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tv   Tomorrow Today  Deutsche Welle  February 1, 2020 3:30am-4:01am CET

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welcome to the bureau max you to check. out a good line of stewards. with exclusive insights. the must see consuming parts of culture to europe. should be full curious minds. do it yourself networkers. so subscribers don't miss out on. hello and welcome to tomorrow today the science show on d w coming up. the lights of our lives. born notice on no lights we explore the fascinating and at times destructive forces in the star at the heart of our solar system and look at how scientists are trying to improve
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solar weather predictions. stables and the healing powers that lurk in the air scientists think they found a cure for allergies and it might just have a lot to do with cow urine. is there a way to harness the following fact inmates and also on the show. could synthetic fuels be the best way to achieve carbon neutral comes thanks for joining us. it rules the rhythms of our lives. provides boom. helps our bodies produce essential glisten indeed. it makes the food that we rely on for nourishment grow. and plays a vital role in the production of the oxygen we live. without the sun there be no life on earth but in flight. it's just
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a very average stuff. our sun is a huge ball of electrically charged gas. its diameter is over $100.00 times that of ours. in. spots regularly appear on its surface they show up darker on telescopes because they're cooler than the surrounding area. looking at it in the ultraviolet spectrum reveals powerful eruptions with loops of hot plasma shooting out from the surface. the sun's core is a furnace converting hydrogen into helium it takes more than 100000 years for the radiation produced to reach the sun's surface. the temperature there is $6000.00 degrees celcius for a cooler than the sun's atmosphere at
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a 1000000 degrees the corona can be seen with the naked eye during a total eclipse. our sun has been shining bright for around 4 and a half 1000000000 years despite its spectacular characteristics it's just another normal star like countless others in the milky way. once its hydrogen has completely burned out the sun will expand and become what's known as a red giant by then it will of turned earth into a dead planet. since time immemorial human beings have understood the key role played by our sun it provides the earth with heat and light the sun the rich diversity of life on earth would never have developed. different peoples throughout human history have worshipped the sun and brought sacrificial gifts to win its favor. the sun also marks the
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progression from morning till night its course is a more accurate measure of days than the moon and of the seasons. in this way it served humanity as a compass in time. in the 16th century polish astronomer nicholas copernicus placed the sun rather than the earth at the center of the universe that led to a show. shift in thinking and sober physics took on a new significance. but we had to wait for human made satellites to reveal just how influential our sun earns it ejects a steady stream of charged particles into space known as the soul move around. at the edges of our solar system this stream forms an enormous protective bubble that shields earth and the other planets from cosmic radiation emitted by the rest of
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the milky way. these solar wind can protect us but they can also be destructive. when massive spikes of radiation emitted by the sun reach the earth they not only pose a danger to the satellites in orbit. they can cause entire power grids to collapse . in northern from finn $859.00 there was a huge solar flare a massive eruption from the sun the only electrical system in place then was the telegraph and it broke down. and the telegraph is relatively robust compared to the microchips that we now use all over the place in space and airplanes but if there's another flare like that and we don't know how often they occur then we have no idea what it would do but we do know it would have
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a much greater impact today. to help them predict storms on the sun european researchers have developed a new solo over to a satellite that will soon launch into space its mission to record back to earth with the solar weather forecast. all of the turbulence and solar storms we see on the sun a cause 5 relatively small structures in its magnetic field that's why solar researches want to examine it with as much priests. it's possible they hope that will tell them how and when such storms begin to brew to do that satellite has to get as close as possible to the sun and observe it with several different telescopes. in. with the solar orbiter will be able to resolve structures about 150 kilometers in a sign. that doesn't seem exactly small but you have to remember that the sun is
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one of the half 1000000 kilometers in diameter so that's really quite a small area that. every time it approaches the sun the solar will be exposed to 10 times the radiation striking a satellite in earth orbit that much radiation could easily blind its many detectives. to prevent that the design is built tailored protective windows they will allow only the frequencies of radiation through that the research is want to see. this window has been developed to protect one of the most important instruments on board which was built by solar research at the max planck institute in the german city of getting on its job is to track the visible surface of the sun what's called the photo sphere in great detail and at the same time map its magnetic field among other abilities the device can determine how powerful the field is and in which directions it stretches the solar research is in charge of
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the project can even use it to peer into the interior of our star. full of sound waves that come all the way up to one surface there we can detect and measure them through fluctuations and their speed and the allows us to trace the path they took inside. these glimpses into the inner life of the sun are important for the researches because that's where the magnetic fields arise that cause dangerous storm. will also examine the sun's atmosphere which is made up of several different layers. it's telescopes can measure data from a number of frequencies in the visible spectrum as well as x. rays and ultraviolet light.
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the researches will be able to combine the images in different ways that will provide new insights into the. and processes at work. so all with the solar orbiter has been explicitly designed to look at as many different layers as possible we want to understand how they're coupled together and what physical force connects these different wires to each other and that's. the so little bit so it will work in tandem with an american that will approach even closer to the sun both platforms will provide data on the solar wind they should be able to show how the electrically charged particles that make it up change as they leave the sun behind. researches are hoping that the solar will provide unprecedented insights into the sun and its magnetic field they'll be able to observe tubby and areas of it for longer than ever before. that's because as the probe approaches our star
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it's all bit will be sinked to the sun's own rotation. after 7 years of observations the solar will focus on the poles they play a critical role in the formation of the sun's magnetic fields and they've never been studied before. right so i don't know if they. do you have a science question that you've always wanted answered it we're happy to help out you send it to us as a video text ovoid smell if we answer it on the show what's a little surprise as a thank you can i just ask. you to find us on line d.w. dot com slash science on twitter at steve w underscore sign and on facebook t w dot science or when a 40 year in from you. it's clear that humans and other
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mammals are related there are obvious similarities in the blueprints of our bodies . we all have heads malthe and live. on the door salazar was intrigued by one feature in particular or rather more than my. why do we have to nostrils. 2 eyes enable us to see in 3 dimensions is help us here where sound is coming from. but we only have one knows a number less 2 nostrils right next to each other. couldn't we do without one of them. no we couldn't even though they look the same we smile and breathe differently through each nostril. just close one of them and brief through the other them switch nostrils and you'll find that one of them transports significantly more at. the nostril that transports less however still detect sense
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and it does so differently than the other nostril because less air is flowing through the constricted nostril and more slowly that enables you to detect different all factory signals from the surroundings. but to nostrils together produce the final impression of smell. scientists have found that this may also help determine the direction of smell is coming from. experiments with moles have shown that stopping up one nostril made them less effective at hunting prey sometimes they never found it. seems that moses at least can smell in stereo. humans probably can't to the remnants of an ability left over from a time when hunters also used smell to localize prey. by the way all mammals have 2 nostrils. except whales which only have one.
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and lots of animals use that too nostrils to smell far better than humans do. all. the nose is also like a security guard immune cells and the nasal mucus membranes protect you from nasty intruders but sometimes the immune system sounds the alarm for harmless substances too that triggers and in their sick reaction. allergies are on the rise worldwide especially in cities now researchers say they might have found a miracle in an untraditional place. these counts of the charges of the university of veterinary medicine in vienna. professors avoca younes and yellin and isabella polly should study allergies the
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particles of dust they've come here to collect will hopefully provide new insights into why spending time around cows can have health benefits for humans. must change during the range of studies have shown that farms are like a protected area if you spend a lot of time on the farm especially in the cow shed something in the end makes you resistant to allergies asthma and a topic dermatitis in the case of children they get protection for later in life pregnant women become less susceptible and even pass on that protection to their children fact it's called the farm effect on the hip and i spawn who factor. children who grew up on farms have fewer allergies than those who live in cities unfroze who grew up in the immediate vicinity of cows that he grass or hay have even fewer. protective effect works if the home is within a radius of about 300 metres of a cow shed if it's 500 metres away but coverage has disappeared. the
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belief is that whatever provides protection is conveyed via the air. hence the dust sample gathering. scientists have until now believe that certain microorganisms typically found on farms were behind the health benefits but. counted microorganisms tend not to be carried far in the air so now we think that proteins are a factor in this protective function proteins are lighter than microorganisms and are more likely to float in the air a member of a family of proteins called lifeboat collins helps to protect cows from infection a notable source is counting milk but it's not the only one encounters you're a night they could also spray the protein into the air or touches to dust particles can also create different substances like milk can feed scenes but they year. and is often overlooked as a possible source of life calends even though it's excrete in part as an
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aerosolized spray. the researchers take the particles that collected to the lab for analysis they found that traditional lifestyle systems provide greater allergy protection for humans than industrial scale enterprises. they therefore suspect that the dust found in regular farms contains particularly high levels of the protein. low and behold they do indeed find the precious protein in the samples from the cow shed estimates of when it's a member of the lipid callen family stable so that also helps explain why we still find it in the cow shed just several weeks later that in turn means people are exposed to it for longer breathing it in could protect us from allergies asthma and a topic damage titus. the cow protein detected in the air has a kind of power allows it to transport iron and britain's. the more light on a person consumes through air intake will cow milk the researchers think the better
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. but intensified processing decreases the level of those protective nutrients in the case of milk produced by factory farms the chemical pouch is left empty. the singer's angers me this is about animal health green fodder in hay a beneficial because the milk has a higher level of the protein and has a healthier effect. from the at that is. so untreated organic milk from healthy counts should provide protection against allergies but it can also contain pathogens that's one of the researchers want to supply the protein in pill form as a nutritional supplement after successful tests on mice that are now conducting a study with humans. the time given and fortunately visiting a farm isn't an option for many people who live in urban areas all their children and that's where the idea for a cow is shed pill came from and we now know that it is possible to package the
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protective protein as a pill. that's a heaping form for. allergies are estimated to affect between 10 and 40 percent of people worldwide and that number is rising almost one in 10 people will develop some point in their lives. increasingly allergies are associated with too little contact with animals and germs excessive hygiene and environmental toxins. are now the priority for the researchers is determining whether the cow shed pill will also enable city dwellers to fully benefit from the farm effect. whether you're in the city or out in the sticks the car is still germany's tough mode of transport we'll stay on facebook how you usually get around and how you think we'll get from a to b. in the future. do you mean from bulgaria says he cycles every
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day except in winter when he takes the bus he thinks that in 10 or 20 years electric bikes scooters and hover boards will grow even more popular and affordable . al brahmas is convinced will use teleportation in the future to get from a to b. but perhaps not anytime soon. john roll from the philippines things motorcycles are the easiest way to maneuver through the bumpy and muddy roads there. in the future he hopes electric cars will grow more popular. jimoh says will be moving less in the future and that we won't need to travel because there will be systems that make the journey for us as a service. and every from indonesia says buses minibuses and motorbikes will dominate traffic but he things that in the future the
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field powering them should be environmentally friendly and sustainable thanks for getting in touch. traffic and transport do indeed harm the environment because most of our vehicles still run on fossil fuels in fact traffic and transport are responsible for more than 20 percent of all global c o 2 emissions compared to other sectors like industry that might not seem like much but in the last 20 years emissions from transport have increased by 77 percent. to help curb this trend there are cutting edge carbon neutral fuels and. this liquid doesn't look like anything special. could help power germany's energy transition. is what we have here is freshly top synthetic fuel made in one of our laboratories from c o 200. it's only
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a few milliliters but in a lab we can scale up to produce tonnes. based on calls to company enter a tech. and diesel from c o 2 the goal is to launch chemical plants that come that gases into liquid fuels for the world market is confident the company is on to. i know these and all there's a vast existing infrastructure and there's a large existing fleet of vehicles without having to change the infrastructure all the vehicle engines we could improve the columbines of that existing fleet by using new syn fuels will provide us and. in fact the basic processes the company uses a nothing new. in the 1st step in electrolysis electricity is used to split water and produce pure hydrogen. in the 2nd step c o 2 responded to the hydrogen a process called methylation produces a synthetic natural gas
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a process known as fisher trop synthesis also leads to liquid synthetic gasoline or diesel fuel. the c o 2 can come either from the atmosphere or recycling while the electricity could come from renewable energies that would make the fuels produced carbon neutral. both can wants to use in or a text technology to protect the climate and tackle the carbon problem. not on us we're working on standardizing modularizing all the units allowing for serious production. there will be separate modules that can be connected and integrated into containers you know into it so alternately they could be positioned all over the world anywhere that produces renewable electricity. the. carbon neutral fuel could be produced right there on the spot. researchers at
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the cultural institute of technology also work with carbon neutral fuels. and his colleagues figuring out if they can be used the same way as fossil fuels in standard combustion engines. to the stand they run tests on engines that effectively simulate hundreds of thousands of kilometers on the road. during the tests the scientists mimic real driving conditions. and we've run various tests of synthetic fuels including an existing engines and old aggregate motors and very old engines says well this train drives and we've had excellent results. one focus of the research is to explore how renewable and fossil fuels can be combined how many are it's and this gives us an overview for what we have here is fossil fuel of the sort you get at
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a gas station and here we have assumed fuel synthetic gasoline has been seen and in the middle is a mix of both in demand more center fuel i add to the fossil fuel the more carbon neutral it becomes and it's new it's way beyond us. and that makes combustion engines more carbon neutral. all have to strongly believes that synthetic fuels are the way forward and the only way the german government will be able to deliver on its 2050 climate action plan as i understand one aspect of the issue as i like from our ability or another is fuel cars and you have another key aspect is reducing the carbon footprint of the existing fuel powered fleet by using renewable energy and the fuel mix. of a little. but the approach also has some critics. they say making the electricity based fuels themselves requires a lot more electric. then it takes to charge up fully electric cars operate fuel
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cell vehicles. so they maintain it's a waste of energy. it's an argument that the owner or tech team has heard before timbo says the argument is only legitimate in part because the production process for synthetic fuels will grow more efficient in time and in some sectors there is simply no alternative. so teachers are culpable for this and most muslims affected this as repeating that synthetic fuels all the only solution in certain sectors such as aviation for the time being there's no way of powering long haul flights electrically or with hydrogen fuel cells. but that means that if aviation is to become carbon neutral by 2050 synthetic liquid fuels are the only solution would also be. an argument that still impossible to refute.
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that's all for today. but make sure to tune in next week when we'll be looking at the structures of the future. researchers are trying to use technology to conserve resources. science is helping design is to build more robust buildings using less material than ever before that much more next time on tomorrow today see if that.
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every 2 seconds a person is forced to flee their home. the consequences are disastrous our documentary series displaced. droughts and floods the climate next of. what becomes of those who stay behind when their homes are flooded. and their
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fields dry out. in 15 minutes on g.w. . it is done pretty safe has finally happened just 3 years of uncertainty great britain has left me. deeply divided country needs much more for future generations to remain. how did we get here come on bumpy road some breaks it. in 60 minutes on d w. they were systematically robbed by the nazis. and after the war there were no. signs of compensation. for collectors like gotta end an ounce or so mark.
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today researchers are searching for the missing works of art. to process for the descendants looted art. starts february 10th on d.w. . griffith. the cry for freedom and the fight for freedom were always accompanied by listening . to transcend race and bring us all together. or to part documentary about the revolutionary power of music. part of the john. pieces of history. songs like that don't go away but stay with us for
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all time by. the sound of fresh starts february 7th w. . place . this is the news live from berlin the united kingdom formally leaves the european union. celebrations erupt at the exact moment comes into effect a much of a certainty remains over what exactly i'm still stuck also coming up to vote shy democrats hoping to call witnesses and president trump's impeachment trial are
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defeated in the senate clearing the way for trump's almost certain.

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