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tv   Tomorrow Today  Deutsche Welle  August 10, 2020 6:30am-7:01am CEST

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the global media for our 3rd online session. the coronavirus crisis has hit local news organizations especially hard. what will it take for them to recover. is turbo digitalisation in local journalism a way out of the crisis. join our online solution as a forum. today at 1230 u.t.c. . the ice cap is shrinking but there is some good news from the north pole we'll hear more. mental illness which genes are linked to schizophrenia a large scale study aims to find out. and beavers have been called nature's engineers but not everyone likes what they built.
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welcome to tomorrow today the science show on d w. is this really ice it is under polarized light ice shimmers in a rainbow of colors. and this is where it comes from the arctic weather sea ice has been declining for decades. and international research group spent a year studying it to get a better understanding of climate change and its impact. think. we'll take winter is a black void in 2 senses 1st it's dark thanks to months of nights in which the sun no longer rises over the horizon plus there's a huge data hole we know precious little about when tearing the area around the north pole which plays a major role frog. climate and is itself changing the ice has been receding for
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decades now what explains this climate change sure but how exactly does that affect this northern most part of the planet because if so how is the sea ice changing how does it grow in the winter and how does it melt in the summer. christian hans is a sea ice geophysicist in the us could be in the institute in germany he sees the arctic in winter as the key fact. that the ice forms in the winter and indoors through the summer. or. it has a considerable influence on the summer and therefore on the entire climate system. but to really study the winter you need to be at one with the ice an international research team made that very commitment since last october the palash done research ship has been drifting across the arctic ocean trapped in the pack ice. it's the
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center of the largest arctic research expedition ever lasting one full year. when it's colder than minus 30 or even down to minus 60 with the wind chill factor it's a very hard to work and also very dangerous you have to cover up your entire body. most christian ha's and his team use the winter months to investigate the sea ice on a quest for answers to the big question why is it shrinking. their work involved extracting ice cores measuring the temperature and movement of the ice and cutting some pulls into thin slices their mission as such is not one of discovery but a data gathering to compile a detailed biography of the ice but they have made one major discovery during a dive by the trusty robot submarine. but of it was something i'd been hoping and searching for. what i didn't know was what it would actually
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look like. just below the ice in the sea water the robot came across glistening cloud like mass is comprised of ultra thin plates of ice known as plate. inspection plate light ice is very macroscopic you can see it there sheets of thin ice as big as your hand. they get stuck frozen onto the underside of sea ice and in various orientations. as the robot submarine swims around in the dark it's lamps reveal all these things glittering in the distance. as it gets closer you can see that there are ice crystals. it's a phenomenon already familiar from antarctica and one that the researches have now been able to observe for the 1st time in the arctic. platelet ice can only form
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when the seawater beneath the ice has a temperature colder than 0 degrees celsius this super cooling leads to the water freezing and forming plate tectonics as seen on the ropes and gauges that the research is low and the countless cavities or course emerge between the plate let's create what's called the poorest layer. it's a habitat not just for microorganisms and algae them but also for zone as a kind of tiny crustaceans such as krill coppa pods and amphipods we saw ample pods moving around the plate laid eyes looking for algae to eat and they are also protected there from bigger animals from fish in particular arctic cod that would happily eat them with all of these you know. a newly discovered layer of arctic ice and say well i'm one more that needs more in. eps analysis while the expedition
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across the arctic ocean continues christine haas is now back on the lam and together with untold terabytes of data now waiting to be deciphered but he's team do have at least preliminary insights into the big question of how the ice in the arctic is changing. and it was very interesting to see that when we came onto the ice flow in october the ice was only 30 to 50 centimeters thick. and over the course of the winter over the following 5 or 6 months they grew to almost 2 meters in thickness that is it almost quadrupled that's a very important discovery. until now researches knew only that the surface of the ice has been shrinking as seen by satellite suspiciously well during the summer over the last 4 decades that surface is almost hol ft in size. satellites cannot measure however is the thickness of the ice. what we've now seen is that at
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the start of the season at the end of the summer the ice was much thinner than it had been 30 years ago the last time we measured ice in the syberia in arctic. what surprised us is how thick the ice became. by the end of winter it was not much different from the way it had been back then. as we have established that changes are greatest during the summer not only in terms of the extent of the ice but also to its thickness and that the ice recovers relatively well in winter. and then but the fact that the ice is so sin by the end of the summer actually helps to ensure that it recovers significantly in thickness during the winter i just don't know as for adults when the ice is thin the ocean loses heat faster and more easily and that leads to the creation of more ice. as a consequence by the end. of winter the ice is again about as thick as it was 30
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years ago. but there's a law to new surveys predict that the arctic ocean is likely to see ice free some as by 2050. at the alfred vega institute's ice cold have been a half and the temperature is held at a steady minus 25 degrees celsius the facility is home to various some poles from the arctic expedition such as these things slices of ice cold which turned into crystals on the poles your rice light. results have been cut these thin slices of ice cores to see how the ice had grown whether the growth process was slow and under calm conditions which would create these long colomba crystals. or if there had been strong waves in turbulence in the water. system then only these small round grainy crystals develop across time and record with christian haas expects the arctic ocean to become more turbulent making it impossible for long column
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shaped ice crystals to form properly that will bring changes to the arctic ocean granular ice could then become more prevalent another insight into the workings of the arctic. the tiny crystals remind us that large structures are made up of small parts from the earth or the universe on the one hand to atoms on the other everything is important and has a role to play a tiny and fascinating well that's a crucial element in the still mighty takhisis that covers the arctic. what is red white and black do you have a science question you've always wanted answered we're happy to help out send it in and if we answer it on the show you'll get a little surprise as a thank you come on just awesome.
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stories from the world of science go to our website or find us on twitter and d w underscore science. money someday wants to know want our genes. genes are found in most of the cells in our body. a gene is made up of d.n.a. found in structures called chromosomes and the cell nucleus. one important thing genes do is provide instructions for building up all the various parts of our body. genes also underlie our body processes and to a large degree they determine what we look like. human genome that is the entire set of our genes has been sequenced. we have more than 20000 protein coding genes. a lot of research is going into finding out what our genes actually
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do. for example are there specific ones that determine how long we live. the helper in that particular quest is the naked mole rat this remarkable rodent is long lived and remains fit and healthy into old age its genome is well understood. as to us one field of research is the role of genes in our ability to taste things and to find something yummy and others next. it turns out that's not just a cultural matter but also a genetic one. a technology called crisper genes it modifies the cells genome by removing or adding bits of d.n.a. . this enables it to turn genes on or off in plants and in animals including humans . society will have to think hard about the implications of sciences growing ability to engineer our genes.
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hearing voices. visual hallucinations. delusions. it's a mental disorder associated with changes in perception mood and behavior it can be hereditary so what genes are associated with the disease. the psychiatric clinic at berlin's university hospital. a study here involves healthy test subjects providing some light the samples containing their genetic material and stoop a sions who suffer from schizophrenia. geneticists. is looking for genes that may play a role in the disease. among the presumed list of my personal hope is to shed light on to the darkness of psyche. acknowledged so to speak. and supreme.
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people who suffer from schizophrenia may hear voices and be paranoid. and it's unclear what's really happening inside their brains which is why treatment options have hardly changed in decades. but schizophrenia is known to be highly heritable a factor that geneticists now want to unravel. they're conducting large scale genome wide association studies with tens of thousands of test subjects including those in berlin. each individual's genetic material is examined for components that may be different for each person called single nucleotide polymorphisms or snips. to schizophrenia patients snips are then compared with those of all the healthy test subjects using statistical calculations. certain
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snips are clearly more common among schizo phrenic looking at the genetic makeup in its entirety the especially common snips stand out like skyscrapers. a comparison of 35000 schizo phrenic swith 47000 healthy subjects revealed 108 snips associated with the disease. the researchers called the confusingly complex genetic landscape a manhattan plant due to its resemblance to new york's famous skyline. the snips identified the prominent skyscrapers constitute a vital clue they point the way to the genes that may play a role in schizophrenia. and is also what we were a little bit afraid of that it's not just one gene that makes the person i'm sick with these guns feel for sheen it's really many different genes that when can. and
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create a person's individual risk so it's as simple. and there are hundreds the researchers analyzed every single gene they've just discovered genes that influence the transmission of signals within the brain stefan presents the results at the european schizophrenia congress in berlin. i also want to show some other regions. among the hundreds of genes is one that is affected by the medicines currently being used it's gets a for any a treatment a match that has researchers hoping for other positive results. as so these shows us that one central gene can be enough to immensely improve treatment of others but it's just a question of finding it is not normal. this is closer it's like taking a step on the moon but it's still a long way off because we know that developing medicines takes decades and it's.
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a mammoth undertaking which is why hundreds of researchers have teamed up via the psychiatric genomics consortium including stefan. with the help of large scale genomic studies they're also researching other psychiatric disorders many of which now have a manhattan like the one for schizophrenia they provide a guy towards the. but entirely different fields of application are also hidden within the genetic landscapes. the most hotly debated is the potential for poly to be used in diagnostics for instance or to predict the risk of disease does that mean a person's genetic material could be a predictor. individual's genetic material be examined for d.n.a. sequence variations associated with the disease the number and nature of found can
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be used to calculate a personal policy. such as. in some cases an individual's risk of succumbing to the disease can already be estimated but do people want to know that they have a 7 percent chance of contracting it at some point. pandora's box. isn't sick. for a disease that develop. would have enormous consequences for the person themselves of course. family. issues it raises insurance issues. apart from
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that putting the likelihood of developing the disease into numbers is restricted to the genetic element only. person lives and what happens in their life cannot be predicted. environmental factors play a role sometimes a major one in the development of psychiatric illness. experts agree poly genic risks wars are not suited to predicting risk or aiding in diagnosis but they can be useful. consider it already does have a very large influence is in research. because team divides the test subjects into groups according to the subject's poly genic scores and then they observe how the group with the especially high schizophrenia scores develops the researchers are a long way off from totally understanding the complex genetics of psychiatric diseases but they are making progress.
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why there in a moment will be taking a look at me well us but even as we're pretty impressive small but mighty well not all that small we can reach a length of $135.00 centimeters and why up to 36 kilos. plus our fur isn't usually think you few months have up to $600.00 hairs per square centimeter of skin we have up to $23000.00 top that. right here. at our tafe other stuff of legends. we use them to build gigantic structures like this a dam 850 meters long so big it's visible from outer space no wonder your call is busy. we might be rodents but we're also ecosystem engineers geniuses though not all humans agree. most people tend to think of beavers as
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a nuisance as pasts but it turns out that beavers very beneficial to the ecosystem . here in the east river valley of southern germany water buffalo are helping keep these fields healthy organic farm license is bringing them in for the winter. come on sweetie come on. the water buffalo will spend the winter months at the family's farm. so. during the summer the water buffalo had some company here before us. with the buffalo gone it's time to get some advice. after a wildlife biologist is often called in when beef is looked like they might come into conflict with farmers or other local reza. yes this past summer the beavers built a dam along the edge of the meadow. the other country i have just been working hard
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that's pretty fresh out there raising the dam for the winter. obviously high for just a few yeah we're really glad the beaver built this big dam along our pasture this year because as you see that allows the water to flow into the grazing areas. if we're here i didn't survive. then destroy our water buffalo need watering in wallowing holes to regulate their body temperature during the hot summer. only to be activated without the beavers activity here we'd have to either get water for the animals from outside or take them off the pasture did so with that. but not everyone is such a fan of the dams the beef is build. everything or give him a tendency confluence when beavers build their dams or places that people are also using. this dam for example it's created this wet area which can be used by other
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animals. and there's a path is no longer it sensible it's so wet that anyone driving on it would get bogged down so the entire valley several hectares of land is no longer accessible for human use and he say that beavers set up shop because they like eating the corn from that field they also use the corn stalks to build their dam but that blocked the drainage and so now the area's under water and this is what you tend to see when humans years land that's too close to water. along this stretch of land adjacent to the easy river the local villages aren't bothered by the down it's a good spot to study the long term effects of before activity. santa knows the area like the back of his hand. to say you're here. we've been studying this habitat for 25 years the winter is an especially good time to see what's going. happening. often dom the vegetation has receded and you can see the dam better and move along
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here more easily with. the nearby university of applied sciences carries out a lot of research projects here the 1st signs of beaver activity were detected here in 1909 and researches have been monitoring the area ever since. it was real this used to be a relatively narrow stream with pastures to the right and left of it a small stream the landscape is totally changed in the. beavers choose waters that are less than 80 centimeters deep to build the dams the water behind the downed that rises creating the beaver pond. since or to keeps flowing into the bondage eventually bursts its banks those streams of water branch out eventually a complex ecosystem imagist with patches of standing water as well as small streams
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some moving slowly others small quickly. we start to grow along the pond submerged trees die off and a marshland emerges nearby this gives rise to a vibrant mosaic a very tough attacks. this year who got the 1st to me it's fascinating to see how such a small animal can shape and transform an area even built a dam here that's more than $120.00 metres long and several generations of them kept doing it and it's all in your children at least. fish use the small streams to circumvent the dam understudy carried out by the university of exeter showed that the dams actually improve the water quality. and that's because the dams act as natural filters removing suspended solids phosphate and nitrogen from the. downstream from a beaver dam the water contains about 70 percent fewer suspended solids 30 percent
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less nitrogen and 80 percent less phosphate on average than the water on the other side of the barrier. the sediment is deposited upstream of the dam where it's used by plants such as reeds which is now reached by the phosphate and nitrogen. the reed filled marshland the various will show ecosystems and the decaying would provide a rich habitat for many animals some quite uncommon see if you can really see how life has returned to the area starting with the dragonflies before we only had a few dragon fly species but now the experts have found 30 different species of them here then there are the amphibian and bird species which are now flourishing. is how to get the potency of. many long term studies
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confirmed that beavers boost the diversity of species in their habitats the busy creatures on pests atoll but valuable allies in the fight to preserve our rapidly dwindling biodiversity. that's all for this week gone tomorrow today nice that you could join us next time we'll have more exciting stories from the fields of science and technology until then.
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do. you. mean. are they friends like me. or are they not enemies and i never worked for roger. donald trump and the bloody mirror proved our 2 part documentary analyzers just a good relationship between russia and the us and between their presidents how does their model rate and their dangerous mutual admiration affection the rest of the
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world. goes on bullies. in 15 minutes on d w. o. how does a virus spread. why do we panic and when we'll all miss them. just 3 of the topics covered in a weekly radio show is called spectrum if you like and the information on the chrono larysa or any other science topic you should really check out our podcast you can get it wherever you get your podcast you can also find us at d.f.w. dot com look for him slash science. i don't think the general well i guess sometimes i am but i just am. nothing which is that we think deep into the german culture of looking at the stereotypes clad in
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ears think the future of the country that i don't claim. yet needed seem to think it is drama. to me it's all about. nothing i might show join me to meet the jetman from d.w. post and a new era to speak on. the fireplace and deal with. this been fairly plain and our use of the blazers stem from a flaming flames that consumed forests and entire residential areas. the rising temperatures water shortages lands clearance there's an abundance of flammable material once again i didn't know stone the flyers played so moons ago an instant celebrity concentration the
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world on fire starts aug 12th on the g.w. . cut. cut. plan to play. this is the new news live from berlin clashes between police and protesters to invent a ruse after state media says that president alexander lukashenko is set to win another election by landslides police deploy it water common tear gas and stun grenades in the heart of me school. lebanon's government times in the balance after
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