tv Tomorrow Today Deutsche Welle June 6, 2020 5:30am-6:00am CEST
we are working tirelessly to q. will form don't overwhelm and we're all in this to be run together in make it through stay safe everybody stays in history segment stay safe is released its face is. the human brain is thought to be the most complex organ in the natural world it has over 85000000000 neurons. and a newborn baby actually has an even higher number. throughout the early childhood the brain continues to develop as does the memory. even the most powerful computers can't match the human brain in many respects but computers are being taught to read brain activity allowing human beings to control them merely with the
power of thought. well come to you tomorrow today with an exploration of the human brain and the world of thought. our brains are constantly working take fission for example we see football a shot to the right. the ball is our range. our eyes take in what we see that information is passed by the optic nerve to other parts of the brain in the form of electrical signals these signals can pass through the brain's neurons at a speed of up to 120 meters a 2nd. at the connection linking one neuron to another the signal has to bridge the tiny gap known as the snap tick left before continuing on. there is no one central location. in the brain where
a thought is developed we think by an entire network of neurons distributed across the brain. so detecting a single thought isn't easy but computers are learning to do just that. getting ready to play a very special computer game one that doesn't require the use of your hands a game that soley powered by. it's really interesting to try this out for myself and when i think that in 5 or 10 years time we could be turning the lights on and off at home like this it's pretty amazing stuff. is this the future we've come to the sensory motor systems lap at the e.t.h. institute in 0 switzerland scientists here are studying how humans and machines can interact the video games are connected to the monitor via
a headset that can read the brains and electrical signals to those on this device consists of an electrode which is a conductor that can detect changes in frequency very well if we think about wanting to carry out of particular movement that triggers electrical activity in the brain just small differences in frequency that can be measured by this electrode. right now the electrode can only detect 2 commands concentration which causes the characters to speed up and relaxation which slows them down the players have to respond deliberately i mean when i want to concentrate i try to solve mathematics problems in my mind. alphabet in reverse to relax i'll close my eyes for a moment and try to just breathe deeply sometimes it works sometimes it doesn't. technology is still quite basic but the game shows what's already possible in the realm of brain can be. interfaces perhaps we'll soon be able to control our
electrical devices at home just with our minds. has a different goal for years he's been exploring how humans and machines can interact for medical purposes. for example if people with paraplegia could control this robotic exoskeleton with their thoughts they could once again become mobile. but the technology is still in its early stages. would have to be very reliable and safe exoskeleton must stop for example when the patient wants it to as yet it's still difficult to achieve that reliability to become a major global players such as facebook invention a huge market for this technology and a pumping billions into its development why if you could type directly from your brain. instead of typing you could just think your messages directly into your smartphone facebook wants to make this future vision a reality in just
a few years. a kind of brain controlled typewriter already exists researches at stanford university have developed a system whereby people can we think letters into a computer this enables not 10 paralyzed patients to communicate with the outside world. and. all you need to do is a mandarin moving your right arm for example to the water team on a keyboard or all slide out to the teeth. in addition to that we're also able to detect when you wish to so what about what are you patients can type up to 40 letters and minutes but in order to use the technology they have to have an electrode implanted into their brain. they also need an alphabet table to choose the letters with their minds in. this system would not be useful as an everyday
tool for people without such disabilities from your brain. and there's another major problem that stands in the way of widespread use. went into town on people constantly think of other things they get distracted and you might also be driving a car at that moment or walking peace processes overlap in the brain without making it almost impossible to pull a text message out of your mind as things stand right now and also seem. scientists from the university of freiburg researching how to separate the various processes going on in the brain tonio balland philip hughes e.g. waves to make these processes visible this shows the difference between the moments of high concentration and chaotic everyday situations. here here you can see these classic e.g. alpha waves they appear when our test subject just closes his eyes so now i'll
shake your head a bit my business. forgets then be strong waves appear. you know not spend and it's a hindrance if we want to get to the actual information that the brain is thinking because this disruption just stored the whole thing for months went on. to filter the correct thoughts from the chaos they use a deep learning process in which the computer recognizes brain activity on the basis of e.g. wave patterns that it has already learned. to teach the system these patterns test subjects are asked to repeatedly make a movement in this case raising the right arm the computer now learns that the brain wave pattern created represents the desire to move one's right arm regardless of who the end user is. the scientists have taught this robot how to recognize a specific commands. using only his thoughts the test subject asks the
robot to fetch him a trick. the robot recognizes the specific brain wave pattern and carries out the task. a reason to celebrate perhaps but the scientists are also concerned about the potential implications of their work because it can only function is machines are taught to read new real activity data and this is very risky after all what might happen if corporations like facebook had access to the brain activity data of millions of people. don't have guns if huge amounts of brain activity data were stored in one location for the benefit of learning processes it might be that more very relevant information could be gleaned for example lead group level one from you could distinguish between gender or ethnic background all things that we don't
know at the moment but it would make sense to think about how to effectively protect this data before simply handing it over and consider whether such systems should even be given to consumers. or. the plans to brain control devices has already been paved even if they exist mainly in research and development at the moment facebook as well as other companies are in the starting blocks in the race to conquer afterthoughts with their technology. the human brain is likely to remain a source of fascination many of its inner workings are still a mystery but scientists have been able to debunk some of the myths surrounding the brain. one involves. a dios mozart who lived from 17. 56 just 791 a study from the 1990 s. claim that listening to his music could make you smile especially his somoza for 2
pianos in team a chance. at gannett huge public interest and became known as the mozart effect but the results of the study could never be reproduced the mozart effect is a myth. still music that we enjoy can stimulate the brain and have a positive effect on us. one of the was in iraq i asked about another commonly held misconception concerning the brain. do people really only used 10 percent of their brain. then surely telep a theory or telekinesis would be no problem if people could finally access 100 percent of their brain power. like lucy in the film of the same name. while the rest of us bumble along at a pivoting 10 percent. that's a myth that is more hollywood than reality. using only 10 percent of the organ that
consumes the most energy would be a huge evolutionary disadvantage. even asleep we use far more than a 10th of our brain. no one knows exactly where the persistent 10 percent myth comes from it's been misattributed to many people including albert einstein at my heart back to a misunderstanding of a theory positive by psychologist william james and the student boris c.d.'s. c.d.'s a son was a child prodigy. 18 months reportedly could read a newspaper. later it was claimed that he had an i.q. of 254000000 james then said in a lecture. people only meet a fraction of their full mental potential. but he said not. thing about 10 percent or part of the brain remaining unused. pop culture has also helped to
perpetuate the myth. of course some areas of the brain may be more active than others but none are completely idle if they can't receive stimuli they'll find another job to do. for example in blind people the visual centers of the brain can adapt to help process order tree signals. brain cells tend to atrophy if their own news. quite apart from a conscious decision making the brain has plenty to do filtering impressions regulating breathing controlling reflexes hunger and thirst and much more besides. the fact is only people who suffer real brain damage can no longer use certain parts of their brain. the rest of us can access all of those billions of brain cells. the brain of
a newborn baby possesses many more new runs than that of an adult while in the womb the brain grows at an average rate of 250000 neurons per minute. but it's still not fully did that the brain initially develops many more synopses than it actually needs it when it's hard to comprehend the world and to remember. babies are curious and attentive but come a watch somebody do something remember it and then do it themselves that is imitate a simple action. 6 months old and she's observing closely. you can pull off the toys here and shake it like a rattle. after a brief pause it's layers turn she's clearly noted the trick with the ear. that
shows she's developed some memory for a sequence of events. but that's only one of many stages in the development of memory. psychologists at frankfurt university tested $1000.00 children extensively over a period of 5 years. they wanted to find out what stages children go through until they develop the ability to remember events from their own past and then go on to have an autobiographical memory. the ability to recognize oneself is a prelude to being able to remember things from one's past can recognise herself yet . the task is to wipe away the mark on her face with the help of america just in the senate is it a mark. why don't. mara touches her face she recognised herself in the mirror not all children can do that at one and a half. benjamin tries to wipe the mark off the mirror instead.
because i think now finds the image in the mirror up setting. look why put away your ears is a bit older. you know if the marker way clean it on you'll use recognizes himself in the mirror but he's still got a way to go to develop an autobiographical memory. is all to be. biographical memory is the queen of disciplines within memory and it requires many different components which children don't have when they 1st arrive on the planet. the ability to remember past events is one of those components you leave us recognises himself in the mirror and on screen what's not up there. it's a bit of red tape there where is it. can't you lose connect the past situation he
sees in the video to the present that would be sensational as you will also still rather young for that now when for what than just what do you see the red thing is kind what is it you can you give it to me. when you take it off the video off grab a fan and listen to the earth doesn't just require him to recognize he was there on the screen the strip of paper was attached to his head a few minutes earlier he also has to understand i existed a few minutes ago and i remember that happening so the paper might still be there and only then can you look for it on his own head. by the time therefore most children can complete this task with that they're already much closer to having a full autobiographical memory. remembering an experience is the next stage. tony is 6 and he's shown a scene from 2 years earlier. do we still have this straight yeah.
we take those cars and drive them along the street right now because the situation he also talks about other adventures without any video prompt most of what he said there was this pull i said to light but didn't get away in time and it went off. tony had to work hard to reach this stage and lest we forget here's the video to prove it. times how good is your memory what did you wear to that party one month ago. or was it the big one. what did you eat something healthy. or fast food. are you sure maybe you got it wrong. did you have an argument with your friend well
one thing is clear on there marines are not always as reliable as we'd life. we all have minor lapses of memory from time to time we find ourselves thinking i could have sworn i put the keys on that shelf. after an anxious search we eventually find them. on the desk. or minds play games on us and london based forensic psychologist julia sure says it happens far more often than we realize. i like to compare memory to a with a pedia pain inch you can alter it but so can others and i like the analogy because it describes how flexible our memories are and how they can undergo massive changes in everyday life as well as an extreme situation and explains at what cost of an uncle. in experiments sure has brought 70 percent of participants over the course
of 3 interviews to have memories of a crime they never committed. and they remember it in all its complexity as if it really happened. and you know give details emotional details why you think but can't possibly be a phone to memory and it sounds as if this person will be digital images to thank you matter. self declared perpetrators and victims can turn out to be nothing of the sort of happens time and again. in germany in 2004 a man admitted to chopping up his fiance father and feeding him to dogs he said the victim's family helped him carry out the gruesome deed. but 5 years later the police found the man's car in the danube river and inside they found the corpse of the allegedly butchered would be father in law all in one piece.
year after money matter of fact the more you question someone the more their memories can change and that is important for police investigation methods. as it means that we have to take into account that repeated interrogate. asians can lead to a suspect adding misinformation to their memories misrepresenting things in a very major way. in australia in 1975 a woman was raped and then gave investigators a very detailed description of her attacker he was soon found and arrested but she had a water tight alibi he was doing a live interview at the time of the rape so if he could not possibly be the rapist why was the woman so sure he was. in this case the answer was quite simple she'd watched the interview on t.v. just before she was attacked the woman had confused the face she'd seen on t.v.
with that of the rapist. mentioned. people who are involved in the criminal justice system like police officers and lawyers often say that they would recognise a false confession or a false memory when they encountered one once. but that's not true these situations are incredibly difficult to understand for everybody so we can see if someone is lying and we can't see if someone has a false memory that that led to a nightmarish situation for a man in the united states in the 1990 s. while undergoing psychotherapy his adult daughter suddenly came to believe that she had been sexually abused by him for many years she said that had resulted in 2 pregnancies and she had tapped to abort the foetuses with a wire coathanger. but then it emerged that the woman had never been pregnant much
less had any abortions she was in fact still a virgin. judy i sure also consults as an expert on criminal cases and provides training to the police. her primary aim is to teach investigators to. void suggestive questions that can elicit false memories. sure says it can happen very fast. as one thing if you think the person you are talking to you know small and even knows more about you and your life than you do then you can soon start thinking yes what if that is what happened on the what if that can quickly turn into. perhaps consume because yes that is what happened. false memories can lead to false statements and to terrible miscarriages of justice . incidentally studies show that we're much more likely to notice negative things
than positive ones that make sense from an evolutionary point of view allowing us to recognize problems and dangers and to resolve them but it can also prevent us from shrugging off things that aren't important. however we can retrain ourselves for example by taking time to remember the good things that we're happy about. many things are known to have a very good memory and those social animals like most primates including humans then there are social predators that hunt in packs studies suggest the brain can reveal how sociable and more lives dolphins for example have been shown to be extremely social animals but other species also appear to be more selfless than we realized. it's well known that parents are pretty smart birds but i think also helpful to each other. is an african gray and lives
in laurel park zoo on 10 a river in the community islands she and her friends have been helping the marks planck institute for ornithology with an experiment about social intelligence and cooperative ness. the parents quickly learn that they can exchange a token for food. but in this experiment bella has a problem she can swap her tokens for a treat because the window is closed instead she hands them over to her friend kimmy kimmy then swaps the tokens for food through her window bella gets nothing this generosity without any immediate favor in return surprised even the researchers because until now such behavior had only been observed among some great apes and humans. in the 2nd experiment the parrots are given a choice. a blue token means only one of them gets a treat
a white token earns them both a snack they soon work it out and choose white which benefits both birds even though the other one has done nothing to earn a treat. me parrots are evidently helpful and not envious. the researchers think this has to do with parents live longer naga may. be prefer solidarity to selfishness. if help what is right why are great but only very few of the fish do you have a science question that you've always wanted ellen said we're happy to help out send it to us as a video text ovoid smell if we answer it on the show listen you a little surprise as a thank you can all just ask. for most stories about the world of
feel like an astronaut. in the spanish mountains i found what i was searching for. the conditions were tough but it was worth it. my name is an absolutely nothing in this is the story of my trip to astro land. max. in 30 minutes on d w. beethoven is for me. is for. beethoven is for him. and beethoven is for. beethoven is for every man.
beethoven 2020. the 50th anniversary here on d w. 2 didn't know or didn't what do they dream of at night. as cleaners they see the face of horror. they're job censoring for the social media industry. in manila there are thousands of so-called content monitors day for day they scrub terrifying images from online platforms. up to 20000 times a day the horrific job for starvation wage. the strain is enormous. the cleaners or sworn to secrecy they are not allowed to talk about their work. and no one asks how they are doing. a week. i need to stop there's something wrong
hopping. to social networks have any social responsibility at all. to the cleaners social media's shadow industry starts june 18th on t.w. . this is day 8 of the news and these our top stories u.s. president donald trump has said a man killed while in police custody would be pleased with his administration's economic the formants trump said it was quote a great day for george floyd stewart who upbeat jobs numbers like a presidential rival joe biden said the comments went to.