in times like these gruesome phenomena appear.
close phenomena included benito mussolini his wife or kill a noted that mussolini had a certain natural magnetism. his eyes const a spell over you his gaze was wanting his pupils flashed in knew that his eyes exerted power on others. in the years before the war most leni had been a socialist and worked as a journalist in one thousand nine hundred fourteen he became a fervent nationalist. in midland in one thousand nine hundred he founded a fascist combat squad which consisted of about two hundred men. mostly copied much from cavalierly done on seal. his supporters wore black shirts. used the ancient roman salute. carried daggers and popularized the slogan annoyed
with us. by nine hundred twenty two mostly nice organization had grown to include three hundred thousand. his populist slogans helped him to bring together veterans disabled veterans the unemployed and members of the lower and middle classes alike. muzzling these black shirts often engaged leftists in street battles their slogan was mean if legal i didn't care. mostly promised to restore law and order enforced his policies by arming his supporters with clubs.
mussolini also promised to put a stop to labor strikes. that helped win the support of industrialists including giovanni oniony founder of the fi out automobile company. the political situation in italy was changing quickly. on october the twenty eight thousand nine hundred twenty two about thirty thousand fascist militiamen gathered in rome to demand the resignation of the prime minister speaking known as the so-called march on rome i. mostly nereid the next day from his headquarters in milan i i at that i am he wore a suit and tie instead of his usual fascist uniform.
on october the twenty ninth king viktor emanuel appointed mussolini prime minister . as the head of governments mussolini chose a policy of cooperation with the catholic church and pursued his aim of transforming italy into a totalitarian state. in germany militarist and nationalist factions united around general eerie shooting dogs who had been the de facto second in command of german forces during the war i knew doff would later. not at all hitler. hitler said. our people are miserable we must act now also that they do not join the communists.
in january nine hundred twenty three french and belgian troops occupied the rule region because germany had fallen behind in its war reparations payments. those payments contributed to an economic crisis that included runaway inflation the german government kept printing more and more money. by one point a loaf of bread cost four hundred sixty billion marks. the thirteen year old described the situation. when our father brings home his daily pay we spend it right away because the money will soon be worthless. in the rule region tensions increased between local residents and the occupation
troops. these pictures show a french officer assaulting germans who failed to remove their hats during a funeral procession. called november the ninth one thousand nine hundred twenty three it's not and his cohorts staged a coup attempt in munich. the uprising was quickly put down by police and soldiers. hitler was arrested. stefan side wrote at the time. in one thousand twenty three the swastikas disappeared and the brown shirts on at off hitler were forgotten. in his rather comfortable prison cell. set about writing his political manifesto to be called mine comes my struggle this work outlines hitler's political and social ideology and maps out his plans for germany.
in spain general me gale prematurely vera overthrew the parliamentary government in september nineteen twenty three and set up a military dictatorship. by a young and talented army officer francisco franco rose steadily through the ranks during the early years of primitive the various regime. franco was now about to embark on a successful career with the spanish foreign legion and morocco. in one thousand nine hundred twenty one franco had been promoted to deputy commander of the legion spain controlled a strip of land in northern morocco that included two brief mountains the rest of morocco was a french protectorate during world war one local residents were forced to work in
the mines that provided wrong materials for french armaments factories. in september nine hundred twenty one the people of the reef region declared their independence from spain. path the uprising was led by mohammed abdul karim who managed to unite the various berber tribes. on july the twenty first the insurgents inflicted a decisive defeat on spanish troops at the battle of and while. the rebels suffered eight hundred casualties out of a force of about three thousand. experts differ on the number of spanish troops that were killed or wounded but the losses were huge. in september nineteenth
twenty five french and spanish units supported by warships landed on the northern moroccan coast pushed inland under fisa the insurgent. atrocities were committed by both sides. in this moroccan soldier beheaded his brother who had joined the rebels. a number of spanish soldiers were executed by the insurgents after they had surrendered. the french and spanish launched air attacks against rebel positions. spain used mustard gas a chemical weapon against the insertion of. the combat use of naval air and ground forces finally brought an entry to the fighting.
in may nine hundred twenty six up to cream surrendered to the french news reels of this event was shown in french cinema. is elderly father and his family seek the protection of the victors. historians differ on the significance of the brief war some see it as the last of the colonial conflicts others believe it set the stage for future wars of d. colonizing. the years of mediately following world war one what models by major social and political dislocation. many people abandon religion and turn to political engagement to try to make some sense of life. by the mid one nine hundred twenty s. fascist movements were growing throughout your. communism
had spread to the shores of the united states in one thousand nine hundred nineteen this led to a red scare during which a number of communists and anarchists would be ported. about two hundred fifty of them were sent to russia all the transport ship dumped the soviets on. was. in january nine hundred twenty the united states out from all the production importation and sale of alcoholic beverages this was commonly known as prohibition and its supporters had claimed for decades that alcohol contributed to a decline in moral values. we all sort of cheese and forced the new law with a vengeance destroying large quantities of b.s. wine and spirits. was.
organized criminal gangs stepped in it wants to fill the void. she called the mob boss al capone made a fortune selling illegal alcohol i. think this era is often referred to as the roaring twenties you know dances and pleading the charleston became popular. people engaged in daring public stunts and not to cinemas to see charlie chaplin. in one thousand nine hundred eighty. senator al but the average had declared that the twentieth century will be america american thought will dominate american progress will give
a color and direction american detroit make it the last three years. america exported jazz to europe. american entertain edges of bacon became the teamsters paris french fries and. tension. the right of citizens has found its style. the french referred to the nineteen twenties as the crazy thing i mean funny. and his standing way religion his memoir a movable feast. to live in paris was like being given a great treasure. jazz music was also popular in berlin. and so i described these years in his memoir the load of yesterday. as the value of money decreased all other values began to slip and talk of enthusiastic ecstasy
a mixture of impatience and fanaticism. times for everything that was extravagant and uncontrollable. in the postwar he is many people wanted to live life to the fullest and bury their memories of tara and death. in germany hitler promised to tear up the valve side treaty and to restore the country to its pre-war glory. by the late one nine hundred twenty s. economic crises threaten to spin out of control and climbs the world once again into conflict. after world war one the people of europe demonstrated a remarkable will to survive but did the politicians learn lessons from the war and take action to settle disputes peacefully. the sad fact of the matter is that they
richer also and you to stop. your romex thirty minutes long d.w. . they are digital maurier's. for women for internet activists one mission the battle for freedom and dignity. against repression and violence lead to close the powers of social media. above the messages are spreading like wildfire the social media spectacle it's critical to as of the moment comes in the because one more above the streets and the women who work in changing the world from the
beaches will soon start summer twenty fifth long to dublin above. the law. to. mrs d. w. news live from berlin a day to remember the words that europe pledged never to repeat the french president urges closer collaboration with berlin during ceremonies marking germany's day of remembrance by pronghorns a future dangers that europe must face together also coming out. ahead.