tv 60 Minutes Me-TV November 22, 2015 6:00pm-7:00pm CST
if not minimize it completely, by getting there quickly. and that's a complete shift, a paradigm change for law enforcement across the board. >> we're in the combined joint operations center. >> logan: the u.s. and iraqi military are coordinating the war effort against isis here. but as you will see tonight, america now finds itself on the same side of the fight as shiite militias backed by iran and going against isis fighters who are using weapons unlike anything you've ever seen. >> these "franken-trucks" are something out of a science fiction movie. they've loaded them with high explosives, put a suicide bomber inside of them, and set themselves off. >> stahl: i'm going to give you 1,000. >> oh, you're tipping with it. thank you very much. god bless you. >> stahl: if you want to see the future of money, go to the slums of nairobi.
what's happening today in kenya is a banking breakthrough right up there with the invention of the credit card and the atm. >> it is often referred to as kenya's alternative currency, but safer and more secure. >> stahl: you're texting money. >> you are effectively texting money. >> kroft: i'm steve kroft. >> stahl: i'm lesley stahl. >> cooper: i'm anderson cooper. >> whitaker: i'm bill whitaker. >> logan: i'm lara logan. >> pelley: i'm scott pelley. those stories tonight on "60 minutes." >> cbs money watch update sponsored by: >> glor: good evening. ten countries in southeast asia today formed a new economic bloc to help compete with china. the price of turkey is at its highest ever, about $23 for a 16-pound bird. and jeff gordon ended his sprint cup career today with merely
i'm jeff glor, cbs news. sometimes the present looked bright. sometimes romantic. there were tears in my eyes. and tears in my eyes. and so many little things that we learned were really the biggest things. through it all, we saved and had a retirement plan. and someone who listened and helped us along the way. because we always knew that someday the future would be the present. every someday needs a plan.
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>> whitaker: the coordinated strikes in paris carried out by terrorists at multiple locations, as well as the attack this past friday in mali, are the latest examples of what american law enforcement calls "active shooter" cases. these are situations where gunmen are intent on killing as many people as possible, and often are still shooting when the police arrive on the scene. anderson cooper, on assignment for "60 minutes," begins the story from paris.
>> cooper: what happened here a week ago friday is law enforcement's worst nightmare-- multiple shooters attacking multiple locations, stretching the resources of police and crippling a city. there was only one active shooter attack in the united states in 2000, but by 2015, there were more than one a month. they usually involve just one gunman, but american law enforcement has been expecting a paris style attack in the u.s. for years. >> william bratton: in american policing, we have no answer for why we don't have more of these events, and why we don't have more that are very specifically put on by terrorist-related activists. >> cooper: new york police commissioner bill bratton said the n.y.p.d. has been preparing for that kind of attack ever since the 2008 terrorist strike in mumbai, india, that killed 173 people and shut down a city of more than 18 million for three days. what did you learn from mumbai?
multiple shooters consciously going in a lot of different directions. >> cooper: multiple shooters, multiple locations. >> bratton: multiple shooters who had bombs in taxi cabs, railway stations, the hotel. we also learned that these people are going to take hostages only for the purpose of media attention. they're going to kill them. they're not interested in negotiating to surrender. they're negotiating just to extend the span of time that you in the media are going to cover what they're doing. so that's a very significant change, where we normally try to rescue the hostages through negotiation. >> cooper: after mumbai, you fully anticipated we're going see that here in the united states? >> bratton: that's correct. >> cooper: and you still believe that? >> bratton: still believe it. and that's why we prepare for it. >> cooper: the new york police department is so concerned about a paris- and mumbai-type attack, they're retraining all 35,000 police officers in the city. >> weapon is now loaded, finger off the trigger, holster up. >> cooper: they allowed us to watch some of what they're doing. detective raymond mcpartland is the lead trainer with the n.y.p.d. counterterrorism division, and says its critical
police move in quickly to stop an active shooter. >> raymond mcpartland: the big piece i always tell people is time is of an issue for both ends. the shooter always wants more time inside because that's more victims. we need to cut his time in half, if not minimize it completely, by getting there quickly. and that's a complete shift, a paradigm change for... for law enforcement across the board. ( gunfire ) >> cooper: getting in there quickly means overcoming chaotic and confusing situations in pursuit of the gunman. ( gunfire ) >> mcpartland: so now, you got a shot. so now, that changes what we're doing here because we're going to go in that direction. >> cooper: in this drill, a team of four officers has to stop an active shooter in a classroom full of students, some of whom are already wounded. responding officers are told to focus on finding the gunmen before they try to treat any casualties. it's also got to be tough because you have hysterical people in a classroom. they're going to be screaming, "help this person, help this person." >> mcpartland: yeah, sure, and just think of the psychological aspect. i mean, you go into a school shooting and y... and you see children. you see... this is something anybody's going to want to bend
to stop that. but what we try to instill in them is that we need to stop the killing further. >> cooper: in another training scenario, we watched the police respond to a simulated attack by loosely based on what happened in mumbai. ( gunfire ) they immediately engage in a gun battle with the first shooter, who's surrounded himself with civilians. >> mcpartland: the issue becomes, now you've got a crowded hallway. so this is how they are going to have to deal with it. if you notice, on the floor, there is a bag. at the very least, we should start thinking i.e.d. explosive device. it's something we are concerned about. >> cooper: for the first officers on the scene, information is limited and often contradictory. with every second that passes, more people could be dying. the adrenaline is pumping so much that it changes the way you think. it changes your judgment. >> mcpartland: sure. it's a survival instinct. there's a man with a gun that's in that room and he's trying to kill other people. >> cooper: right. >> mcpartland: and under stress... the idea of stress science is fascinating when it comes to our world because your vision goes down to about 17%
under stress. if i said "long guns," if i said "tactical gear," and i said "terrorism," what's the one thing you should also be thinking about? >> i.e.d.s? >> mcpartland: i.e.d.s. thinking about bombs. >> cooper: afterwards, detective mcpartland reviews the exercise with the officers and asks them about the bag that was left in the hallway. >> i didn't notice the bag. >> cooper: if you had noted that that was an i.e.d. in that bag, would you still keep going for the shooter? >> mcpartland: unfortunately, yeah. if we had to stop for every bag we found, then obviously we'd have a problem because we would never get to that guy. >> cooper: a number of american cities have been retraining their police in a similar way. washington, d.c., police chief cathy lanier says their preparations have taken on new urgency since isis made a threat this week to launch attacks in rome and washington. >> cathy lanier: people say, you know, "what is it that keeps you awake at night?" it's not all the things that we train for and we know about; it's the one thing that we haven't yet thought about. what is it that we're missing? >> cooper: we've now seen a number of people who are just
they support isis, but may have no actual direct connection with a group like isis, but just they've watched some videos and they've decided to... >> lanier: even scarier-- less trip... >> cooper: that's even scarier? >> lanier: less tripwires. less... less opportunity for us to intercept. i don't think you're going to stop the shootings. i think that a person who's committed to carrying out an act of violence like this is going to carry that act out. how successful they are and how many people they kill we can try and intervene on. >> cooper: police departments started to take a serious look at how they respond to active shooters after the attacks at columbine high school in 1999. columbine was a real turning point, in terms of reassessing strategy in active shooter situations? >> lanier: yes, it was huge. so, we based a lot of our training for active shooter response at the local law enforcement level. we based a lot of our training on columbine. >> cooper: in columbine, two troubled teenagers freely roamed the school, killing 12 students and a teacher while, outside,
personnel set up a perimeter and waited for 45 minutes before going in. >> lanier: and i very distinctly remember a parent being interviewed who said, "what were they waiting for? they have guns, my kids don't have... none of our kids had guns." >> cooper: in the recent paris attack here at the bataclan concert hall, police waited 35 minutes outside for the tactical team to prepare before going in. a u.s. law enforcement source described that as a "familiar old american model" that has been abandoned. columbine taught police they had to get in fast, despite the fact a swat team might not be there. >> lanier: this is a homicide in progress. you can't wait for backup, you can't wait for the swat team. you are the only thing that can stop that shooting. you have to get in there and do it. >> cooper: that's what washington, d.c., police did in 2013 at the navy yard when a mentally ill employee began shooting his coworkers. >> we have an active shooter, a male with a shotgun. multiple shots fired. multiple people down. >> lanier: our first call to
9-1-1 came in one minute and 36 seconds after the first shots were fired. we already had multiple people that were shot at that point. >> cooper: chief lanier learned a number of lessons from the police response to the navy yard shootings. some of the rifles police had were too big for the narrow corridors the shooter was moving through. and the sound of fire alarms made it difficult to determine where shots were being fired from. >> lanier: the flashes you see are the fire alarms. the fire alarm's been pulled. the fire alarm's going off. it's loud. and they've got gunshots being fired, and they're trying to narrow down where the gunman is so they can get to the gunman and stop the shooting. >> cooper: it took police an hour and nine minutes to kill the shooter. and of the 12 people who were killed, the first ten were killed how quickly? >> lanier: six minutes. >> cooper: that fast? >> lanier: that fast. >> cooper: according to the fbi, 60% of active shooter attacks are over before police ever arrive. so now, law enforcement agencies throughout the country are trying to educate the public on how to survive on their own >> lanier: your options are run, hide, or fight. >> cooper: that's what you tell people they should do?
>> lanier: yes. what we tell them is... is the facts of the matter is that most active shooters kill most of the victims in ten minutes or less, and the best police department in the country's going to be about a five- to seven-minute response. i always say if you can get out, getting out's your first option, your best option. if you're in a position to try and take the gunman down, to take the gunman out, it's the best option for saving lives before police can get there. and that's... you know, that's kind of counterintuitive to what cops always tell people, right? we always tell people, "don't... you know, don't take action. call 9-1-1. don't intervene in the robbery," you know. we've never told people, "take action." it's a different... this is a different scenario. >> cooper: you're telling them that now, though? >> lanier: we are. it is important to remember that, as tragic and scary as these active shooter attacks are, it's highly unlikely you'll ever be caught up in one. >> bratton: you have a very low chance of being a victim of an incident like this. but what we try to do is encourage awareness. the idea is to have an awareness without creating a fear. >> cooper: a person's chance of actually having some sort of
encounter with an active shooter is, like, one in two million. a person's chance of being hit by lightning is one in 700,000. do you worry about an overreaction, people getting too scared, fearful of something which, in all likelihood, they will never encounter? >> lanier: you can be prepared and you can have a society that is resilient and alert and conscientious and safer without scaring people. >> cooper: you don't want people to be afraid? >> lanier: no, that works against you. if you educate people on actions they can take to reduce their risk, then you can save some lives. and i think it's... it's irresponsible for us not to do that. i'm not worried about an overreaction. i'm more worried about a numbness to what is potentially a reality. >> cooper: a numbness? >> lanier: yes. >> cooper: how do you mean? >> lanier: just ignoring it and not preparing yourself. that's not an option anymore.
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>> logan: in the aftermath of the attacks in paris, france stepped up its air campaign against the islamic state. but on the ground in iraq, the fight has been left to the kurds, iraqi security forces, and shiite militias backed by iran, some of those same shiite militias that were killing and wounding american soldiers during the iraq war just a few years ago. today, they have a common enemy in the islamic state. it's a difficult and awkward arrangement, and there aren't many americans who are more
familiar with it than major general peter gersten, a combat veteran from the iraq war and now one of the top commanders in this fight. >> peter gersten: we're in the combined joint operations center. >> logan: general gersten took us into the war room in baghdad, where iraqis and americans have been sitting side by side for more than a year. thousands of calls for u.s. and coalition air strikes have come through here. who is bringing the intelligence that feeds these calls? >> gersten: we have our own intelligence. we have national intelligence. everything's fusing in different parts of this building and coming to this strike cell, and that's where it's checked and coordinated and approved. >> logan: on their screens, live feeds from drones that record every minute of the war, and scenes from inside islamic- state-held territory, like this one in a town in western iraq that gersten and the iraqis were watching on september 11th this year. these are isis photographs that general gersten confirmed were
from the same scene. in the town square, 12 islamic state fighters were preparing to execute this man. >> gersten: they brought small children and brought them to the very front of the crowd. and we sat there helplessly. calls are coming for a strike. "we strike now. let's go after these 12 individuals. they're going to assassinate this person in front of these children." but we can't because they're children. and we had to watch that. >> logan: moments later, the execution took place and the victim lay dead, shot by this man, once in the head, then once more in the body. the american drone stayed with the 12 terrorists. >> gersten: we followed them as they got into three vehicles and drove out of town, and then they made a mistake, because they always make mistakes. and they all 12 went into a building on the side of a river. and none of those 12 came out. >> logan: gersten told us this is the air strike that destroyed that building. it's one of more than 5,000
strikes to support the iraqi army and kurdish forces on the ground over the past year. yet the islamic state remains entrenched in its strongholds. fallujah was the first city to fall in january 2014. five months later, mosul, the country's second largest city, fell and the iraqi army collapsed. islamic state terrorists quickly advanced toward the iraqi capital, attempting to encircle baghdad, infiltrating towns and villages right on the outskirts. with the iraqi army largely absent from the fight, it was the shiite militias, backed by shiite iran, iraq's neighbor to the east, that helped push back the sunni militants of the islamic state. one of the shiite militias that led the counter-attack was the badr organization, now officially part of what's known here as the "popular
after months of negotiation, they agreed to take us up to the front, a treacherous journey we could not have made without them. for more than a year, the islamic state held this ground. badr fighters told us they fought hard to win it back. now, through desolate landscape scarred by recent battles, they were taking us toward their frontline just outside fallujah, an impenetrable islamic state base for almost two years. we're going up to the part of the frontline that is closest to fallujah. we're told that this point is only a mile away, and the biggest threat here is from snipers. it was in fallujah in 2004 that 82 americans died, fighting the bloodiest battle of the iraq war. ali abrawi, the local commander here, showed us a tunnel islamic
undetected from american planes. >> there's a daesh i.e.d. right there. >> logan: ...and he showed us unexploded bombs they left behind. this river, he said, is the distance between his fighters and the enemy. this is a lot of spent rounds, huh? look at all this. >> that's about two months. >> logan: this is about two months of shooting? so they used the buildings for cover, and they come and attack in small groups? >> translator: sometimes, they fight from the houses. and sometimes, they use the trees and the bushes for cover. >> logan: the task that lies ahead of trying to liberate fallujah and mosul, the major cities still occupied by the enemy, is daunting. but it remains the eventual goal of their leader, who was among the first to rush into battle against the islamic state, or daesh, as they call it here. >> hadi al-amiri ( translated ): i consider myself a fighter, defending my country against daesh with all that i can.
>> logan: hadi al-amiri is one of the most powerful and feared men in iraq, known for his brutal tactics against iraq's sunni population in the civil war that followed the u.s. invasion. this is him as a young man in footage from iranian tv. he spent much of his life in exile in iran as a commander in the resistance against saddam hussein, and he still has deep ties to the iranian regime. >> amiri: everyone who fights alongside us is a friend. everyone who fights alongside daesh is an enemy. >> logan: so that means america, in this fight, is your friend? >> amiri: no, only if they seriously fight daesh. >> logan: are you saying they're not seriously fighting daesh now? >> amiri: frankly, well below expectations. >> gersten: we have struck thousands and thousands of enemy positions.
we are giving a considerable amount of equipment, effort, money and training to securing the government of iraq. >> logan: the perception among iraqis is that you're in the fight, but you're not really in the fight, not 100%. >> gersten: we have thousands of coalition members here. i have spent 25 years in this region. i would find that hard to believe that we're not interested in the safety and security of the government of iraq. >> logan: it's part of general gersten's job to know where hadi al-amiri's men are on the battlefield. amiri commands the largest shiite force in the country, seen here in images they captured this spring as they helped secure a major victory, winning back saddam hussein's hometown, tikrit, from the islamic state. but they're fighting without
weapons or support from the u.s. amiri's fighters, like these men at a training camp we visited deep in the south of the country, are among more than 100,000 volunteers that make up the popular mobilization forces, men who rushed into the fight in the days after the iraqi army fell apart. now, hardened in battle, they come to camps like this to continue their training in between deployments to the frontline. >> amiri: these young people took their weapons and defended baghdad from being overrun. then, they carried on and returned vast areas of iraq to government control. everyone accepts now that, if it wasn't for them, not only baghdad, but the entirety of iraq would have been overrun by daesh. >> logan: how many men have been
lost so far? >> amiri: a significant number, more than 2,000 martyrs in this war. >> logan: more than 2,000 militia fighters, and thousands more iraqi police and soldiers. the faces of the dead line the streets of the capital, stretching for blocks. it's one of the first things we noticed as we drove around the city. many of these men killed by isis fighters using a weapon so lethal, general gersten told us the americans have given it a name-- "franken-truck." >> gersten: these franken-trucks are something out of a movie, something you see in a science fiction movie. these are vehicles that they've welded metal plates to, loaded them with high explosives, put a suicide bomber inside of them, and set themselves off. that is their precision weapon. >> logan: and they used six to eight of those in one operation.
typically six to eight of those in every operation they do, as high as 15. >> logan: this is what's believed to be a franken-truck racing toward kurdish troops in the battle to retake the town of sinjar last week, before the soldiers managed to hit it just in time. kurdish forces do most of the fighting in the north. and the iraqi army, now reorganized, fights with the shiite militias in the rest of the country. but with raids like this one in northern iraq a few weeks ago, the u.s. is still being drawn deeper into this war. american special operations soldiers helped rescue 70 iraqi hostages, but lost one of their own, the first american to die in combat here since the end of the iraq war. would you like to see america
ground in iraq? no? amiri told us he would not welcome a return to the days when thousands of u.s. troops were deployed here. >> amiri: why do you need to bring american soldiers to die on iraqi ground? we have young iraqi men who are able to defend their country, if they had the equipment. it would be shameful for us. >> logan: on our trip with amiri's men, they delivered food donated by private citizens to shiite forces along the frontline, eager to portray this as an army of all iraq's people. but there are very few sunnis among their ranks, and the shiite militias have been accused of revenge attacks against sunni civilians in areas they've liberated. amiri's own sectarian past was
cable we read to him, including allegations that he may have personally ordered attacks on up to 2,000 sunnis during the civil war that followed the u.s. invasion. "one of his preferred methods of killing allegedly involved using a power drill to pierce the skulls of his adversaries." >> amiri: if you have the slightest evidence of even one attack carried out by us against the sunnis, you can blame me. >> logan: so are you saying there is no evidence, or are you saying it's not true? >> amiri: absolutely. i say it never happened. >> logan: when hadi al-amiri's men are in the fight, u.s. warplanes are not allowed to bomb in support of them. american weapons and air power are reserved for those under the control of the iraqi government. and we were stunned when general gersten told us only a small percentage of the shiite militias fighting the islamic state meet the requirements for
>> gersten: roughly, we're running around 15% to 20% of forces that are aligned to the government of iraq, we've identified those forces. >> logan: only 15% to 20%? >> gersten: only 15% to 20%. the rest are not aligned, officially, to the government of iraq. >> logan: for now, these forces are focused on the islamic state, and we didn't find anyone who thinks isis can be defeated without these militias. but with every piece of ground they help win back, their power and influence grows. isn't there a price you pay for that down the line? >> gersten: those are policy decisions that are above what i'm doing here now, here to destroy daesh. >> logan: you have guys in this fight who were killing and wounding americans in the war that you fought in. does that not trouble you? >> gersten: i'm very concerned. that is something that we work every day. right now, the focus is on destroying daesh. we have a common enemy, a common cancer that we have to go after
affect all the world. with my moderate to severe ulcerative colitis, the possibility of a flare was almost always on my mind. thinking about what to avoid, where to go... and how to deal with my uc. to me, that was normal. until i talked to my doctor. she told me that humira helps people like me get uc under control and keep it under control when certain medications haven't worked well enough. humira can lower your ability to fight infections, including tuberculosis. serious, sometimes fatal infections and cancers, including lymphoma, have happened; as have blood, liver, and nervous system problems, serious allergic reactions, and new or worsening heart failure. before treatment, get tested for tb.
i'm not going to let the republicans rip up obamacare and throw it away. i'm hillary clinton and i approve this message. >> stahl: tech giants like google, facebook, and paypal are all steadily rolling out newfangled services to turn our smart phones into digital wallets, replacing cash and checks. and it's been reported that apple is working on a new payment option to let iphone users send money directly to one another as easily as a text message. if this all seems cutting edge, you may be surprised to learn there's one country that adopted mobile money years ago-- kenya. here in the u.s., we can use smart phones to pay for things,
but you typically need to be linked to a bank account or credit card. in kenya, you don't need a bank account, you don't need a credit history, or very much money, for that matter, making this country in east africa a giant experimental laboratory defining the future of money. at a bus station in nairobi, buses were not only loaded with humans and cargo, but with cash. it used to be the only way for people working in the cities to get money to relatives back in their remote villages. >> bob collymore: you give the cash to the bus driver, and then you say, "when you get up to the village in kakamega, you will see someone at the crossroads. give the money to him." guess what happens. the money evaporates. >> stahl: bob collymore, the c.e.o. of kenya's largest cell phone provider, safaricom, says his company sought to solve the problem. while a majority of kenyans don't have a bank account, eight
phone. so in 2007, safaricom started offering a way to use that cell phone to send and receive cash. they call it m-pesa-- "m" stands for "mobile"; "pesa" is money in swahili. >> collymore: it is
often referred to as kenya's alternative currency, but safer and more secure. >> stahl: you're texting money? >> collymore: you are effectively texting money. >> stahl: how sophisticated is the phone that you use for m-pesa? is it a smart phone? >> collymore: no, it's the cheapest phone you can have. it was designed to work at the lowest level of technology. >> stahl: hello. >> hello. hi. >> stahl: hi. how are you? >> i'm fine. >> stahl: to get this currency, you go to an m-pesa kiosk. i give the agent 3,000 shillings-- about $30 in cash-- and she converts it to virtual currency on my account. this is pretty easy. it's not like opening a bank account.
there are 85,000 agents like her across kenya, creating a giant grid of human a.t.m.s. for most, this is a side business, so a pharmacy will sell m-pesa, or a roadside spice-shop. this barber will give you a shave and m-pesa. and, yes, you can even buy m-pesa here. >> collymore: this is bankless banking. >> stahl: you don't need all those branches. >> collymore: you don't need the branches. >> stahl: you don't need the a.t.m. windows. >> collymore: absolutely not. >> stahl: scrolling down the options on the phone menu, you can send money, withdraw cash, pay a bill, or buy goods and services. and everyone uses a pin number for security. but this is not like paying with your smart phone in the u.s., because our devices are linked to a bank account or credit card. most kenyans who use m-pesa don't have a bank account; the phone is it. that's it? >> collymore: now you can spend that 3,000 shillings on anything! >> daniel: i'm daniel. welcome in.
of journalism- i like this. can i pay you in m-pesa? >> daniel: yeah. yeah. if you have it on the phone, just click the button and it goes. >> stahl: daniel says kenyans use it for everything from taxis to taxes. is it safer for you and for me to use m-pesa? >> daniel: yeah, it's very safe. >> stahl: so do you use m-pesa to buy gas for the car? >> daniel: absolutely. >> stahl: do you pay all your bills with m-pesa? >> daniel: most of my bills. in fact, i rarely go to the bank nowadays. >> stahl: at my destination, i tried using the phone money. so, daniel, i've never done this before. you're my very first m-pesa... >> daniel: m-pesa customer. >> stahl: yeah. >> daniel: okay. i'll assist where necessary. >> stahl: i typed in his mobile phone number, and the amount. the fare was 700 shillings, or $7. i'm going to give you a 1,000. >> daniel: oh, you're tipping with it. thank you. god bless you, god bless you. >> stahl: i am, i am. now, my pin number. >> daniel: your pin number, yeah, yeah. you have that? >> stahl: i have that. i have.
>> daniel: don't tell me that. >> stahl: no, i'm not going to tell you. >> daniel: that is for your... top secret. >> stahl: okay, so what do i do now? >> daniel: yeah. now, accept. >> stahl: accept. okay. >> daniel: yeah, it just come. >> stahl: it worked! and now, i'm going to go spend some more money. >> hello. >> stahl: hello. >> how are you? >> stahl: i'm great. i love these bags. how much is this one? next, i buy a bag at anji's curio shop with m-pesa. do you use it a lot in the store? >> yeah. it's like having bank in your pocket. >> stahl: this is really easy. now, that... that's the second time i've done it. i've sent it. ( phone pings ) >> so wonderful! >> stahl: my shopping ended with animals. no, i'm not buying a giraffe. but you can use your phone to feed one. am i giving you your dinner? while most transactions here are still in cash, m-pesa is used by over 19 million kenyans, or 90% of the adults, from the well- heeled to the shoe shiner.
this technology was actually invented in england, but it is here in kenya where innovation using m-pesa is taking off. we visited the i-hub in nairobi, where local technology startups are inventing new ways to use mobile money. >> collymore: and that mobile money system now acts as a terrific platform which a lot of other innovations has... has used as a springboard. and the new phrase around town is the "silicon savannah." >> stahl: the silicon savannah? >> collymore: yeah, you have the silicon valley, and here it's the silicon savannah. >> stahl: today with m-pesa, kenyans can get their salaries sent directly to their cell phones, and they can open a savings account and earn interest on their cell phones. you're going to push m-pesa. we met mary tonkei, a maasai dairy farmer, who sells milk in m-pesa, pays her farmhands in m- pesa, and even got a loan to buy more cows in m-pesa. and just a couple of buttons and
then you buy a new cow? >> mary: yes. >> stahl: actually, mary was able to buy two new cows, and she got a much better rate than she would've at a bank. since the loan transaction was by phone, there was hardly any overhead. so it sounds like you're rapidly increasing your business. >> mary: yes, i'm increasing my business. >> stahl: business is good? >> mary: yes, it's good. ( laughs ) >> stahl: we were surprised at how much m-pesa has changed life for the poor. in a slum called kanaani, south of nairobi, we met a pig farmer, stephen wainaina waweru. before m-pesa, like most kenyans, he had no electricity. he used to rely on a kerosene lamp for light. >> stephen wainaina waweru: it gives smokes here. >> stahl: it emitted toxic fumes, could cause fires, and at $200 a year, kerosene wasn't cheap. but stephen recently upgraded. he got solar power, and his first light bulb. pretty good.
it's lighting your room. >> waweru: yes. it lights the room all over. >> stahl: a company called m- kopa solar invented a way to provide inexpensive power to the slums using m-pesa. so where is the panel? is it up here? >> waweru: yeah, the panel is up there. >> stahl: can you show it to me? >> waweru: yeah, i can. see, up. let me show you. here it is! >> stahl: oh, my goodness, it's little. the unit costs about $180- less than kerosene, but still out of stephen's price range for a single purchase. but he paid only $35 up front and then 40 cents a day in m-pesa for a year. and he never has to leave the farm-- all he does is click his phone, which activates a chip attached to the panel to turn it on. >> stahl: when you're finished paying it off... >> waweru: it shall be mine. no more cost. >> stahl: the solar panel has changed his life-- he can tend
to his pigs at night, and his children can study indoors without breathing toxic kerosene fumes. past efforts to introduce solar panels to the slums failed, in part, because they were stolen. this has been solved because the same chip that turns the panel on can also disable it. so if you don't pay up, they turn your lights off? they have the ability to turn... >> waweru: these guys, they are excellent, madame. because once i don't pay, they don't have to come to me. the light just goes off! >> stahl: providing drinking water is another way m-pesa is making a difference. nearly a third of kenyans do not have access to clean water, often relying on a river or water trucked in by donkey. but the village of njogu-ini got a new pump for its well. villagers pay for clean water by texting m-pesa to this meter
a villager can get a full month's worth of water for around $6. for decades, development advocates implored banks to open branches in remote places, but it made little business sense. nearly half of kenyans live on just $2 a day or less. their financial transactions were just too small. >> collymore: people don't buy a packet of cigarettes. they'll buy a cigarette. and so we need to be operating at that level. people don't buy a tube of toothpaste. if you go into the slums, you will see people buy a squeeze of toothpaste. and so you have to operate at that micro level. >> stahl: now, how can that be viable for you as a company? it's like they have no money. >> collymore: because we believe that if we have now 19 million people transacting small amounts, making small amounts, it will add up. for each transaction, there is a small fee. >> stahl: how much money annually does safaricom make from m-pesa in kenya? >> collymore: a quarter of a
billion dollars. >> stahl: a quarter of a billion dollars? >> collymore: yeah. you don't have to be greedy to be successful. >> stahl: and you can be successful if you don't have to build thousands of branches and pay thousands of tellers. actually, when m-pesa started, kenya's commercial banks implored the government to impose regulations to impede its development, but the government decided to take a hands-off approach, which is pretty unusual. >> collymore: the most effective barrier for the success of mobile money around the world is the banking lobby. the banking lobby in most parts of the world is a very strong lobby. and banks have looked at what's happened in kenya, and have decided that they don't want to see that happening in their own countries. >> stahl: "not in my backyard." >> collymore: exactly. the banking regulators have been persuaded that this is a threat to the banking industry. >> stahl: and it is, isn't it? >> collymore: well, you know, it's... we live in a disruptive world. uber came along and completely
disrupted a number of things, not just the taxi industry. airbnb has come along and has disrupted. and so we are in a disruptive world. and we just need to... >> stahl: this is another one like that. >> collymore: yes, it is. >> stahl: it is. >> collymore: it is. >> stahl: and so the banking industry isn't crazy. >> collymore: no. no. >> stahl: m-pesa does have drawbacks. there are real concerns of criminal enterprises, scams, and money laundering. and while it has been introduced in other countries, like india, egypt, afghanistan and romania, it has stubbornly refused to catch on as it has in kenya. but the head of safaricom thinks it's just a matter of time. >> collymore: because mobile phones are becoming so much more ubiquitous. every adult in the world will have a mobile phone. and if you have that tool in your hands, imagine the things you can do. >> stahl: we found among the kenyans we met that m-pesa is igniting a real sense of patriotism. just ask my cab driver, daniel. >> daniel: it is one of the best things that has happened to our
country. but that makes you feel proud! and now, you feel you are kenyan! >> stahl: yeah, you think of kenya, you don't think of high- tech. >> daniel: "innovation," you know? >> stahl: yeah. >> daniel: that tells you, now in the new world order, anything is possible. >> this cbs sports update is brought to you by ford. i'm james brown with scores from the nfl today. denver's quarterback wins his first career start. andy vinatieri's game-winning kick keeps indy atop the a.f.c. south. cam newton has five touchdown passes. jameis winston's five t.d. passes ties a rookie record. baltimore wins but loses joe flacco to a season-ending injury. for more sports news and information, go to cbssports.com. presentations,
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