tv Doc Film - The Angel Chronicles Deutsche Welle December 27, 2018 6:15am-7:01am CET
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work that hard and in the end it's a me you're not allowed to stay here any more we will send you back. are you familiar with this. with the smugglers were liars. what's your story. and what numbers and women especially are victims of violence in terms of take part and send us your story your training in all weathers understand this new culture. another visitor another guest you want to become a citizen. in for migrants your platform for a while information. when
christianity first arose it was
without images it had only words only script images were first introduced into the christian's assembly rooms where they were concentrated at the far end of the simple hole cold the clays yet but once the walls were adorned with images they told a story. how did these images arise how did these stories come up barriers and what role did angels play in the stories of conflict between power and order heaven and.
angels on the messengers of the one god of whom no image exists and upon whom no human will ever set eyes people worship god's words words that were brought by angels who were closest to him. they are spiritual beings just like him beings of light. changes proclaim what god wishes to tell people. they're cold and
they were imagined to be all new president always talking guiding advising and judging people and so they became a central theme of the pictorial history of the week old western art. christianity became the state religion of the roman empire at a time when it was already beginning to collapse the city of rome the capital was a civilized metropolis of millions whose standards of living and ops represented the pinnacle of human history.
the roman emperor has placed themselves on the same level as the gods even today we talk of their buildings and legacies as monumental which also means overwhelming. different baptist because two of the christianity whether it likes it or not is also an add to the roman empire they were temporally contingents the roman empire had a claim to universality christianity also claims universality and translated it into the commandment to go into the world and preach the gospel to all creation because . the first images of the first picture oriel symbols arose alongside the scriptures when the christian or a trees in rome was still hidden underground in the catacombs. these pictures were
different from those of pre-christian i am ticketing and portrayed angels wearing halos instead of winged messengers with laurel reeds but in the beginning there were very few specifically christian images. and take all measure lego hats can dogmatically antique roman religion didn't develop any dogma and for that reason provided no order to order first becomes apparent in christianity for instance in the hierarchy of the angels who we can see as the successor to the mynah functional gods of the romans one of those but continuity and transformation volatile. but what were the models for the superhuman images in christendom were they the heroes of antiquity early christian imagery has its roots in the assyrian babylonian period with its anthropomorphic creatures for example the firy and winged chair of.
the decent because if let's take a. concept of demons which in the greek hero were neither good nor bad the morning demons were only intermediaries between the dead is and humanity in christianity they are rico defined as unclean spirits the new testament teaches us that they are the repudiated and resentful gods of the greeks for ricky vs and then when bill i didn't get a christian. instead of adopting the pictorial world of antiquity christianity chose to take a detour through demonic beings which took on an idealized human form copied from the n.t. god's angels are based on models taken from antiquity and the babylonian demons
even their name reflects these roots anger loss is greek for messenger and the chair of bears a resemblance to the early demons. certain uses is the pseudo dionysius is the ideal author because he imagines the angels heaven as a world organized according to three sets of three it's made up of spheres nested in each other until they reach the highest mystery who's caught him is that he's got. one from the same person again and from his highest ministry received only as a sea of light divine glory is radiated to the world below so now it consists not just of visible light but also of the knowledge of who god actually is this is based on the first level of angels the seris from them to the cherubs who pass it on via an almost visible spiritual connection to the throne the political masters himself and so vital. and thus the portrayal of angels in the late middle ages is
above all an indication of the primary thing communicated by christian images order . and leslie thrown off these are reflections on quo. asked jensen how can i portray god how can i portray what is holy and purely spiritual without it becoming sensible and being dragged down to the level of antiquity which the christians termed paganism. ruslan because now are global not. the picture of a hierarchical order in heaven is the keen to christian imagery order is the prerequisite for perfection. the first step towards a self-contained christian iconography of angels didn't take place in rome in the
fourth century a.d. the roman empire collapsed into two hobs rome and the western part of the empire was overrun by the goffs then reconquered by eastern roman by xantia in the mid six century rome became a provincial city of the buys and time empire with rivera as its capital. this is where the first systematic pictorial history of the still young christian a synthesis of greek philosophy and the christian doctrine of salvation was developed. did drive that model of a citizen of youth as a simple way to get this tired of you have a number three is normally reserved as a symbol of the day it is this but in the old testament we also have an angel often a sightly and a prophet izzy kill all eyes are allowed to look up to heaven they see being surrounding got all the fit they either ordered in groups of four or have four
facets for example eagle like lion like all human like beings and all of figures are equal or few it is something that was imported from the babylonian iconography and integrated into christendom god is surrounded by groups of four figures when seated on her. throne and that's why alongside the number three which symbolizes gaunt there is a number for an extension symbolizing his rule in all four worldly speeches and era so i figure since that's also why the derivatives of three and four twelve and twenty four or so endowed with a holy systematic significance systematically toy to. the oldest most acts of christian iconography out to be found in the sacred buildings of ravenna opposite a series of martyrs there's a series of holy virgin islands that individual expressions are not important but the series and the number. sixteen prophet stand above them which signifies twelve
plus four and the fact that they are placed above the virgins on the martyrs expresses their place in the hierarchy and they're all foraging within christendom . even higher up scenes portraying christ's passion even this position denotes hierarchy order here in revenge of the hierarchy as formulated and translated into a system of images. the beginning and the end of this mural are reserved for the key figures of holy scripture mary and christ they are positioned formally alongside each of them are two angels that look out directly on the view of the angels all the courtiers whole body guards of mary and jesus christ. are here.
this simple pictorial system became a canon upon which everything else was based from then on the churches became larger and the at ces and jones expressed the unity and perfection of the christian kos-mos. in the way it. rangely it's images the christian pictorial system took over and transcended the by sam time court order and its portrayal of power and representation. if you read the thirty eight jubilee eulogy on constantine the great we can discern a formula for order in the world one god one empire one emperor constantine was an advocate of an eeg on a tarion got a clear hierarchy order this system of subservience this reflected says here political relationships isn't. and. our
are. always where the synthesis between the systematic thinking of the greeks and the christian doctrine of salvation became translated into imagery. amidst the ruins of rome new churches were built and the ancient roman buildings repurposed by christian. pictorial cameron over a van are made itself felt in some time out here in trust a very the larger the church walls the more imagery could be depicted. here for the first time mary was depicted directly alongside jesus christ as his companion the mosaic still expresses representation directly but the angels are
missing. thus the picture clearly indicates that the central figure of the new testament jesus christ the redeemer is superior to the angels in the hierarchy even though he was a human being. the upper basilica of sun clemente in rome was built at the beginning of the twelfth century in it the buys and time courtly order is abandoned the christian cross dominates the ordering of the spheres still expresses numba and order but more important is the concentration on the christian visual symbols they signify the opposites of power christ as the holy land in the center of his flock. this is gawd as the angel of peace among us a full god it's a different pictorial message from those of antiquity all the buys and time empire
. all. around the turn of the millennium the church order as expressed in images went through a profound crisis of increasing worldliness and corruption the authority of the pope and with it the message of salvation through the one church was substantially shaken. the radical return of the liturgy to the original message of salvation took place not initially but in france i am in a small chapel near only on the founding motifs of that message of salvation are represented on it's by sand time or sanders. above two small six winged chariots two other angels dominate the done. they represent the old and the new testament which in the language of the mosaic were
delivered by angels to humankind. the suggestion of a hand tells us that they have delivered the scripture upon god's command i'm not the path to salvation can only lie in following god's will. this new system of christian liturgy and message of salvation comes from cluny abbey founded in one nine hundred ten by the juke of aquitaine as a benedictine abbey clooney was not only the center of the christian cosmos during the middle ages but the largest and most powerful church of the christian world it was only supposed later by st peter's basilica during the french revolution almost nine hundred years later clooney was destroyed as being a symbol of an absolute monarchy that claimed divine legitimation. but today
even amid the ruins the pattern significance of this order with its many of the churches and ministries throughout burgundy is still palpable it's no accident the burgundy was home to the most significant monastic orders and of the biggest cathedrals of the eleventh and twelfth centuries the most important pilgrims way to santiago de compostella took them through here. ton cathedral houses the most significant pictorial example of the transformation of christian iconography joining that period it was carved in stone by give back to a spittoon eleven twenty and eleven thirty five. the main portal through which millions of pilgrims enter the church no longer depicted the power of god but the last judgment christ and the elders the angels
that god's throne sits and judge over human souls which in line with the general understanding of this period threatened by evil more than ever. in order to uphold order and the perfection of salvation christ and the angels have to demonstrate that they can differentiate between good and evil from this point on the rank of the angels changes dramatically in the imagery from now on they become the most important representatives of the ruler of old things a god that rewards good behavior. as christ companions the angels are lot at the role of completing salvation the angels are once again the mediate has between god and humanity they fight for god for humanity against evil. the pilgrims moved within the great knaves as though they were in
a parade and looked up into the capitals with their vivid illustrations of the evil in all its incarnations. the second temptation of christ taken from the gospel of luke makes it clear what's happening here christ's determination to resist heresy and direct. the suicide of judas shows what happens when someone turns away from god the monumentally impressive knave signified to the believers that only gaunts words could help against old these temptations and human weaknesses. to to have zero zero zero zero zero zero zero zero zero zero. zero zero zero zero zero m. out heading southwards with the mansions just visible on the horizon lies one of the most important cities of the middle ages the peace of the modern day the
outside demiraj was originally a burial place beyond the city walls the whole complex with its cathedral baptistry and campo some toe was bigger. in thirteen hundred. and a half the campo son toll was the largest cemetery of the christian middle ages and that's a place where death damnation and redemption played a prominent role here we find a monumental representation of the love's judgment. this powerful fresco must have shocked its contemporaries it begins with the last judgment on the ruffle christ reveals his wounds and flings his outrage like lightning in the direction of how. this anger is offset by the gentle virgin mary to his left. beneath them is an angel with us at high level with the viewer is the archangel michael with his sword.
another angel herds frightened citizens of pisa towards damnation the faces up terrified and pleading but no one can escape divine judgment this is a recurring motif in christendom in the face of the might of the last judgment the wealth and grand bishops and even the power of mana use all to no avail. in the frescoes pictorial arrangement the artist has paid tribute to social status the kings occupy the top. even one of the angels reveals its fear in the face of the past and unavoidable ity of the last judgment announced by trumpets on the left we can see the saved these two are portraits of real life citizens of. their facial
expressions are calm and they all look up to the merciful figure of the virgin mary . before the judge their body language is relaxed the face is a clear although their expressions reveal intense concentration. pease's pious citizens are expressing their heartfelt gratitude for the victory of good over evil . the struggle does. these angels receive the souls who have already been saved. it's as if in addition to the widely understood concepts of the apocalypse in the last judgment a new orientation is taking place towards the end of the twentieth century not far from the russian pass on the edge of the southern alps the monastery of muddy and
back was established to this day the benedictine monks there assembled in a narrow vaults that are a tree. off . marion bagmen history is famous for its roman frescoes in a symbolic series of images they reinterpret human beings path to salvation they are brought closer to the angels by pursuing their battle against evil. the more. humans can rise in the heavenly hierarchy by successfully overcoming evil that is the message of these frescoes that. we see the end jet except sin cherubs recognizable by the six wings that. alongside them is the apostle peter who holds the key to heaven in paradise and on his right is a protective angel. this constellation indicates
a new link between apostle and heavenly beings man and angel again come closer to one another despite the evil in the world. who. is the most important message though is communicated in the arrangement of angels above the almighty in the mandorla in jesus christ appears to be standing on his hand. the real focus is this small angel smaller than all the other heavenly figures it represents the new human who are to fighting a lifelong battle against evil is seen by christ to be deserving of redemption and thus as a small angel is taken into the communion of the big angels human beings can rise into the sphere of the heavenly beings and can be redeemed heaven awaits them
that's what this fresco expresses the small angel is both messenger and message a new era in the relationship between humanity and the heavenly smear has begun hope. further southwards we reach a place of great importance in christian iconography assisi in burgundy joining the twelve century monasteries have adopted a strict the organizing liturgy and had almost completely rejected imagery. in the thirteenth century new waters arose in central italy this one in assisi was to be a purely mendicant told up completely dedicated to charity and neighborly love as the most direct path to redemption. the building of the lower church began in the early thirteenth century together with thomas aquinas francis of assisi was considered the main renewal of the christian
doctrine of salvation no building from the late middle ages bad as great a testament to the spirit of renewal as that of the highest church of assisi. it's nave is dominated by giotto's world famous francisco's but the real secret is to be found in the older decorated transepts of the name of what is here translated pictorially is the virgin mary's bodily ascension to heaven and her final exaltation of the angels. in one of the man dollars held up by for an angels jesus and mary are in friend in loving devotion one of the angels is said to have called out who is she she who is
raised up from the desert nestling on her love on. pain jewels profits on the saints assemble around the heavenly throne on which the virgin mary sits alongside her son as an intercessor on behalf of humanity. what is important here overprotectiveness hamleys st francis whose face can no longer be recognized pleats for redemption on behalf of his brothers is please convey by mary to her son who listens and gives his blessing to the francisco. the virgin mary's role in the heavenly hierarchy is in this franciscan church newly defined. she is jesus' companion and on par with the angels at the same time she remains a human being that signifies that she is the first human being to be redeemed and raised to heaven.
the rose window in the outer world is like a final symbol of this new order. the shape of the sun can be construed as referring to jesus the rose to the virgin mary both forms are united as part of a circle that has only one center god. have the close of the middle ages towards the end of the fourteenth century tuscany became a european stronghold of progress the dominican monks and jellicoe came from the area around florence and achieved world renown with his portrayals of angels. there. and in the conspicuous chapel nicko tona is home to the
enunciation popular motif. the messages depicted in the fall most visible words the virgin mary is face still has a generic madonna like quality but is also individually defined and this image symbolizes not only the metaphorical line between the middle ages and the modern era it also makes clear what move become more and more. humans are now represented as emotional and individual beings in the story of salvation. the lower part of the painting depicts the marriage between mary and joseph but his groundbreaking in this wet by front and jenny co is the expression with which she has endowed the figure of mary the archangel gabriel she is is
a cool she represents the human striving for salvation the face expresses humility and dignity yet is still powerful she remains self-conscious and had gesture expresses not subservience but surprise and also knowledge awareness of what is happening she has been endowed with an individual soul and it is for that reason that we still describe her as beautiful. the impact of from our angelic owes work remained basically limited to tuscany he traveled little his main ambition was to embellish the sacred places of worship for the brothers of his own order. once again the relationship between the history of god. salvation and the world of the profane changed dramatically. the renaissance emerged first in tuscany then in rome
it was a blossoming of trade and dot and no since the downfall of the classical world had been so prosperous but of course also influenced the depiction of the angel. the vilified in rome was commissioned by the banker i go steen no cheap and built by by the roots. it is seen as the ultimate expression of the high renaissance and with its perspectives hole it features a room of tom boy painting. the walls of college with scenes from the life of an example of a great book first catches the eye is a writing messenger with flowing cloaks in the form of
a white friend giving the impression of wings. the messenger is part of a historical allegorical depiction of the wedding of alexander to the persian princess roxanne that at the center alexander appears and hands the princess the crowd the real focus that was the heavenly messenger half and half archangel gabriel. alexander is typical of the newly awakened interest in mythical historical figures during the sixteenth century the small angels which look like cupid's a borrowed from the pagan classical era. in classical times cupid's when love calls to picture the small voice. of christendom. makes them into anonymous angels and and similarly figures they reveal the meaning and intention of the miral its aim is
to move the view ascension not spiritual. the villa fantasy now is the high point of the renaissance this work shows how far images from the classical era survived into christendom the godlike figures in the hero's return in allegorical form complementing the christian images. there. at the beginning of the sixteenth century the foundation was laid for the new st peter's basilica in rome it was intended as a proof that christendom suppose the classical era. in the mid seventeenth century a sculpture was made for the church of sun. it had the same aim to
illustrate the ultimate triumph of christendom. the sculptor. was a successor. whose late work marked the end of the renaissance and the beginning of the baroque. the motif of the ecstasy of saint teresa is a variation of the annunciation also depicted by frog angelical but with benny there was a decisive transformation. to reason that is portrayed in dramatic film many attempts to make the ecstasy tangible the myths are grown up twisted the body is open. from now on the story of salvation and the motifs derived from it were presented theatrically utilizing old visual tools available. that included classical heroes and an agrees.
precisely at the moment when st peter's basilica symbolized the victory of christian imagery of the pagan antiquity the latter returned in full force into the christian. in the immense st peter's we find the legend of its foundation expressed in the sentence and so i say to you you peter and upon this rock i will build my church. the new building claim to be nothing less than the greatest monument in the history of the world time and again the builders dishpan it and down to it whether the immense votes would be capable of bearing the enormous. but will. the spirits of the age demanded a massive triumphant. as
an old man. received a commission from pope clement the nine to design the entrance to the cast as. the building was the most a limb of emperor of hadrian and the triumphant entrance way over the bridge was lined with statues of the classical dogs of victory many replace these with angels converting a pagan monument into christian. the angels hold the instruments of the passion well kristie in their hands the road becomes a symbolic way of the cross all via dolorosa like the one walked by the pilgrims in jerusalem. converted it into a triumphal procession and the angels bear with. to it with the symbols of christ's passion. the angel with
a crown of thorns was sculpted by many himself the newly sculpted angel stood in the sequence of statues with the apostles peter and paul who were on it as martyrs and the here to proclaim the victory of christendom. the mausoleum of cast down sometimes a low but always dominated the entranceway to run if people look around now they saw the miracle of saint peter dedicated to the triumph of the holy roman church but this triumph was soon called into question by knowledge and science. the battle began for the right to interpret imagery and after bernie's death it was no longer forty in italy but in the hapsburg empire on the other side of the house . when she understood how
far tear down. the house spoke again if you visit the headquarters of the hapsburgs in piano the hoff org you'll see on the left and right a representation of how austria ruled the world's oceans and much of the world order to hear the great g.-d. and be has done since starting to see it as a plagiarized version of the fall of the rebel angles associated with michael for it seemed as if this is all personified defeating the enemy forces with the lance exactly as we know it from michael he frosts lucifer into the jaws of hell and nowhere is this try and pass clear as in the michael motif of the christian tradition the church is celebrating its own triumph that's why the church directly adjoining the hoff org is dedicated not just to any old saint but to michael the hero the general of the angels with his soldierly demeanor dame hayden dames i doubt is often any skin our eyes. this full of the
revelation jewels was completed in seven hundred twenty six during the reign of the austrian emperor col the six. the michael motif had become much more than merely a central christian motif it also signified gaunts forgiveness and the emperor's grand gesture. the church of saint col as the most significant baroque edifice in vienna makes that very clear. it is a sacred building with imperial aspirations the church was intended to symbolize the connection between rome and buys and him between the west and the east roman church is that is why it looks rather like the haga sophia and istanbul and contains its imitation trojan columns this too has to be understood in an allegorical way the absolute monarchs of the modern era wanted to appear as glorious as the roman emperors. in the
copula is the ecclesia with an allegorical figure representing the one true church she wears a gorgeous cloak as the holy grail in her hand and holds the eucharist over the grail having the last supper positioned at the center of the coca-cola in the patron church of emperor charles the six was intended to signify that his empire would uphold the supremacy of the christian world view. as an borg abbey is only one as journey away from vienna towards the end of the reign of calm the six the baroque painter paolo. was commissioned to decorate the central rooms of the abbey with frescos. even the architecture of the imperial stack case has symbolic significance two flights of steps merge into a single one that implies that two separate spheres can be seen as
a unity. religion with the tail o's sits alongside science as allegorical figures on the heavenly coppola and they are reconciled with one another. all figures on the arched roof have both allegorical and sacred meaning the heavenly virtues of love and hope are depicted as symbolic female figures faith is shown as masculine and posing victoriously. the angels fill this heaven and serve as a minority and they seem as though they're about to applaud the harmonious order the happy dance and. the painting a bump the imperial stack ace tries to illustrate to the viewer the reconciliation
between the sacred and the scientific worlds angels have no significant role anymore in this harmony. that's the end of this history of angels more than one and a half thousand years of a dominant religious interpretation of the world with a single century god gave way to an age of absolutism succeeded by the age of reason and the era of industrialization. the angels as messengers of an inscrutable god lost their significance but as advocates for and counselors to humanity they are an eternal reminder of humans yearning not to be alone and as a petulant changing motif of alt they are a central aspect of western religious culture.
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