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tv   Slavery Routes  Deutsche Welle  March 31, 2020 11:15am-12:01pm CEST

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governor has already asked tokyo's residents to stay indoors but her requests aren't binding and as much of life continues as usual medical experts in japan are calling on the government to declare a state of emergency before it's too late. it watching the news from more news for you at the top of the hour in the meantime don't forget all the latest news and information available 247 on our website as dot com or check us out on twitter at d w news i'm called last month i just want. to go beyond. all of the stories that matter to the. country. whatever it takes to get the running. the typically good enough it. made for mines
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ready. over the centuries the slave trade forged new worlds and devastated others as violence subjugation and profit imposed their own roots the slave system created the greatest accumulation of wealth the world. to that to. the late 18th century saw the slave trade reach its pinnacle with over 100000 captives abducted and deported every year. at the extremes of human domination even in slavery we find there is always resistance there is always tension and there's always trouble. at the dawn of the 19th century the brutality of the transatlantic slave trade brought about its decline europeans had to find alternative means of accumulating wealth after. abolition be expanded the limits concept of slavery.
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brazil bears the legacy of slavery finally years right as the slave trade was banned a 2nd wave of captives from africa were swept up in the bay of rio de janeiro over 2000000 slaves landed there during the 1900 centuries making rio the largest slave trade port in the world. people in brazil the ground for them to stop makes it very clear that brazil is. the 2nd largest african country in the world the only country
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where as more people of african descent brazil is my jury. in certain neighborhoods however simply being young black and poor can get you shot dead in the middle of the street over the past decade the rio police have been carrying out regular raids. on the pretext of ridding slums of time these operations have made brazil the world leader in police violence against the black population. use it for us to be a tool for them will always be paul block for vela people will never see is any other way. that he should walk in front of them we're all criminals people stare at us because of our hair because of our we live their prejudices but it's tough because they've got the path. and will always be
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a minority community. in which. 130 years after the abolition of slavery africa brazilians are still by far the country's poorest community 2nd class citizens in a world divided along color lines. i think it's very important for people to realize that for 1820 for every european that traveled across the atlantic there were probably 4 africans. but i don't think anyone had any idea about the whole of the history of the americas is written in terms of european settlement. in the late 18th century africans and mixed
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race creole descendants constituted the overwhelming majority of the population in brazil venezuela and the caribbean the only presence of africans in this society was depicted in watercolors by a french botanist during his stay in rio among the white population this massive presence of slaves fed fears of conspiracy poisoning and murder. nearly everywhere whites were a minority they had slaves in their kitchen in their living quarters everywhere they were the majority so there was this constant fear that they had collectively mobilized to kill the whites. and here at the heart of the new world those fears were actually materializing in the form of uprising among the slave population by 791 sentiment had become a powder keg primed to ignite and potentially destroy the entire slave system from
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the america all the way back to europe. $45000.00 new african captives landed every year on the coast of this french island colony where slaves made up 90 percent of the population. after the $789.00 revolution in france the declaration of the rights of man rang out like a rallying cry for the newly arrived captives. their slave coachmen foreman etc he felt that the whites were no longer in control of the situation but their power headway and they were only a few troops left the time had come to rebel. and rebel they did it began on august 22nd 791 with accounts from that night describing a tempestuous storm. slaves gathered at one time man. to listen to the prayers of a voodoo priest as unplanned for insurrection. although it's unclear whether this
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clandestine ceremony actually occurred the date nevertheless marked the unleashing of a revolution that would sweep aside the entire plantation system. god who created the earth. to created this summit gives us life. god who holds up the ocean. makes the condom wrong. god who has years here and you who are hidden in the clouds who want a perm where you are. you see all that the white has made a sucker in the white man's god asks him to commit crimes but the god within us who wants to do good in. our god who is. just orders us to repent our wrong. he who will direct talks arms and bring us the
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victory it is he who will assist us we all should true away the image of the white man's god who is so pitiless listen to the voice for liberty that speaks in all our hearts. are saved we need to work for him all the time also ramoni called upon it and such strong african day to us before it's important to know that ruutu was present in each stage of the struggle against the colonial slave system. nearly as clever as he is it was the voodoo religion that eventually united all the slaves who sought clear in the last song this is a scribe the war of liberation would last 12 years the resulting slave army was led by usual. duty. money and force want to sound the former coach driver was dubbed into their tool for his capacity to open up enemy lines the so-called black
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jacobins named after the revolutionary movement in france inflicted a 1st defeat for new french leader napoleon. the slaves also repelled subsequent british attempts to reconquer the island in $1804.00 the 1st black republican history was born in haiti derived from the indigenous arab walk named for the island the word freedom now resonated throughout the world and with it the fears of the revolution spreading across the americas. it was a revolution made by slaves that had world historical consequences that slave real revolution insead the main destroy the most productive colony of the in the world in a time when there's demographic growth and increasing demand for slave produce commodities half the world's production was withdrawn from the world market by the haitian revolution so not only is there expansion there's
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a huge hole in this horse sources of supply so that reconfigured the hole that let the key colony. by the time durham woke up from the haitian nightmare 10000 white inhabitants had already fled the island. the. plantation owners quickly found new lands to settle in and partners eager to capitalize on their knowledge of intensive farming. sugar in cuba cotton in the u.s. and coffee in brazil. the freedom slaves had acquired and haiti had a paradoxical consequence it consolidated slavery all over the american continent. in rio's hinterlands the power either valley used to be covered with impenetrable primary forests today the mountainsides or bare trees were cleared on mass in the
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early 1900 centuries to make way for intensive coffee farming a new source of wealth. from. all. i said good for the others a vote by you but the lots of as and the farms in the pot i have a valley had up to 90 percent 1st generation african slaves. maidens basket that would in a very short time a practically uninhabited area was very rapidly populated with countless slaves working on the fountains will happen them and. some plantation owners possessed up to a 1000 slaves all applied
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a scientific organization of labor rigorous accounts were kept of each day's activities output per slave became the fundamental principle guiding plantation organization. everything was built around the coffee drying grounds the slaves had to go out in groups in the morning to plant or to pick and the big plantations they had slave quarters enclosed barracks with one entrance and so it looks like a car so situation was really hard to escape. the other reason is you could get the slaves up all that once in the morning and then as they marched out the gate you could give them their tools. so the space organizes the flow of labor. every thing has a function so that you don't even have to watch the slaves because you know what they're
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supposed to be. so it's a kind of industrial production producing industrial raw materials for the factories of britain and new mass consumption markets so there's a huge transformation of production which means for the slaves it's much more exploitative the output per slave goes up 10 times in an average in each of those crops from what i've been in the 18th century. 9000 kilometers away from europe these men and women with a hidden face of the industrial revolution. the world was changing in the early 19th century europe was urbanizing and amassing more and more wealth money flowed freely and london was now the world's economic at
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the center in the british capital a growing middle class flocked to the new department stores over looking at the satin dresses combs ivory umbrellas and sweets they purchased with the fruits of slave labor. there's a disjunct between what's happening in the colonial societies and what's happening in the much of societies and the metropolitan policy makers. begin to disavow what's happening in the colonies in some ways and they stop recognizing that kind of violence as their own violence slavery is the opposite of liberal freedom so britain as the bearer of freedom has to say slavery is wrong british abolition of the slave trade is the greatest justification say well we're really disinterested it's not for intra economic motives but for ideological motives were for freedom.
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the business world was looking for less precarious investments buying stakes in british cotton mills was indeed far less incriminating. there was no plan in setting up the global economy as we see it today they were just you know manufacturers in britain developing new machines these machines suddenly needed much more cock so they tried to buy this cotton somewhere they didn't really care where it came from but the place where they found it where they were able to buy huge quantities and ever had cheaper prices this was in the americas and this was eventually in the united states. in this new industrial society the supply of raw materials was the key to success from an
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economic perspective the world's leading financial power no longer needed the slave trade. in 1807 britain resolved to abolish the transatlantic slave trade. the thing that i think also needs to be said is that this was not simple altruism on the part of great britain in other words it wasn't simply the humanitarianism of the abolition movement it's that britain did not want other imperial rivals to have the benefit of slave labor when in fact they didn't. in $815.00 armed with its naval supremacy britain imposed the cessation of the slave trade on its commercial rivals as abolition took effect among the leading european slave powers the decision gradually shut down the northern atlantica slave trade routes but it also set off fresh deportations to end within countries where slave ownership was still prevalent by grouping together the captives born on its soil
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the united states was also about to enter a new era of slavery a fairly small percentage of the people brought over to the americas in the slave trade actually came to north america probably 345 percent and yet another time you get to 180825838 very large percentage of the a slave population is in the united states because of natural population growth so that is a very important part of the story thomas jefferson for example who advocated closing the slave trade did so at least in part because he knew that the slaves that he was going to sell from his plantations into the new plantation regions would become more more valuable with the closing of the slave trade.
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cotton farming concentrated most of the country slave labor along the banks of the mississippi by foot or by boat sold or brought by their owners $1000000.00 slaves from new york baltimore washington and st louis were deported down south of new orleans and natchez became massive slave markets. after brazil the united states became the new land of industrial slavery. most. people were between 14 and 22. they were sold single in and they were roughly of a bias to mation half men have women so if you think about that here young people take them out of their families out of their community ship a 1000 miles away to really a very exploitative place where they have to form their own communities and their
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own families from scratch because that all the cut military that they had in their lives with such as it was was taken away. plantation owners saw 2 options for increasing their human life stock buying captives of both sexes and inciting unions so that they would reproduce. the reproductive capacity as the conception of children the bearing of children to term the raising of children has many meanings one of them is an economic meaning for slave holders and for the slave economy in general. women's wombs were now part of the production system as their masters enjoyed complete dominion over them. rape is very common. one of the most important stories that we have is that of
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a young woman named celia celia lived in central missouri on a small farm and she was brought there at the age of 14 and endured 3 years of rape sexual assault by her own or poor 3 children she eventually kills her owner and is tried for murder there in central missouri and while she is ultimately convicted of murder and executed she's convicted because by law she is not permitted to. assert self-defense as enslaved woman but no one disputes that she was raped. to procure slaves brazil had to opt for another strategy perpetuating the slave trade but this time by what we're now illegal means. despite britain's
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efforts to put an end to the slave trade it mushroomed in the southern hemisphere within 35 years over 2 and a half 1000000 men women and children were transferred from west africa to plantations all over the world they were soon joined 540-0000 captives on the continent eastern coast where the name market wasn't zanzibar. if you look from 815 to let's about around 85855. there were actually more slaves transported across the atlantic then it any equivalent time in the whole history of the slave trade at the time is supposed to be done. in. the indian ocean is one of the oldest commercial exchange zones in the world africa and the east have been trading here for over 2000 years ivory food products and
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clothes changed hands along these routes as well as african captives. driven by western demand zanzibar became a strategic crossroads it was here that one of the world's last slave trade ports was about to develop. zanzibar developed in the 19th century largely as a major center of trade. but also became the center of a large commercial empire the sultan of zines about control not only zones about but tried to control the whole cost like. buying a can sixty's something like 20000 slaves what coming through. but of these slaves 800-6000 maybe.
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exported out. in the eyes of philanthropists from the biggest slave trading nations britain and france others were now to blame for the cruelty and ignominious slavery. in zanzibar the others were arabs and swahili traitors. and then slavery became the criteria for creating a hierarchy the states of the americas including the united states were less than britain because they could live with slavery the brazilians the cubans were morally corrupt because they weren't bothered by my code existing with the evils of slavery
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so they were they were on a lower standard than the british. africans were ruled out. the world map was redrawn to distinguish and lightened powers from what were considered half civilised countries barbarian kingdoms and lands populated by savages religions political regimes and degree of cultural development made up of value system used to rank peoples around the world according to these standards slavery had become a backward practice unworthy of a civilized nation merely fighting the slave trade was no longer enough slavery itself had to be eradicated with this global surge and abolition slavery and institution as old as humanity found itself on the retreat. it began in the former spanish colonies. then came the british colonies followed by the
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french and finally dutch territories. and all the victory of the abolitionists all slavery become a thorny issue for the united states. war how could they renounce slavery when the american economy was dependent on southern plantation owners this wealthy elite often considered themselves as the heirs to greco roman civilization which legitimated slavery many were eager to make the connection expressing it in the architecture and interior decoration of their lavish homes for them slavery was a mainstay of the social order. eventually the clash over slavery became one of the primary factors that saw the south attempt to secede from the united states in 1981 the country was plunged into a devastating civil war nearly 200000 african-americans and rolled in the northern
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union army. for african-americans the war is a war for abolition from start be they enslaved people who watch who wait who take their opportunities at every chance during the war to further the union's interest or free african-americans a half 1000000 of them in the north many of whom will raise troops volunteer themselves for the union forces raise money and care for black soldiers when the union army fails to do so. hard. that. $865.00 after
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4 years of destructive warfare the us declared the abolition of slavery. at last they would claim their place amongst the supposedly more enlightened nations of the world. so workers gain their freedom but this freedom is very. very limited and it's especially limited economically and of course then the reconstituted state governments of the american south bay are deeply repressive and they are deeply interested in fixing workers to places not allowing them to work in other sectors
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of the economy. freedom essentially in name only in the u.s. as well as in france or jamaica laws for bidding for treatment of freed slaves were promulgated ringback they were denied their right to vote to legitimate self-defense and denied freedom of movement many of those who protested were killed those who refused to work were jailed and sentenced to forced labor. race itself without slavery gets reconfigured through the loss through the courts through political practices and race itself is designed justify slavery race itself is the basis for confining the now freed population to the south producing the same crops under conditions that are really not free unequal they become a cheap labor force subject to social discipline in control so it has a social dimension but also of production to measure. the
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concept of race bound former slaves to specific territories legally confining them to get out was without any hope of escape former slaves where from then on subjugated by virtue of their skin color violence committed by any white person against any black person was permitted by law. with emancipation in the united states in $865.00 with the end of the so. the war for a 1000000 cotton growers in slave cotton grows when their freedom europeans buy the 806870 s. try to find ways to secure a carton and one of the places they begin to look at is the continent of africa which has a very long history of cotton agriculture. the abolition of slavery had unexpected
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repercussions in africa in the eyes of europeans the emancipation of former slaves concentrated along the coast of africa justified sending in their armies the belgians then the french settled on the western coast the british followed in nigeria and on the eastern coast all in the name of progress and the good of humanity. the fight against the slave trade in zanzibar led to control than occupation medicine has although initially there was no intent to colonize this fight against the slave trade almost inevitably led to colonial occupation and. wherever britain intervened it applied pressure to put an end to the selling of slaves. in $873.00 it negotiated the
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abolition of the slave trade with the sultan of zanzibar. this is in some ways ironic that the british mean to abolish slavery and slave trade but by doing it it really forced people to say if we can't export slaves we will use the slaves within to produce things that we can export. spurred on by these grand moral principles a number of europeans went off in search of adventure ready to invest in the raw materials that their continent needed the missionary dr david livingstone became the figurehead for abolitionist explorers the people who supported these missions
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businesspeople people with money so they probably had some idea of why the interested it's not just interested in finding the stock. of africa but when it came to missionaries living standard was actually quite clear in your what the capitalists what interested me. missionary organization he told them that this is philanthropy last 5 percent the very same and it just as businessmen and he said quite openly philanthropy joined us to fight against slavery. abolish slavery because that is an interest for you you will produce cloth to sell to the people. some explorers made the most of the local merchants advice and logistical support among the lot it was to put it
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one of the most important slave traders in central and eastern africa which he controlled an immense territory on long lake tanganyika with the help of tippoo tib henry morton stanley went up the congo river and coerce the traditional village chiefs into signing contracts that stripped them of millions of acres of land for the benefit of the belgian king leopold the 2nd after landing in bagram or you can restamp penetrated deep into central africa and renamed the cities of his son danny and after himself he was soon joined by other european explorers who entered africa from the west these expeditions marked the transition from evangelizing missions to imperialism. as a young boy began to trade center old wrote in it when the congo he traded over a large area and was the most powerful figure there. also
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had his own almost no army. although now in a state of neglect to putin it's house in zanzibar tells us much about the fortune amassed by the powerful merchant in his autobiography he recounted his negotiations with stanley and the belgian diplomats. stanley arrived with a dozen europeans we met at the consul's and he told me. we wish you to accept to become governor in the name of belgium and that your voice the belgium flag in the districts are under your rule i harvested wanted stanley falls when i arrived on my men did the same wherever we came. former slaves were enlisted in the conquering armies weapons in hand the french the belgian and the british went deeper and deeper into the equitorial forest.
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europeans placed peasant communities under military control and forced them to produce palm oil rubber cocoa coffee and of course. it's very clear every single state used forced labor all of them. in some cases this labor strongly resemble slavery. where they would take people from their villages and pay them almost nothing especially for so-called public works yet. they had to provide for their own food and were later sent back home were some no longer fit in. to be treated. in this forced labor system missionary's became witnesses to the farmer's abuses armies bankrolled by the belgians terrorized villagers and quashed rebellions every bullet was counted and
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to prove that they had used their weapons efficiently soldiers had to bring back the hands of their victims. a stray bullet meant an innocent could lose a limb. in funny just to feel. they had to justify domination violence military conquest 1st civilized society. africans were there for instilled into accepting the supremacy of europe to accept the civilizing mission europe claim to could undertake in africa. and africa. with its droves of doctors anatomists and colonial it minutes. traitor's europe used race as a scientific tool to justify its domination of africa became a homogenously entity relegated to the very bottom of the human scale. race and the struggle against slavery as principles with it you pillars of colonialism.
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the continuation of racial hierarchy is often emancipation is not remotely surprising because it was all that in the ways in which the abolition of thought the numbers of oppositionists who truly had a conception of african culture african men and women in any way equal to that was relatively small. even the most egalitarian of the population that's assuming that you know british culture is civilized evolved at such rights actual i mean that's part of the that's part of our understanding. once they had progressed deep into the african interior the europeans build
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railways to the coasts at the end of the lines the capitals of the new colonies grew the car log douala plant mark luanda cape town dar es salaam. cotton oil rubber cocoa and ivory were transported to these ports then shipped all over the world. i'm not going down. the. one with. that. at the time of the colonial conquest african rulers with whom the europeans had been trading for 5 centuries were deprived of all their rights.
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and. brazil one of the 1st territories to seal large scale sugarcane fields florida was one of the last to ban slavery on may 13th $888.00 the princess regent of brazil ratified the so-called golden law ending 450 years of afro brazilian enslavement. moving into what is so mr v. thought yours will but as you don't want the victorious abolitionist movement in brazil was a conservative one led by whites have to call the movement wasn't radical it didn't include black people. they do but as you essentially it's said that brazil had to progress and civilize itself the way they have the progress of the us it is this
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idea of progress and civilization directly depended on the elimination of the barbarity of slavery because opposite of their own was yet at the same time this movement also intended to raise black people from the history of brazil but them being it was near goose they stuck because in a sense they were considered barbarians at the minute. the writings of rhyme window nina rodriguez a professor of forensic medicine at the university of buy here illustrate this point. in 891 he reflected on the destiny of slave descendants. the negro race in brazil will forever constitute one of the factors of our inferiority as a people it would be important to timon to what extent this inferiority lies in the negro populations inability to civilize itself and evonne the whole mixing races
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compensates this in for you are insane. both the government and the planters wanted to whiten the population of the former to erase any traces of slavery the latter to reduce their dependency on these newly freed workers in 891215000 europeans arrived in brazil 3 times as many people as in the darkest hour of the slave trade human trafficking was replaced by the immigration of millions of poor europeans eleanore what racism didn't cause slavery it's the history of racism that stems from that of slavery not the other way around that. over the course of 12 centuries an estimated $9.00 to $12000000.00 african captives were transported on the transom herron and eastern brutes from $1516.00 onward in 3 and
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a half centuries $13000000.00 men women and children were deported to the americas amidst the pillaging abductions famines wars and epidemics this globalisation of violence caused the death of an estimated 15000000 africans direct and indirect victims of imperialism historians are still evaluating the demographic economic political and social impact of this human tragedy this criminal enterprise unparalleled in scale to this day. i think will truly be making progress when we all accept the history of slavery as all of our history so this through slavery is not black history and it's not just the history of white colonization but the history of human equality is the legacy for all of us and it's a legacy we all must contend with right not a white person only thinking about themselves as the descendant of a slave holder but the white person thinking of themselves the descent of a slave to write the black person view themselves as zones of slaveholders right
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thinking that we've inherited the basic structures of these societies. right these basic inequalities but what we do with that is up to us that can really help us move forward as a society. a dirty business with billions of euros. much of the rubble used to make incomes cantata here brooke is 20 and under siege plantations the starvation wages increased stream unhealthy conditions in german manufacturers lobby claims because
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