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tv   Tomorrow Today - The Science Magazine  Deutsche Welle  July 26, 2020 11:30pm-12:00am CEST

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in the height of climate change. africans see. what's in store. for the future. for the major cities. to get insight. into. how do bees know which blossom to land on for the best nectar scientists studying flower to insect communication have an electrifying answer. animal testing is very controversial how viable are the alternatives. researchers are using a fresh method to study organ tissue in a new light. welcome
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to tomorrow today our. medical professionals have various ways of looking inside the bodies of their patients an x. ray machine passes radiation through the body to capture an image on film. ultrasound and on the other hand works with sound waves. and magnetic resonance imaging or m.r.i. uses magnetic fields but now there's a new method that allows doctors to see right through all of. this mouse can help researchers analyze all kinds of bodily functions from hell blood vessels and nerve tracks run to how internal organs are constructed. it's possible because the mouse is tissue has been made transparent up to now this hadn't been possible with human tissue. but now chemistry from the luke big macs. a
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1000000 university in munich has uncovered chemicals that can render a kidney transparent within 2 weeks. she works with genetic engineering. the gene wants to understand how human organs work specifically how blood vessels nerve cells and lymph channels interact making them visible is the 1st step. we have to understand how they're coordinating in normal how to case and dan if you could easily also see that something is wrong when there is lack of coordination if there are some subtle supposed to be there are not there we can nor know why some diseases are cured. his aim is to determine the exact location of each individual cell to do this researchers have developed a microscope that can examine the whole organ the different colors of the laser make the individual structures such as vessels or nerve cells visible. then we got
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a microscope scan some days of scanning it's millions of imaging data out there is no way hooman being can on the life instead computer scientists have developed algorithms which enable an exact 3 dimensional image of the kidney to be generated from the data researchers can then study the organ cell by cell enabling them to recognize pathological changes detect cancer cells and observe the effects of medication to see if the drug in question is actually binding to the right cell the effects of the method could be far reaching my vision is that we will be able to generate organs on demand if someone needs a heart a kid in a we will just take some starts maybe skin cells generate millions and billions of cells from and the same person and then create construct the organ and then transfer that to the person. first attempts to produce parts of a kidney are already underway but it will take some. time before the researchers
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are able to produce an entire order. in 2018 german laboratories tested drugs and cosmetics on nearly 1800000 rodents ac one thighs and rabbits and nearly 30000 farm animals supporters of animal testing say the 1000 organs of humans and animals function in a similar way but worldwide 95 percent of drugs test of the excessively on animals fail in human trials good alternatives that don't involve animal suffering actually be more precise. these are miniature artificial organs parts of the modular construction system that replicates human body parts. blood lungs and liver or high quality and is using them to test new medication. but this system enables us to trigger
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a paradigm shift in drug development and that is an organ of sense of this organ on a chip system means we're able to determine medication more quickly and cheaply and where it's needed to the patients with the enemy. in future this could eliminate the need to conduct so much testing on animals on average the development of a single medication currently takes 15 to 20 years that's largely because animal testing is time consuming costly and controversial and often the results can't be applied directly to humans unlike with the organ on a chip. to create these organs the research is cultivate skin tissue cells that then infected with a virus that introduces 4 gene sequences into the skin cells and reprogram some of them these then become i.p.s. or in june used to play stem cells through the addition of growth the.
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differentiation fact is they can be transformed into any kind of cell in the human body from the heart and lungs to skin and liver. this chip can combine 2 organ models you can see the organ compartments here and here they are connected by a common circulatory system the 2 little chambers here comprise the pump which functions like the human heart you just mentioned here how this lets the organs communicate with one another and exchange neurotransmitters and wait and observe this interactions or god of. their researches don't reproduce the entire organ only the parts all cells which should or could respond to a certain drug. liver cells for example a cultivated unused in an organ storage container at $37.00 degrees celsius mirroring the temperature of the human body that left to grow and develop in
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lifelike conditions under the microscope the researches can see them function just like in the human body. and unlike with animals or people we can look inside the chips at any time with a microscope and see what the liver does with the medication does it tolerate the drug or is there damage mechanically on sean and then i can also see on the other organ here in the heart liver or pancreas whether these products have an effect whether they can be helpful in human illness or maybe produce side effects in the. major advantage is that the substances can be tested directly under human sounds so in contrast to animal testing the research is can gather reliable evidence about the effects on people. that's because to. just some rats and mice can only predict
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whether substances are toxic to humans just 43 percent of the time so most medications that were tested successfully on animals fail when drug studies are then conducted on humans up to 95 percent of all drugs trial. these 2 neuroscientists have developed another alternative to animal testing they can simulate on the computer how a medication or substance affects the conduction of stimuli in the brain. the nerve cells in the brain structures that we study are also affected by alzheimer's disease and epilepsy which is why it's important to better understand the mechanisms of such diseases in these regions of the brain and computer models are quite helpful in this case the cells of fly larvae form the basis of their work biologist hamman could 6 am and the structure very closely well peter you get
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little focused on the electrical characteristics then they compared them with the cells of other animals. i know here we have a worm cell that's a couple hundreds of a millimeter in length all the way to motor neurons to the motor and i want you to know to from really made her lungs and wondrous which is one of us and what was really unexpected was that although the cells are extremely difference in size and in terms of complexity and shape they all behave the same way complexity to. own foreman for height and plies the cells they analyze come from animal tests conducted and published by other scientists. for you even for and using for each of these little dots here i'd have had to do animal tests and that would have been impossible because we have $6000.00 cells here.
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instead with the help of this data these scientists have been able to create a computer simulation of the brain with all it's now of cells and neural pathways. of human genome computers either computer delivers a nice reproduction of all the details. about the cells are so well replicated expect sports can no longer tell the difference between the real cells and the artificial wonders that humans have known to shine. as a result the opportunities for testing a virtually endless. on the computer you can run through all kinds of combinations which you could never do in an experiment. to research as a noun developing computer models for human cells as well in future that could eliminate not only the need for animal testing but clinical studies on people to. back in berlin research as can already replicate 11 organs on
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a scale of $1.00 to $100.00 thousands now that testing how they can be networked and the supply systems fully automated using a prototype. muscles which. can do everything that happens during studies. the foot on the chips you can take samples from of these chips and administer the medication to the me to come in. so i can tell it to apply the drug via the skin or administer it as a tablet via the bloodstream through the intestinal barrier. and we can also try to inhale it all the different means of application you're familiar with from the pharmacy and from sprays through to shots and creams can be simulated here so my claim coming on that question. the research is estimate the system will be ready for use in one to 2 years. it won't be possible to completely replaced.
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testing on humans and animals in foreseeable future due to factors such as pain and emotion simulation but the chances are good that it could replace up to 60 percent of all animal testing. if outlook is read why our brain but only a few pages. do you have a final question you'd like us to answer send it to us in a video text or voice mail if we answer it on the show we'll send you a little surprise after going here come on just stuff. you can also check it out online i did of you dot com slash science or on twitter asked d.-w. underscores viands. boubacar dan from gamma asks just how closely related are we humans and chimpanzees. very closely some 98.5 percent of our
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d.n.a. base pairs are identical based on average findings from a range of analytical methods. and our genetic match with gorillas is just one quarter of a percentage point less than that. around the turn this branched off from our common family tree other 4 earlier but they still share 1007 percent of that d.n.a. with us so how do we explain the huge difference between humans and apes. some primates can scale trees in the rain forest. while another species exploits other planets. human genome contains some 3000000000 base pairs of which just 40000000 differ from those of chimpanzees but this vital difference means that certain proteins in apes have other structures and possibly other functions in the body. but for all the differences. there are also many similarities using tools to
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eat food with for example. chimpanzees use twigs to pry delicious ants from their nests. and chimps are emotional creatures researches have even found similarities in the sound of their laughter and ours. they understand symbols. for example which one beats the other in a game of rock paper scissors. but chimpanzees will probably never be able to build computers although then again neither can most of us the famous primatologist jane goodall urges us to use our supposedly superior intelligence to start protecting the habitats of our primate cousins and the planet as a whole. is a dental a thing that humans share more than 98 percent of their d.n.a.
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with gorillas and chimpanzees might sound like a loss but when you consider that the human genome is made up of billions of d.n.a. base pairs the 2 percent difference still accounts for a lot of variation in. another example humans and paid share 90 percent of the same genes. are. our most popular 4 legged friend shares 84 percent of our d.n.a. . and even the round worm has a 75 percent similarity. stranger still 50 percent of human genes also have cancer parkin. both bon appetit.
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how long did the terminator arnold schwarzenegger work on this legendary seem to get it just right even then he couldn't get rid of his austrian accent a new study has revealed just how difficult that would be. the boy forgot his book. the train is moving fast. a phonetics researcher at the lewd remarks 1000000 university in munich he felt fine ish and our colleagues had 24 native german speakers read out simple english sentences. our hypothesis was that one of the reasons it's so difficult to improve our accent in foreign languages is that we can't hear our own false pronunciation as well as we hear it in others and that's what we're trying to test by asking subjects to read sentences and then write their own accent as well as the accents of others. but before they played the
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voices back to their test subjects the researchers manipulated the voices so that it sounded as if men were speaking. back and that was important to us we wanted to see how people judge themselves without knowing that they're listening to themselves. for example this recording the boy forgot his book became this one on the board for gorgeous book each test subject evaluated 4 of the male voices one of which was their own and the evaluation confirms the hypothesis as the result was that the test subjects did in fact evaluate their own pronunciation better than the others even though they weren't aware they were the ones speaking. why is this and what are the consequences. both sides can go on 1st of all we're. most familiar with our own pronunciation so that's the one we understand the
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best and the accent we understand the best usually sounds better to us on hat and that's the mere exposure effect which means that the speech we recognize well and that we've gotten used to is the speech we find better that's an interesting one of the conclusions that we've reached is that it might be difficult when prove your pronunciation if you evaluate your own accent is already good enough. then you can see how you can know why you should improve it and. maybe these findings will help language students in future. here's a fun fact when dinosaurs roamed the earth there were no flowering plants just ferns and conifer. flowering plants came around 16000000 years later the 1st flower is thought to up looks rather like a water lily to day we have flowers in every shape and color many of them use sense
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to compete for the attention of insects but they also use another method electrical signals. bumblebees are drawn to flowers quite literally there's an electrifying sense of attraction between insects and flowers one of the approaches a blossom of ladders pollen jumps across and attaches itself to the fine hairs lining the bees exterior. professor from the university of bristol knows all about this magical connection between plants and their pollinators if you sit by from bed and you look at bumble bees you realise pretty soon mending randomly on the flowers they don't visit the flowers immediately after somebody else has been there new tend to go to flowers of not. been busy for
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a little while that's because these flowers will have generated nectar in the meantime to keep working at producing nectar and i suspect the bees no doubt. over millions of years plants in their insect admirers have to develop a win win relationship beasts receive nectar and pollen in exchange for pollinating the flowers. flowers can not afford to disappoint these this is the the key the key thing here is that it will be arrives there invest all the energy and stake so do the search for hours on have a means of saying i've. left to of known acknowledged they cannot change color they cannot change centrally quickly they cannot change the shape very quickly they can change the u.v. reflections which we know is also important but what can the chance so in the course of research we sort of figured out at some point that one thing that can change very quickly is the electric potential of flowers.
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flowers and insects or the trickle signals to let them know whether their blossoms are full of nectar or empty. to prove this hypothesis of their 1st turned his attention to the flowers. we have measured the fact that flowers are negatively charged they are grounded to the to the ground to the floor to the soil which is rich in electrons and these negative challenging uses electrons if you want from the soil will move into the flower so the flows tend to be negative bees tend to lose electrons when they fly this is one of their properties as if i screw the yeah there rug and they will shut and. therefore they will be positively charged. in the lab don't you obey i was able to prove that bumble bees can sense. static fields with the help of his institution's
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own bee colonies. insects tested already reacted to tiny amounts of negative charge at feeding stations researchers had set up to simulate flowers rich in nectar. the sensory biologists can even listen into the communication between flower and be . its. they connect a flower to an extremely sensitive measuring device the loudspeaker then translates the electrical charge into sound. so you can kind of consider a magic wand i guess. it's just simply a plastic world and you know when you rub your head with a balloon and you get all this electric charge building up and your head stands on and that's essentially what we do with this so you can rub it on your hat and you get a lot of electric charge building up and this is
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a charge that would be similar to the charge you get on a bumblebee that's flying around so we can use this is a nice sort of mimic for bumblebee flying around the. depending on the distance of the wand the sound becomes louder or softer the devices have now been checked now it's the bumblebees turn. on the experiment shows that as soon as it touches down the charge between the bee and the flower is equalized. so any bees flying by afterwards know that this flower has already been visited and has nothing to offer only after a time when the flower produce more nectar and regain its negative charge this is what we are after what we want to find out is how did these electric fields get created between themselves and the flower so in order to do that we need to immobilize that be put it on this it's a platform and there and to. each side of its head to apply in the voltage between
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. the experiment takes place in an enclosed environment in a lab that's impervious to external vibrations with the help of a laser beam don't you even measure nano scale movements. he suspects that the beans hairs and tenney can react to these differences in voltage. the vibrations we can see here on this is a graphic representation of the data we got but it's exaggerated in amplitude so that we can see with our eyes in reality it isn't and the little hairs that we've seen before are actually vibrating a fraction of their own so this is not motions that we can see but certainly motions of the insects can perceive scientists have still been unable to locate the sensory organs that allow the bees to perceive these tiny movements but one thing
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is clear the seemingly magical attraction between bees and blossoms all really know all i think this is a big gain for us to try to understand that new dimension which is hidden from us we don't detect these fields but that hidden dimension that may exist between flowers and they're put in it was but it could also. have it was that all the plants and all the insects also use a little reception in in different ways so this is for us to explore now and to try to see how much more generalized perhaps this process of detecting electric fields is in the small world of insects and plants. for these electrostatic fields are a vital navigation tool. they guide them straight to flowers where they can tank up on nectar ensuring a most fruitful journey. and that's all from tomorrow today thanks for watching i'm do join us again next week
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for more fascinating stories from the world of science and research until then it's goodbye and take care.
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to. have. a chance it's always yet undeniably different for lent during the pandemic summer visitors are slowly starting to turtle back up but what kind of an experience i am for. the physic. to the german capital. just. coming on w. . for him writing is an act of liberation.
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for a novelist it's a tremendously interesting that in all of our lives in our characters was something going on that's maybe obvious except if they don't notice the artist told them the irish writer an exclusive interview aren't 20 more. than 30 minutes on d w. are they friends so long to be with you should choisir go forward you wish it wasn't really a full of come up with the thing is new hampshire or are the economy's going to miss the finished seal of the glorious feel pushed you will go with me but his usual what if he's going to go give me shit my damn word for i just almost trump
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him slightly more prudent i were to part complementary analyzes the difficult relationship between russia and the us and between the presidents how does the rivalry and their dangerous mutual admiration affect the rest of the. prism bullies driven putin starts august 3rd on d w. cutting through the noise. where i come from people are known for being tough but fair your country loud and people tell it like it it was they call it the concrete jungle a melting contest city that never sleeps if this energy that makes it feel like all but amid the hustle it's important to listen and pay attention because it's not just the loudest voices who needs to be. for we all have a story to tell but i see it as my job as a journalist to go beyond the obvious now i'm based in europe and my work takes me around the world but my instinct is for me to stay to tell the important stories
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behind the headlines what is the heart of the story why does it matter who live in town. to stay focused if you want. to cut through the noise to get to the truth. by the hysterics kelly and i work you to death. this is news and these are our top stories ceremonies have been held for civil rights icon and congressman john lewis who died a week ago earlier he was carried across the edmund pettus bridge in selma alabama where he and other peaceful protesters were beaten 55 years ago.


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