official ingredients. what is the name of the ice cream company that has to stop it? the answer is ben & jerry's correct. where is it located? >> vermont. >> bill: what town? >> burlington. >> bill: that is it for us tonight. that was fun, want it? the spin stops here, because we are definitely looking out we are definitely looking out for you. captioned by closed captioning services, inc. throughout the 20th century re s from germany to russia rose to threaten the free world. in large part the efforts of two nations the united states and the united kingdom that ensured they wound up in the words of ronald reagan on the
ash heap of history. franklin roosevelt and churchill defeated germany from north africa to normandy. three decades later thatcher and reagan starred down the threat from geneva to grenada. on september 11th, the fight for freedom fell to american president george w. bush and british prime minister bear. they formed a relationship that shocked their closest advisers. we spoke with both men and some who knew them best about that relationship and how it shaped the war on terror. take a look. >> thank you. >> i admire in people. tony blair is a courageous person. >> god bless america. >> sean: in the aftermath of the september 11th, attacks george w. bush and tony blair
faced a new world. they vowed to take the fight to the enemy. >> up until that point, bill clinton had lobed missiles into afghanistan. this was a proper existential struggle. this was something that bush and blair knew before tillman but 9/11 gave them the power they needed to do something about it. >> sean: over eight years bush and blair fought to beat back the islam miss threat and plant democracy in its place. >> what i saw was i thought was within of the most extraordinary relationships i saw within the closed doors of the oval office. -- >> sean: when george w. bush was elected president, many wondered how he would get along with the british prime minister or whether they would get along at all.
>> prime minister blair had a very special relationship and strong relationship with president clinton. the question was, how he was going to going to perceive this new president and whether that close relationship with president clinton would be a barrier in some way to forming a close relationship between president bush and prime minister blair. >> tony blair is labor, george bush is conservative. they had reasons not to get along on paper and politically speaking. >> sean: when news reached britain that bush defeated gore, tony blair placed his first call to the president-elect. >> at that time, president clinton was staying with prime minister blair at checkers. it was a farewell visit. as clinton's helicopter took off, tony and i into the office and put that first call through to president bush. he explained to president bush that he had been a good personal friend to president clinton and intended to remain
a friend. president bush said, he respected that and expected nothing less. >> sean: bush and blair met in february of 2001 for the first time. >> welcome, it is my honor to welcome the prime minister from our strongest friend and closest ally to camp david. laura and i invited he and sherri over. i wasn't sure what to expect. because his reputation was left of center politician and very close to bill clinton. >> slightly nervous get to know you type of meeting. we flew into camp david the president was there to meet tony blair. they hadn't met before. i guess it was a slight apprehension. >> sean: that apprehension did not last long. >> west same perception of the world and the belief in freedom. and the belief in standing up for what is right and just. and everything that i've heard
today confirms in my view that relationship will carry on in the years to come. >> as they told me he's a pretty charming guy. he put the charm offensive on me. and it worked. >> i felt we hit it off immediately. he's an easy guy to be around. our conversations with wide ranging. i learned a lot from him. he turned out to be a steady, good friend. >> what the prime minister found was someone who was start politically. president bush would always make fun of himself which is rather endearing. >> basically the same age, same international points of view. they just inguyed -- enjoyed each other's company. >> it was a family event we all went to watch the film "meet the family" i remember condi rice fast asleep and had to be woken up when the lies came on. >> they got along from -- when
the lights came on. >> they got along from the beginning. they like each other and they each knew how important the relationship between the united states and the u.k. is and would continue to be ungeorge w. bush's administration. >> sean: at camp david bush and blair found agreement on an issue that would come to define their partnership. the threat posed by iraqi dictator saddam hussein. >> he has got to understand that we're gonna watch him carefully. and if we catch him developing weapons of mass destruction we'll take the appropriate action. >> we know perfectly well, given the chance he will develop these weapons. >> we are determined to make that part of the world more peaceful by keeping this guy in check. >> i recall tony blair saying is that the only place in the world where u.s. and british warplanes were being shot out daily was in iraq. >> from the start, both of them had a view of saddam hussein as saddam hussein was indeed a
real threat to this world. >> we joined with president clinton in bombing iraq, after they threw inspectors out. dealing with iraq had been from the first moment that tony blair came into government in 1997, the threat had been there. we had to deal with it by airstrikes. >> sean: more importantly, the meeting fostered trust between the two which would be critical as america came under attack. >> even though they had different views along the political spectrum, each sensed a kindred spirit. >> the problem is when you deal in international politics you have people who make promises who don't deliver. tony blair found in president bush who if he gave you his word he would differ. >> -- he would deliver. >> he's a man of his word. i admire that in tony blair. >> sean: america under attack. >> tonight we are a country awakened to danger and called to defend freedom.
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today our today our fellow citizens, our way of life, our freedom came under attack in a series of deliberate and deadly terrorist acts. >> it was a slow day here in britain. i was in number 10. the prime minister left to make a speech. >> the victims were in airplanes, in their offices. secretaries, businessmen and women, military and federal workers, moms and dads, friends and neighbors. >> one of my assistants came in and said another plane has flown into another tower. i said it must have be the film shown again are you sure you've got that right. he said no, there's been another one. >> thousands of lives were
suddenly ended by evil despicable acting of terror. >> first call was from tony blair in brighton. he said i should cancel my speech. i have to come up to columbus. >> sean: in brighton blair delivered remarks addressing the attacks that had taken place in america. >> i'm afraid we can only imagine the terror and the carnage there. and the many, many innocent people that will have lost their lives. i know that you would want to join with me in sending our deepest condolences to president bush and to the american people on behalf the british people of these terrible events. >> sean: blair's support was immediate and unwavering. >> during the days of the blitz there was one nation and one people above all stood side by side with us at that time. that nation was america.
those people were the american people. i say to you we stand side by side with you now without hesitation. >> while some were giving condolences tony blair was saying our country will stand with you. and you can rely upon us to be a strong ally. he understood in the early hours of the post 9/11 that this was different. >> somebody must keep their word. >> sean: on domestic politics the president and prime minister came from different camps. the september 11th attacks triggered the same reaction in both that islam mister record was the imminent threat to the free world and their countries would have to take the offensive against it. >> mr. speaker, the president of the united states. [ applause ] >> it's goal is not making money, it's goal is remaking the world and imposing its
radical beliefs on people everywhere. >> this master is the new evil in our world today. we the democracies of this world are going to have to come together to fight this together and eradicate this evil completely from our world. >> i've seen a lot of this building for sometime. i would take a different view today. i think the roots are deeper than i thought then. to most it was the first major terrorist attack the worst and most awful and so on. but it wasn't the only thing. and it didn't come out of nowhere, really. to me, suddenly a lot of things started to make sense. >> it change blair's views fundamentally. 9/11 was a defining moment. it galvanized him into realizing this was an important moment in history and needed to be responded to accordingly. >> sean: bush and blair worked hard formulating a response to the attacks. >> in marine one, flying back
to the white house september 11th. as we through over the pentagon the president looked out and the president could see the pentagon smoldering, on fire. he said to nobody in particular, he just said it out loud, the mightiest building in the world is on fire. that's the face of war in the 21st century. >> the next morning he managed to get president bush on the phone and had a good conversation. he then flew over to america. he wanted to pay his respects in new york and went to a memorial service for victims of the tragedy. >> so honored the british prime minister has crossed an ocean to show his unity with america. thank you for coming, friend. [ applause ] >> it was a reflection of the president's personal gratitude that blair was so quickly to come to his side and make it clear the u.k. stood with the united states.
>> just the recognition that president bush is the type of leader who knows that it is important [ inaudible ] >> sean: before the president delivered his address he spoke to bear at length. >> the two were alone in the blue room which is on the second floor. it was about 45 minutes before the speech. prime minister blair was i can totally appreciate it if you need me to leave so you can prepare for this. president bush said, no, i know exactly what i want to say. i don't need to look at my notes any more. >> he said done you want to be alone? i said no. >> tony was amazed. when he gives a speech he's limbering up for it. president bush said no, i practiced earlier i'm ready. he was very relaxed about it in a remarkable way. it was a terrific speech he gave. >> tonight we are a country awakened to danger and called to defend freedom. whether we bring our enemies
to justice or bring justice to our enemies, justice will be done. [ applause ] >> tony blair was proud to be in the gallery listening to that speech and demonstrating the solidarity we all felt as the american people in that time of attack. >> america has no truer friend than great britain. [ applause ] >> once again, we are joined together in a great cause. >> for president bush, the question was, was tony blair going to be his winston churchill? it turns out, yes indeed. yes indeed. >> sean: coming up, war in iraq. >> this isn't just america or america and the u.k..
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>> on my on my orders the united states military has begun strikes against al-qaeda terrorist training camps and military installations of the taliban regime in afghanistan. we are joined by our staunch friend great britain. >> sean: as the american military brass planned the invasion of afghanistan, president bush looked to prime minister blair for his input. >> i appreciate his advice. i appreciate his counsel. and i appreciate his friendship. >> one of the first things
that was done was dropping of food. paratrooping in food to afghans. that was tony blair's idea. that came about on a secure call. blair said at the same time we are going in with military, let's go in with food aid to send a signal to the afghan people that we the west are on your side. president bush loved that idea and that's what they did. >> sean: bush and blair agreed it would require a new strategy radical regimes could no longer be contained and it would fall to free nations to preempt these regimes before they posed an imminent threat. >> i will not wait on events while danger is gathering. i will not stand by as peril draws closer and closer. the united states of america will not permit the world's most dangerous regimes to threaten us with the world's most destructive weapons. >> the central idea that we could act on our own, we could have a forward policy on
freedom and democracy and fighting terror in its own backyard. these were things that blair worked out for himself in many ways articulated earlier he was way out of line with almost everybody he knew, his friends, colleagues, cabinet and governmental colleagues, he was out on a limb. it was an extraordinary thing to see. >> is this threat something that you can manage, treat with, sort of compromise with and evolve out of it? which is one view, not a stupid view, but one view. or is it something that is fundamental and has to be confronted and defeated? i took the latter view. >> tony blair could see beyond the horizon. he understood there's an ideological struggle taking place. on the one hand you have to have tough hard power and as he put it soft power as well.
i agreed completely. >> sean: as the two surveyed the global landscape they focused on saddam hussein as the leading threat. the iraqi dictator was a relentless sponsor of terrorism. over a decade he defied the united nations. >> this regime agreed to international inspections. then kicked out the inspectors this is a regime that has something to hide from the civilized world. >> as the attention turned from 9/11, increasingly to the issue of how to deal with saddam hussein. it was clear both leaders viewed him as a threat to peace, because of his clear intention and past history of pursuing nuclear weapons, support for terrorism, invasion of his neighbors and suppression of his own people. >> sean: as plans progressed bush and blair phone themselves in disagreement on a key issue. >> whether or not we needed a second resolution at the united nations to authorize the use of force? mr. blair made it clear to president bush it was
important to him. he thought it was diplomatically the right thing to do and the best way to have as large a coalition as possible with us. >> sean: blair visited bush to persuade him to seek additional resolution from the united nations before launching a military campaign against saddam hussein. >> tony had come and wanted to talk about -- i what i call coercive diplomacy, a strong diplomatic track parallelled with a strong military track. so the diplomacy would be effective. but if it didn't work there would be a military option. part of that was him talking to me about going to the united nations to seek a security council resolution. >> i had a long discussion on iraq and what should be done. particularly about need to build an international coalition. blair felt strongly as with afghanistan after 9/11 you needed to bring people with you. you needed to gather the whole world community to try and deal with this. that's why he argued strongly
for involving the united nations. >> president bush understood from prime minister blair very early on that in order for him to provide the type of public support for a potential military campaign in iraq, that the united nations was going to have to play a significant role. those discussions took place in the preceding summer before the invasion. that's when president bush made the decision in september of 2002 to go to the united nations and layout the case against saddam hussein. that decision to do that was in large part, in response to his consultations with prime minister blair. >> interesting thing here for the criticisms in the u.k. about blair following whatever bush said. fact of the matter is, george bush often followed what tony blair said out of respect for tony blair and a desire to help tony blair. >> i came down on the side of going to the united nations
because i wanted to have others with us. john howard. australia said get a resolution. i listened to other leaders a lot. >> i could see on the other side of the water, u.k. and european politics, unless we involved the u.n. we were likely to be on our own. i felt, to get us in the end with some 30 countries in the coalition that was important to say this isn't just america or america and its close ally the u.k., this is something on behalf of our way of life and not just our two countries. >> i remember after one of their meetings his message was we are going to try to do this diplomatically, if i use to military force, i will. will you be with me? when the president came out and he said with obvious relieve, blair and i -- relief, blair and you are going to try
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this hour american and coalition forces in the early stages of military operations to disarm iraq, to free its people. to defend the world from great danger. >> we will be with you in this fight for liberty. and if our spirit is right and our courage firm, the world will be with us. >> sean: blair's decision to support the iraq war was not popular in great britain. as his approval ratings plummeted, many feared he would lose his government. >> it was possible he would be thrown out of government, at that moment. if he had not been able to get the votes through the house of commons which he spoke eloquently about, he would be out of government. >> vote with the government tonight! >> i called and said why don't you not join the coalition and keep your government. he said i'm gonna do the right thing.
because when i govern i'm going to do the right thing. >> he reaffirmed his personal and his country's support. he gave what i think will go down as one of the great speeches in modern history in front of his parliament. >> the prime minister, looking back over these 12 years, the truth is we've been victims of our own desires to persuade towards reason the unreasonable to hope with some genuine attempt to do good in a re whose mind is evil. >> he went and and delivered brilliantly. they all listened and i think he changed a number of minds. >> this is a situation where blair believed what he was saying and doing. >> only persuasive power to which he responds is 250,000 allied troops on his doorstep. >> tony blair is a tough sort of guy.
he's used to political pressure. interesting enough he was criticized when he first came to power as bambi always following trends and wishes. by the time he left they called him stalin because he went on his own terms. >> he was determined to do what he thought was right. >> sean: as the war unfolded bush and blair discussed the military campaign regularly. >> the president would have every couple weeks, a secure video conference, where the prime minister would come on a big screen in the situation room and the president with his advisers and the prime minister with his, would talk about afghanistan. tack about iraq. they really developed over this period of time a real common set of views about what needed to done and how do we do it? >> he and the president might have an hour long conversation on the video screen. tony blair often would follow up with a memorandum underscoring some of the points they made. raising some that he had
thought of afterwards. suggesting a way forward. president bush would often respond. >> president bush felt he could bounce ideas off tony and tony felt he could give ideas. it was a fluid relationship, intimate one. one that was as close relations have been between presidents and prime ministers. >> sean: by summer 2006 it was clear to both leaders that progress in iraq had stalled. >> the optimism we had felt early in 2006 was rapidly evaporating, as the war was clearly going very badly. >> situation in iraq is unacceptable to the american people and it is unacceptable to me. >> a lot of people believed that many that was a foregone conclusion he was going to surge troops, it wasn't the case. >> as president bush was getting feedback from his planners, began to share with
prime minister blair what his thinking was. >> the new strategy i outline tonight will change america's course in iraq and help us succeed in the fight against terror. >> a large portion of the president's advisers and u.s. military opposed a surge. the president felt that the risks of basically losing this conflict were too large. and he had a kindred spirit there in tony blair. >> we had a long series of discussions with the commanders and with president bush. he was involved in that discussion of how you should go about the surge and how you should go about holding territory. >> sean: as a result of the surge the new iraqi democracy is on a firm footing. bush and blair weathered fierce criticism for their actions. now history will be the judge. >> president took a very long view of history. he believed in the long term, it would be clear that the removal of saddam hussein, the
stabilization of iraq was potentially transformative event in the history of the middle east. >> it is important to always remember that the result of what george bush did, what tony blair did and what the iraqis are still doing, first arab democracy has been born. >> nobody else on the planet was in the position that these two men were. they ultimately were responsible for being the front end of the war on terror. >> sean: today both leaders stand by their decisions and by each other. >> i saw him close up. and this is somebody who is genuinely motivated by a love of his country and doing what he thought was right. so, when you, if you are opposed to him, do disagree with him, when you come to consider him, consider the complete man. >> we both came to the same conclusions. therefore, we were amazed when
it came to the freedom agent -- we were soulmates when it came to the freedom agenda. >> sean: roots of the special relationship. >> we are going to win in war. and we are going to win the peace that follows. >> sean: how roosevelt and churchill beat back the nazi onslaught in the dark days of world war ii. world war ii. ready sensei. hey tough guy, tat cold needs alka seltzer plus! it has the cold-fighting power of an effevescent packed in a liquid-gel for all over relief! hiyah! dude!
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. >> sean: george b >> sean: bush and blair built on a long standing relationship teen the united states and great britain one that churchill called the special relationship. >> this u.s.-british alliance is very powerful. there's an unspoken rule that we stay on each other's side don't ever go it alone. >> sean: the angelo american relationship was forged in the dark days of world war ii when roosevelt and winston
churchill came together to beat back nazi germany and imperial japan. they were unlikely partners. >> churchill was conservative and he was the last politician standing up to the nazi menace. and he desperately leaded franklin roosevelt who was a democratic progressive. >> roosevelt and churchill were fundamentally different people. church hill was a warm hearted man who loved to talk, loved to tell jokes. roosevelt was a secretive man who didn't let his right hand know what his left was doing. >> they had differences but they thought their belief in the democratic principles of world governance guided them through any turbulence. southbound southbound george w. bush and tony -- >> sean: george w. bush and tony blair's differences were bridged by a shared international vision. >> churchill conservative, fdr
progressive. it gets flipped with blair and bush, because bush was the conservative and blair was more of the labor progressive. >> they did really have common set of values. and a common belief in the importance of spreading freedom in the world. and that freedom and democracy really were the antidote to the grim vision of the world that the terrorists were offering. >> sean: both bush and roosevelt were thrust into wars that began with attacks on american soil. >> battleship arizona, after the explosion that shattered the mighty giant. >> a date which will live in in&,x)qy. the united states of america was suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval and air forces of the empire of japan. >> americans have known surprise attacks, but never before on thousands of civilians. all of this was brought upon
us in a single day. and not fell on a different world. a world where freedom itself is under attack. >> he had to confront a pearl harbor of his own with 9/11. in both cases immediately america was thrust into a war. >> he recognized america could and would be still here by what were sneak attacks like pearl harbor everyone the difference is now, it is a symmetrical war. >> fdr knew japanese and nazi germany. for president bush where you have a stateless terrorism being responsible it was unclear where the united states was going to strike back. president bush became a wartime president at that moment. >> sean: four days after the japanese attack on pearl harbor, hitler declared war on
america. roosevelt's collaboration with churchill would become crucial to the allied victory. >> the , crucial moments they were helped enormously by a close personal, as well as political bond clean churchill and roosevelt. >> neither one gets it right. together, they make almost all the right decisions at the right times. >> sean: british and americans have not just gone to war. they've also worked to shape the post-war world. >> with nazi germany nearing defeat problems must be selled by the united states, great britain and russia. >> sean: in 1945 roosevelt and churchill looked beyond the war and attempted to mold the new europe. >> he was invisioning in a serious way what the post world world -- world war two was going to look like. >> sean: 60 years later bush and blair looked to a counter urgency extra did to protect
the american people and lay the foundation for a new iraqi democracy. >> it wasn't redirecting the world map it was trying to make a decision of how does within grab stateless terrorism by the just of the neck? >> the only way to do this properly, -- you ever to get the public on your side the only way to get the public on your side is protect them. >> sean: from world war ii to the present the special relationship has been cemented by the shared belief that free nations bear the responsibility for protecting and defending democracy around the globe. >> we tried again and again to prevent this war. now we are at war. and we are going to make war until the other side have had enough of it. >> you and i will act together
to protect to defend our freedom >> basically they created principles that we still live by today. what does democracy mean? it means freedom from want and religion we won't accepto tall tearianism -- we won't accept totalitarianism. >> he couldn't just sit at home and hope that you would be safe. he couldn't just build walls, you have to defend yourself where the threat was. >> you find that also with george w. bush in this belief that you have to have muscular democracy. you can't allow a world where tyrants rule. >> sean: coming up ronald reagan and thatcher confront the communist threat. >> standing before the brandenburg gates, every man is a german, separated from his fellow men.
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. [ applause ] [ applause ] >> wishful thinking about our adversaries is folly. it means the betrayal of our past, squandering of our freedom. >> we are rolling back the frontiers of socialism and returning power to the people. >> the left argued that the war came to an end. it didn't. it was a victorious outcome as a result of the steady pressure, placed on the ussr by ronald reagan and margaret thatcher. >> sean: out of the ashes of
wwii a new evil arose aggressive expansionist soviet union. reagan and thatcher developed a relationship characterized by the same warmth and admiration as the one between bush and blair. >> reagan was, from her point of view the prototypical american. relaxed, broad shouldered, handsome. they just clicked an element mental level. beyond that what they quickly discovered was that here we had two people who had never met before who had come up in different backgrounds and reached the same conclusions about what was wrong with the world and what needed to be done. >> ronald reagan and margaret thatcher thought in similar ways. they shared a common view that the soviet union would have to change. >> sean: like president bush reagan found having a trusted ally across the atlantic bolstered his position around the world.
>> he is derided as a cowboy. he says we have to stand up and rebuild our defenses. you can get away was riding in as a cowboy across the atlantic there is this articulate woman who says the same thing. >> you had two visionary lead decided the future of the free world depended upon the united states and the united kingdom. >> sean: bush and reagan made some of the most difficult decisions of their president sees against the opposition of their closest advisers. >> all of reagan's advisers said don't give the tear down the wall speech. reagan did it, you see with george w. bush his big moment is with the surge. >> i met with the diplomats on the ground full of what the president shouldn't say. he said be careful about how you treat the wall. they've all gotten used to it by now.
>> standing before the brandenburg gates, every man is a german, separated from his fellow meant >> they will hear you on the other side of the wall if the weather is right they can even hear it in moscow by radio. is there anything special you want to say to the people on the other side of the wall? the president just thought and said well no, there's that passage about tearing down the wall that's what i want to say to them, that wall has to come down. >> general secretary gorbachev, if you seek peace, if you seek perifor the soviet union and eastern europe, if you seek liberallization, come here to this gate. mr. gorbachev, open this gate. mr. gorbachev, tear down this wall. [ cheering ]
>> reagan's speech, the surge was seen as over aggressive. a thin treated be basing foreign policy on. >> sean: leaders of the free world have stood up not only to their advisers but also to each other. >> margaret thatcher was very blunt that's why she the term the iron lady. >> she didn't get an with reagan on all points. >> i argued with her. -- i argued with her. back and forth, she liked that. >> un major clashes thatcher had with reagan was over the invasion of grenada. >> we were told it was a friendly island paradise for tourism, it wasn't. i was a soviet-cuban colony as a military bastion to export ter raorpb undermine democracy. we there just in time. >> the problem for thatcher is grenada was a commonwealth country.
>> she was in part -- in part annoyed because she wasn't consulted. it was part of the british commonwealth. >> you don't want to paint a picture it was all rosie for bush and blair. they seemed to understand that history was often about determination that. you couldn't cower in front of a foe. >> we are like minded in so many different ways but our differences are just enough that makes each of us better. >> sean: perhaps no one put it better than thatcher. >> the great alliance has been the greatest in defense of freedom. >> the world is grateful that america and england have worked so close together to keep tends of millions free. >> sean: they carry the tradition into the 21st century. it will now fall to their suso