tv Legends Lies The Patriots FOX News December 25, 2016 2:00pm-3:01pm PST
news is the first draft of history. it is immediate and takes place in real time. legends take longer to develop and are sometimes based on myth. this fox news series looks at the truth behind the legend. previously on "legends and lies" compatriots. >> i propose we establish an association that's perfect for resisting these attacks. >> we won't sit while agents, leaders strive. >> liberty boys are going to give the tories hell.
♪ pushed to their limits by an oppressive impeempire, a determ group of rebels unite, under the cause of liberty. their quest for freedom will unify a people, ignite the revolution and forge a new system of government. in time, these brave men and women will come to be known as the american patriots. john adams. boston's most influential founding father. a firebrand, outspoken voice for
human rights and the rule of law. behind every voice stands a man, and behind every legend lies the truth. >> there is a misconception that the patriots from boston are a brotherhood of freedom fighters operating in lockstep. two of our founding fathers, sam and john adams, actual members of the same family, find themselves at odds over the growing revolution. while sam keeps the fervor of the rebellion boiling in the streets, john adams isn't sure that defying the king, act of treason, punishable by death, is a good idea. even after the boston massacre, john adams needs more convincing before committing to revolution. >> good god, a riot with this. >> the boston massacre becomes a
huge propaganda effort for samuel adams and the sons of liberty. you've got an immediately famous engraving by paul revere. it is one of the most inaccurate pieces of propaganda ever produced by an american press. almost nothing in it is correct. >> early instance, colonies, power of we now call media to shape public opinion. >> liar, liar. >> samuel, you've replaced the customs house with butchers hall. what else have you changed? look around you, cousins. the people demand justice. by the actions of an angry mob, samuel, justice -- killed five of our own. when are you going to get off the fence and join the cause of your brethren? >> sam adams was a failed tax collector with a long history of debt. >> john adams is a very principled man. he agreed in general he liked
samuel adams but on the other hand, he was one who thought things could get out of control. >> the rift between the adams cous made worse when john takes the case defend the soldiers involved with the boston massacre. >> what is the matter, john? >> representing the king's men in these times could put us all in grave danger. >> you promised captain preston and those men you would take their case. there's no one in this colony or any other more suited to preserve justice than you, john. either you believe in the principles you say you do, or you do not. which is it? >> those men deserve a defense. and we must show the world that boston is capable of giving them a fair trial. >> he believes every man in a free country deserves a fair trial. but ambitious does play a part in this. there's no bigger case. that cocktail of principle and
ambition wins out and he signs on as their attorney. >> in boston, anti-british sentiment is everywhere. the defendants, thomas preston, face hanging if found guilty. to get to the truth behind the shooting, adams must uncover who gave the order to shoot and whether it was justified. >> i am for the prisoners at the bar. and for uncovering the truth of this tragedy. this tragedy was not brought on by these soldiers. but by the actions of a hostile and unruly mob. >> he develops a defense that is based on the fact that this was a mob that was created.
and a situation of escalating violence was building. >> the part i took in defense of captain preston and the soldiers was the most exhausting and fatiguing cause i ever tried for hazarding my popularity and for incurring suspicions and prejudi prejudices. >> richard palms is a key eyewitness whose testimony could turn the case for adams. of the 22 witnesses at the boston massacre trial, palms' location, just feet from the gunfire, puts him in the best position to say whether the order to fire comes from captain preston. >> mr. palms, describe for the court, if you will, how you came upon the scene at question. >> someone said that there was a robber down on king street, so, of course, i went down there to see captain preston ahead of seven or eight soldiers at the customs house with bayonets.
>> or your soldiers will -- >> as soon as he spoke, i saw something resembling ice or snow hit the private on his right. private montgomery stepped one foot back and then fired his gun. but i had my hand on captain preston's shoulder after the shot was fired then i heard the word, "fire." >> and from whose mouth did the word, "fire," emanate? >> i heard the word, "fire," but who gave it, i know not.
♪ >> with his cousin mounting a strong defense, sam adams sees his efforts to provoke an uprising slipping through his fingers. >> john adams' ace in the hole trial which his cousin doesn't want him to use is a deathbed confessi confession. >> doctor, good morning. when had you your last conversation with patrick carr? about 4:00 in the afternoon, proceeding the night on which he died? and what was it he said? he said he fired -- >> why did the soldier fire? >> he fired -- ♪
-- to defend himself. >> to defend himself. >> to defend himself. >> the defense rests, your honor. >> by today's standard, dr. jeffries' testimony recalling a dying man's last words would be considered inadmissible, hearsay. but the thinking, at the time, deathbed testimony is considered irrefutable since it is believed that no one would dare lie so close to facing god's final judgment. >> montgomery, matthew kilroy, you're found guilty. of manslaughter. and for your crimes, are hereby sentenced to be branded. dr. thomas preston, as for you and the rest of your men, you
are all found not guilty. >> his defense of the soldiers solidifies john adams as the most gifted legal mind in boston, perhaps all the town. but to put that brilliant mind to use, sam adams and his sons of liberty must first convince him to join them in open rebellion. because when their struggle turns to war, they will need john adams to persuade a people to defy their king and to define the ideals of freedom and liberty upon which america will be built. >> i believe we have certain rights, and i am not prepared to cede these rights to any man no matter how noble his title. n a t people want. honey, do we have like a super creamy cheese with taco spice already in it?
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branding and no jail time. the decision of quiet resistance for a time, but is a fragile peace that hangs over the city. >> have you seen this? my dear cousins still calls it the boston massacre even after the acquittal lls. >> he will only take the slightest infringement to cause that spark again and of course it demands that all the colonies purchase one kind of tea from one vendor. and that then brings these passions that were latent back to the surface and in will be no letup in them until it explodes in the revolution. >> when sam adams and the sons of liberty hear royal tea is in their port, they send a message to the king with a call to action.
we will be paying an attack and we will not be paying an attack on the british sea, will we, boys? >> with the british troops still on high alert, the sons of liberty disguise themselves, masquerading at mohawk indians. but even in an open act of rebellion, they're careful to show restraint. >> come on, men. ♪ >> we're going to turn boston harbor into a -- >> in contrast to earlier acts of the sons of liberty, there's a certain, yes, theatricality to this but a certain order. there's deliberate action and a sense of control. ♪
>> the tea party is a brazen act of defiance, but not just against the tea, compounding the issue is a government bailout of the east india company. a british importer considered too big to fail. the sons of liberty are strongly opposed to it and to the monopoly it creates. but contrary to legend, the tea party is not violent. no one is hurt during the attack and one lock they break is replaced. the only lasting harm is the loss of the tea. about $2 million worth in today's market. >> for the british, this was vandalism of the worst sort. and it was something that british government did not simply -- >> they passed very quickly a
number of acts that will come to be known in the colonies as coercive acts. the worst of which are the complete and total blockade of boston. boston's essentially now cut off from its economy but it's cut off from the other colonies. >> the british declare a new point of entry and salem the new capital. boston is powerless and the threat of starvation is real. marshal law now rules the city. >> john. >> the red coats are on offensive, provoking those suspected of treason and anyone they fight find guilty even if only by association. >> gentlemen, if you'll excuse us, we have an engagement. >> let me go! >> you may have been captain
preston's true friends here in boston, but you're no friend of general gage nor any other man in his imagimajesty's army. ♪ >> there was quite a bit of escalating intimidation on a daily basis from the british soldiers. so john adams starts to become more radicalized as he sees that begin to impinge on everybody's personal liberty. >> you heard the news from rhode island. a band of rebels seized the british merchandise and burned it -- >> what you call rebels, sir, are merely free men whose livelihoods have been endangered by england's policies. this act will key destroy us, to
feed off the land. >> there is no more justice left in britain than there is in hell. >> this is what us americans think of your tea act. ♪ >> after years of resisting the urge to rebel, john adams wholeheartedly joins the fight for independence. the revolution now has its spokesman. >> he becomes radicalized in his own quiet way and will emerge as the largest, certainly the loudest voice for independence. >> where john has been a paper patriot, limiting his resistance to speeches and writings, sam has been openly defiant. in his relentless pursuit to unify the americans, he
organizes the first meeting of the colony. >> the continental congress is a colo colony-wide meeting to discuss grievan grievances. again, john adams is at the heart of this. >> niphiladelphia. >> philadelphia is agreed on as the place because it's roughly in the northern colonies and southern colonies for everybody to have that. it is a fundamental, inherent, unalienable right of the people that they should have some check or influence or control in their supreme legislation. if taxation is conceded to parliament, the americans will have no check or influence at all. >> the americans had gotten used to the idea of their colonial assemblies. your taxes ought to be imposed by the people who represent you. there was still those folks who were attached to the old establishment. but there was also this new element that said, no, we're
going to govern ourselves. >> the naming of the continental congress by samuel adams is no accident. it's a strategic decision. by identifying congress only by the region it governs, the body is beholden only to its citizens. the name draws a distinct separation from the british empire. it sets our founding fathers down the treasonous path they might take to achieve their freedom. complicated cash back cards? some cards limit where you earn bonus cash back to places they choose... then they change those places every few months. quicksilver keeps it simple. with quicksilver you always earn unlimited 1.5% cash back on every purchase, everywhere. 'tis the season for simple. what's in your wallet?
>> the british empire's strategy to intimidate the resistance has backfired. sanctions intended to block the food supply and restrict boston's political the british empire's strategy to intimidate resistance has backfired. to restrict boston's political power have only strengthened the resolve of the rebels. with john adams at his side, samuel adams is attempting the unthinkable. a unified act of defiance even in the face of domestic opposition. >> this country is full of tories hostile to our cause. >> we need not worry. we're only exercising our rights. >> if only the crown regarded us as anything other than second-class citizens and potential traitors. >> some riders at the time referred to the british blockade of boston as an act of war. still not every congressman is ready for revolution. many are wary of the radical adams cousins, some even consider them traitors.
fear britain's overwhelming military force is also preventing many delegates from even considering. >> they think us massachusetts men are firebrands and reb rebelrousers. >> what do you have us do, sit on our hands and bite our tongues? >> yes. that's you, john. >> not me. >> why so? >> you of all of us are a man of principle, of region, willing to represent the british soldiers at trial. >> during the two-week trip to philadelphia, john and samuel worked to refine their strategy. while others from the north and south journey even farther carrying with them their and agendas. georgia refuses the invitation which raises questions about the loyalty of the southern colonies.
>> it's the massachusetts boys here to tell us what to do. >> gentlemen, allow me to introduce myself. i am colonel george washington. please sit. >> thank you, colonel, for your hospitality. >> please know the feelings of those two are hardly the majority. thank you, both. >> to john and sam's surprise, the massachusetts delegation greeted in philadelphia by some admiring virginians led by george washington. who provides some much-needed encouragement. >> if the british dare to unleash their troops on the people of boston, i would raise a thousand men at my own expense. if they can treat massachusetts so unjustly, they can do so to any of us. >> george washington was the
only one of the american colonials who had substantial, successful military experience, who showed a natural talent for military leadership. >> it takes men like george washington to show the parliament you can't push one of us around, we're all going to stand up against you. >> that never would have happened for sam adams pushing for the split with the parliament. >> while the meeting with george washington gives john and sam hope that congress will unify quickly, once in session, it's not long before the battle lines are drawn. >> there's still affirming ultimate loyalty to great britain. they recognize the treasonous implications. >> understand our plan, we remain part of england. >> samueladams' strategy to
remain silent allows another voice to rise, patrick henry. >> prevent this royal president from imposing the will of the tyrants who appointed him. >> mr. henry, do you truly want to go to war with the british empire? >> this assembly is like no other that ever existed. every man in it is a great man. the order of critic, statesmen, and therefore, every man upon every cushion must show it. business of this congress is tedious beyond expression. >> john. >> make your voice heard. >> mr. president. gentlemen. let us look to quebec, to the north, with their assembly appointed by the king.
is that not the type of representation we should come to expect under such an arrangement or live as those subjects do in ireland? slaves to the crown, living on potatoes and water? i believe we have certain rights. life, liberty, property. foremost among them, and i am not prepared to cede these rights to any man, no matter how noble his title. lunch is ready! campbell's spider-man soups. made for real, real life. thanks mom plumping surface cells for a dramatic transformation... ...without the need for fillers.
@oyu0x?hy@x@8p i am a mother... my s...i'm a father, a son... ...a daughter. i am in recovery from a mental illness... ...a substance use disorder. with support from family and community, we are victorious. join the voices for recovery: our families, our stories, our recovery! for confidential information on mental and substance use disorders including prevention and treatment referral for you or someone you know, call 1-800-662-4357 brought to you by the u.s. department of health & human services. >> after the first continental congress, sam adams of the 1st continental congress, sam adams returns to boston and continues organizing against the british. general thomas gage begins seizing cannon and gun powder in massachusetts. he looks for any opportunity to stop sam adams and the sons of
liberty. >> our country is in danger. >> the sons of liberty and a crowd of bostonians gather to commemorate the fifth anniversary of the boston massacre. >> joseph warren was e was one the best known physicians in mtassachusetts not only the wel to do, but tended to the prostitutes of boston, and put him a good spot to pick up intelligence for a variety of reporters and made him very useful to samuel adams and the sons of liberty. >> our wish is that britain and the colony may grow in strength together.
but while one part of the empire makes slaves of the other, measures taken by our congress must be steadily pursued. >> five men are gunned down by the british at the boston massacre. something sam adams refuses to let people forget. >> my friends, we are gathered here tonight to remember and commemorate our dear brothers. >> have you got your parts correct? >> cruelty massacred. ♪
♪ >> we lay into them with bayonets. ♪ >> there are legitimate threats to the work of those that would work against american liberty. they realize it's no longer safe for them to be involved so they flee. >> general gage decides he should go and seize the largest war stores he knows about in concord west of boston. paul revere receives a lot of intel the british are going to go on a march. >> hancock, bring me adams and hancock alive. >> major.
>> while the british army begins an overnight march toward concord, paul revere slips out of boston to warn sam adams and john hancock of the danger and raise the local militias. >> paul revere is summoned by dr. joseph warren. he's given his message to alert hancock and adams in lexington that the british are definitely going to be marching. and then revere has to sneak out of the city. ♪ >> how many are there? >> nearly a thousand regulars and marines just hours away. >> they aim to start a war?
>> if our militia has any chance of meeting this division -- >> the regulars are coming out. the regulars are coming out. >> what'd you say? >> grab your muskets if you're a patriot man. the regulars are on the mark. the regulars are coming out. the regulars are coming out. >> despite the popular poem by longfellow, paul revere is not alone on his midnight ride. joseph warren and militiaman, patrick gage, and three others to join revere, to commission more riders along the way. the decision ensures the message gets out. while the warning does make it all the way to concord, near lexington, paul revere's journey takes an unexpected and often untold turn.
>> halt where you are or you're dead. >> talking to major mitchell. >> mr. revere, speak the truth of your mission tonight and you'll not be harmed. >> you should be afraid, major. >> what's up ahead? >> we know we're after hancock and adams. >> what's up that road? speaketh truth or i'll blow your brains out. ♪ >> the only answer now is to declare our independence! >> america is at war, dr. franklin. welcome home. >> for more revealing stories on these and other patriots featured in "legends and lies,"
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>> it's the bloody americans. >> leave him. he's done riding with you. >> somewhat hard to believe, but paul revere's near miss is a -- loaded weapons are not allow in taverns, so when a group of lexington minutemen fire their weapons outside the tavern, paul revere and his famous warning are saved. >> the local militia is alerted. the red coats march through the night toward lexington but standing in their way is captain john parker and his militia.
>> hold. stand firm. >> lay down your arms and you and your men will be spared. >> stand your ground, men. >> soldiers. do not fire. >> hold. >> there's this tense moment when the lexington militia and the british regulars are looking at each other across this small space. both sides at that moment knew that this is now officially spiraling out of control. >> to the front. >> stand by. stand by. hold your ground.
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what's in your wallet? >> the shot heard 'round the world remains a mystery. one theory is that a nervous british officer accidentally fires the shots heard round the world remains a mystery. one theory is a nervous british officer accidentally fires setting off the battle. some believe the officer is major edward mitchell, the same man who interrogates paul revere the night before. whomever fires the shot in that moment, the fate of north america and the entire world changes forever. >> fall back. >> when the shooting starts at lexington, hancock and sam adams
have already slipped out of town, but they can still hear the sounds of the battle. >> sacrifice that will be made. many families will suffer, but it's a grand day for our country. >> news of the conflict shakes the countryside, as riders carry word far and wide. all over new england, men and boys grab their plmuskets and s out to join the fight. >> have to leave so soon, john? >> congress convenes in philadelphia in just two short weeks. and there's much to be done. >> someone's coming. >> the british army has marched on concord. i have to see for myself. >> when john adams reaches lexington, the british have been turned away from concord empty handed. militiamen pour in, attacking
the red coats as they retreat to boston, burning colonial homes along the way. >> british are marching back to boston to the same route that they came that day. the americans are circling the hills s and the pasturelands t get ahead of the british. it's a bloody battle all the way back to boston. >> i rode from cambridge along the roerd ad to lexington and inquired of the habitants. indeed, they only succeeded in convincing me that the dye was cast and that great britain has shifted the instruments of warfare from the pen to the sword. >> the american army is a provisional alliance of regional militias. as the british rally toward bunker hill, it's up to the
second continental congress to unify the force under a leader all the delegates can agree upon. >> the second continental congress is facing a totally different strategic situation. do we try to transform this army around boston into something more than just a militia rattle l? >> the chair recognizes john adams, massachusetts. >> gentlemen, as we convene here in philadelphia, thousands of loosely affiliated volunteers have surrounded the british army at boston. >> mr. president, i hereby propose that this congress adopt this army and appoint as its commander colonel george washington of virginia.
>> it's during the 2nd continental congress the america we know begins to take shape. no longer an assembly of independent colonies, all 13 come together to fight a common enemy in the name of liberty. in nominating george washington, john adams identifies in one man the courage, sacrifice and resilience that will define america's identity. but the unanimous election of the commander in chief is a short-lived victory. before george washington can even take control of his army, a devastating battle is already under way at bunker hill. >> your fathers staked their lives on the cause of their country.
news is the first draft of history. it is immediate and takes place in real time. lend legends take longer to develop and are sometimes based on myth. this fox news series looks at the truth behind the legend. previously on "legends & lies," the patriots. >> there is no more justice left in britain than there is in hell. >> under our plan, we remain part of england. >> one part of the empire makes slaves of the other.