tv Tomorrow Today - The Science Magazine Deutsche Welle July 26, 2020 2:02am-2:31am CEST
or visit our web site. how do these know which blossom to land on for the best nectar scientists studying flower to insect communication have an electrifying answer. animal testing is very controversial how viable are the alternatives. researchers are using a fresh method to study organ tissue in a new light. welcome to tomorrow today. medical professionals have various ways of looking inside the bodies of their patients an x. ray machine passes radiation through the body to capture an image on film. ultrasound on the other hand worked with found waves. and magnetic resonance
imaging or m.r.i. uses magnetic field. but now there's a new method that allows doctors to see right through all of. this mouse can help researchers analyze all kinds of bodily functions from hell blood vessels and nerve tracks run to how internal organs are constructed. it's possible because the mouse is tissue has been made transparent up to now this hadn't been possible with human tissue. but now chemistry from the. university of munich has uncovered chemicals that can render a kidney transparent within 2 weeks. she works with genetic engineering. the team wants to understand how human organs work specifically how blood vessels cells and to live channels interact making them visible is the 1st step.
we have to understand how they're coordinating. in normal how to case and dan we could easily also see when something is wrong when there is lack of coordination if there are some subtle supposed to be there are not there we can nor not why is some diseases are cured his aim is to determine the exact location of each individual cell to do this researchers have developed a microscope that can examine the whole organ the different colors of the laser make the individual structures such as vessels or nerve cells visible. then we got a microscope scan some days of scanning gets millions of imaging data out there is no way hooman being can on the life instead computer scientists have developed algorithms which enable an exact 3 dimensional image of the kidney to be generated from the data researchers can then study the organ cell by cell enabling them to
recognize pathological changes detect cancer cells and observe the effects of medication to see if the drug in question is actually binding to the right cell the effects of the method could be far reaching my reason is that we will be able to generate organs on demand if someone needs that heart a kid in a we will just take some cells maybe skin cells generate millions and billions of cells from and the same person and then create we construct the organ and then transplant for the person. first attempts to produce parts of a kidney are already underway but it will take some time before the researchers are able to produce an entire organ. in 2018 german laboratories tested drugs and cosmetics on nearly 1800000 rodents 81000 rabbits and nearly 30000 farm animals supported. of animal
testing say the 1000 organs of humans and animals function in a similar way but worldwide 95 percent of drugs test of the excessively on animals fail in human trials good alternatives that don't involve animal suffering actually be more precise. these are miniature artificial organs part of the modular construction system that replicates human body parts. blood lungs and liver or high quality and is using them to test new medication. but this system enables us to trigger a paradigm shift in drug development that is an organ of this organon a chip system of means we're able to determine medication more quickly and cheaply and where it's needed to the patients with the enemy. in future this could eliminate the need to conduct so much testing on animals on average the development
of a single medication currently takes 15 to 20 years that's largely because animal testing is time consuming costly and controversial and often the results can't be applied directly to humans unlike with the organ on a chip. to create these organs the researchers cultivate skin tissue cells they're then infected with a virus that introduces 4 gene sequences into the skin cells and reprogram some of them these then become i.p.s. or in joost pluri potent stem cells through the addition of growth or differentiation factors they can be transformed into any kind of cell in the human body from the heart and lungs to skin and deliver. these influential this chip can combine 2 organ models you can see the organ compartments here and here they are connected by
a common circulatory system. the 2 little changes here comprise the pump which functions like the human heart does mention this lets the organs communicate with one another and exchange neurotransmitters and we can observe this interactions or god of. the research is that reproduce the entire organ only the parts all cells which should or could respond to a certain drug. liver cells for example a cultivated unused in an organ storage container at 37 degrees celsius mirroring the temperature of the human body they left to grow and develop in life like conditions under the microscope the researches can see them function just like in the human body. and unlike with animals or people we can look inside the chips at any time with the
microscope and see with the liver does with the medication does it tolerate the drug or is there damage mechanically on sean and then i can also see on the other organ here in the heart liver or pancreas or that these products have an effect whether they can be helpful in healing illness or maybe produce side effects in the industry and con. the major advantage is that the substances can be tested directly on humans. so in contrast to animal testing the researches can gather reliable evidence about the effects on people. that's because test some rats and mice can only predict where the substance is a toxic to humans just 43 percent of the time so most medications that were tested successfully on animals fail when drug studies and then conducted on humans up to 95 percent of all drugs trial. these 2 new.
scientists have developed another alternative to animal testing they can simulate on the computer how a medication or substance affects the conduction of stimuli in the brain. enough until the nerve cells and the brain structures that we study are also affected by alzheimer's disease and epilepsy which is why it's important to better understand the mechanisms of such diseases in these regions of the brain and computer models are quite helpful in this case the cells of fly larvae form the basis of their work biologist how man could 6 am and the structure very closely while peter yet lit focused on the electrical characteristics then they compared them with the sounds of other animals and younger. i know of one so here we have a worm cell that's a couple hundreds of a millimeter in length all the way to motor neurons to cuts in water and i want you
to from really made her lungs and wondrous which is one of i and what was really unexpected was that although the cells are extremely difference in size and in terms of complexity and shape they all behave the same way complexity to the aunt on foreman for height and lies the cells they analyze come from animal tests conducted and published by all the scientists. for you can fund using for each of these little dots here i'd have hunter do animal tests and that would have been impossible because we have $6000.00 cells here extols and. instead with the help of this data the scientists have been able to create a computer simulation of the brain with all its nerve cells and neural pathways. of human genome computers either computer delivers a nice reproduction of all the details. about the cells are so well replicated
expect experts can no long. the difference between the real cells and the artificial one who's known to shine. as a result the opportunities for testing a virtually endless diminishment con man on the computer you can run through all kinds of combinations which you could never do in an experiment. to research as a noun developing computer models for human cells as well in future that could eliminate and also need the need for animal testing but clinical studies on people tuning. back in berlin research is can already replicate 11 organs on a scale of $1.00 to $100.00 thousands now they're testing how they can be networked and their supply systems fully automated using a prototype. robot can do everything that happens during studies you want to do foot on the chips you can take samples from of these chips
and administer the medication when they're kind of to the me to come in. boys through undersized so i can tell it to apply the drug via the skin or administer it as a template via the bloodstream through the intestinal barrier. and we can also try to inhale it all the difference now is about location you're familiar with from the pharmacy and from sprays through to shots and creams can be simulated here so my claim common enough but here's the deal. the research is estimate the system will be ready for use in one to 2 years. it won't be possible to completely replace testing on humans and animals in full seeable future due to factors such as pain and emotion simulation but the chances are good that it could replace up to 60 percent of all animal testing.
if outlet is right why aren't. but i didn't even say this. do you have a science question you'd like us to answer send it to us in a video text or voice mail if we answer it on the show we'll send you a little surprise as a thank you come on just ask if. you can also check it out on line acted of you dot com slash science or on twitter ask d. w. underscores viands. dan from gamma asks just how closely related are we humans and chimpanzees. very closely some 98.5 percent of our d.n.a. base pairs are identical based on average findings from a range of analytical methods. and our genetic match with gorillas is just one quarter of a percentage point less than that. around a term has branched off from our common family tree earth or earlier but they still
share 97 percent of their d.n.a. with us so how do we explain the huge difference between humans and apes. some primates can scale trees in the rain forest. while another species exploits other planets. that human genome contains some 3000000000 base pairs of which just 40000000 differ from those of chimpanzees but this vital difference means that certain proteins in apes have other structures and possibly other functions in the body. but for all the differences there are also many similarities using tools to eat food with for example. chimpanzees use twigs to provide delicious ants from their nests. and chimps are emotional creatures researchers have even found similarities in the sound of their laughter and ours.
they understand symbols. for example which one beats the other in a game of rock paper scissors. but chimpanzees will probably never be able to build computers although then again neither can most of us the famous primatologist jane goodall urges us to use our supposedly superior intelligence to start protecting the habitats of our primate cousins and the planet as a whole. incidentally is saying that humans share more than 98 percent of their d.n.a. with gorillas and chimpanzees might sound like a loss but when you consider that the human genome is made up of billions of d.n.a. based pairs the 2 percent difference still accounts for a lot of variation in. another example humans and paid share 90 percent of the
same genes. are most popular 4 legged friend shares 84 percent of our d.n.a. . and even the round worm has a 75 percent similarity. stranger still 50 percent of human genes also have counterparts in but only on. both bon appetit. how long did the terminator arnold schwarzenegger work on this legendary seem to get it just right even then he couldn't get rid of his austrian accent a new study has revealed just how difficult that would be. the boy forgotten. the train is moving. a
phonetics researcher at the new tweet marks 1000000 university in munich if i find it and our colleagues had 24 native german speakers read out simple english sentences. 'd our hypothesis was that one of the reasons it's so difficult to improve on accents in foreign languages is that we can hear our own faults pronunciation as well as we hear it in others and that's what we're trying to test by asking subjects to read sentences and then write that own accent as well as the accents of evidence question. but before they play the voices back to their test subjects the researchers manipulated the voices so that it sounded as if men were speaking. back and that was important to us we wanted to see how people judge themselves without knowing that they're listening to themselves. for example this recording
the boy forgot to book became this one on the board for. each test subject evaluated 4 of the male voices one of which was their own and the evaluation confirms the hypothesis as the result was that the test subjects did in fact evaluate their own pronunciation better than the others even though they weren't aware they were the ones speaking. why is this and what are the consequences. and as i can go on 1st of all were most familiar with our own pronunciation so that's the one we understand the best and the accent we understand the best usually sounds better to us as on hand. that's the mere exposure effect which means that the speech we recognize well and that we've gotten used to is the speech we find better that's an interesting one of
the conclusions that we've reached. is that it might be difficult to improve your pronunciation if you evaluate your own accent is already good enough. but then you can't see how you can know why you should improve it and it will solve maybe these findings will help language students in future. here's the fun fact when dinosaurs roamed the earth there were no flowering plants just ferns and conifer. flowering plants came around 16000000 years later the 1st flower is thought to have looked rather like a water lily today we have flowers in every shape and color many of them use sense to compete for the attention of insects but they also use another method electrical signals. bumblebees are drawn to flowers quite literally there's an electrifying sense of attraction between insects
and flowers when to be approaches a blossom the latter's pollen jumps across and attaches itself to the fine house and the bees exterior. professor don baer from the university of bristol knows all about this magical connection between plants and their pollinators if you sit by from bed and you look at bumble bees you realise pretty soon that they're not lending randomly on the flowers they don't visit the flowers immediately after somebody else has been written to go to flowers that have not been visited for a little while that's because these flowers will have generated next time in the meantime to keep working at producing nectar and i suspect the bees know it out. over millions of years plants and their insect admirers have developed a win win relationship beasts receive nectar and pollen in exchange for pollinating the flowers. flowers can not afford to disappoint
b.c. this is the the key the key thing here is that if a beer arrives there invest all the energy and stakes so do the search flowers on other means of saying i've. known. if they cannot change color the kind of change century quickly they cannot change the shape very quickly you can return u.v. reflections which we know is also important but what's going to change so in the course of research we sort of figured out at some point that one thing that can change very quickly is the electric potential of flowers. to flowers and insects of electrical signals to let them know whether their blossoms are full of nectar or empty. to prove this hypothesis. first turned his attention to the flowers. we have measured the fact that
flowers are negatively charged they are grounded to the to the ground to the floor to the soil which is rich in electrons and these negative charge uses songs if you won't from the soil will move into the flower so the pros tend to be negative bees tend to lose electrons when they fly this is one of their properties as if i screw the yeah there rug and they will shut and. therefore they will be positively charged. in the lab done you're ok i was able to prove that bumble bees can sense electrostatic fields with the help of his institution's own colonies . insects tested already reacted to tiny amounts of negative charge at feeding stations researchers had set up to simulate flowers rich in nectar. the sensory biologists can even listen into the communication between flower and be
yes it's yes. they connect a flower to an extremely sensitive measuring device the loudspeaker then translates the electrical charge into sound. so you can kind of consider a magic wand i guess. it's just simply a plastic rod and you know when you rub your head with a balloon and you get all this electric charge building up and. that's essentially what we do with this so you can rub it on your hat and you get a lot of electric charge building up and this is a charge that would be similar to the charge that you get on a bumblebee that's flying around say we can use this is a nice sort of mimic for bumblebee flying around the flower depending on the distance of the wand the sound becomes louder or softer the devices have now been checked now it's the bumblebees turn.
the experiment shows that as soon as it touches down the charge between the bee and the flower is equalized. so any bees flying by afterwards know that this flower has already been visited and has nothing to offer only after a time when the flower produce more nectar and regain its negative charge this is what we are after what we want to find out is how did these electric fields get created between themselves and the flower so in order to do that we need to immobilize that be put its own decision platform there and. is only each side of its head to apply in the voltage between. be experiment takes place in an enclosed environment in a lab that's impervious to external vibrations with the help of a laser beam don't you even measure nano scale movements. he suspects that the bees
hairs and tenney can react to these differences in voltage. the vibrations we can see here on this is a graphic representation of the data we got but it's exaggerated in minute huge so that we can see with our eyes in reality it isn't and the little hairs that we've seen before are actually vibrating a fraction of their own so this is not motions that we can see but certainly motions of the insects can perceive scientists have still been unable to locate the sensory organs that allow the bees to perceive these tiny movements but one thing is clear the seemingly magical attraction between bees and blossoms already know all i think this is a big gain for us to try to understand that new dimension which is hidden from us we don't detect these fields but that hidden dimension that may exist between flowers and they're put in it does but it could also well be. herbivores that all
the plants and all the insects also use reception in in different ways so this is for us to explore now and to try to see how much more generalized perhaps this process of detecting electric fields is in the small world of insects and plants. for beasts these electrostatic fields are a vital navigation tool. they can hide them straight to flowers where they can tank up on nectar ensuring a most fruitful journey. and that's all from tomorrow today thanks for watching i'm do join us again next week for more fascinating stories from the world of science and research until then it's goodbye and take care.
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