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tv   Journal  PBS  April 20, 2015 6:00pm-6:31pm PDT

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brent: live from the dw studios in berlin, this is your world news. i'm brent goff. matt: i matt hermann -- i'm matt hermann. 700 migrants feared dead. europe is holding an emergency meeting on the crisis. brent: germany's parliament poster called in 1915 massacre of more than a million armenians genocide instant with the pope -- in step with the pope. matt: the fbi admits it gave flawed testimony that might have put innocent people on death row. brent: the calls for help from
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the middle of the mediterranean continue this monday. rescuers are scrambling to reach two boats in distress. matt: it's a massive search effort already underway. more than 700 people may have drowned when a migrant boat capsized. brent: european ministers are holding an emergency meeting. pressure is growing on the eu to stop the wave of desperation and death to the south. matt: we begin our coverage on the water off the coast of greece. about with nearly 100 migrants aboard smashed against the rocks -- a boat with nearly 100 migrants aboard smashed against the rocks. three died. the boat came from the direction of turkey. most aboard were syrians. the identity of the trackers -- traffickers is unknown. >> the captain left us with the boat and ran away and left us alone. >> he ran away with another
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boat? >> i think so. he had this small rubber boat. the guardian and r -- he got in and ran. matt: it is the latest in a string of migrant disasters in the mediterranean. sunday, a vessel capsized off the coast of libya. between 700 and 900 people probably drowned. only this handful survived. >> the search continues as i speak. we have the armed forces of malta working -- with aircraft dispatched earlier. matt: the boat embarq from near the libyan capital, tripoli. one survivor said it was overcrowded. disaster struck 200 i'll -- miles off the italian coast of lampedusa. the boat capsized. >> 1000 week have died -- over
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the past week, 1000 people have died in the mediterranean, 30 times people more than perished in the costa concordia. matt: survivors are being taken to sicily, one of the main once of entry for african refugees -- main points of entry for african refugees. the european union is now under pressure to act. the call for europe to do more to save lives of migrants at sea is growing louder. brent: we will get the latest from luxembourg, where eu four and interior ministers are holding crisis talks -- where eu foreign and interior ministers are holding crisis talks. in luxembourg -- reporter: in luxembourg, a moment of silence for the latest victims. >> today, i think we gave a strong reaction from the european union side.
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today, we have a new european level of awareness that this is a european issue not of single member states. reporter: at the center of the criticism is europe's triton program, which has patrolled the border of to 55 kilometers off the italian coast. it focuses more on border security than on rescue missions , but that could soon change. the eu is considering doubling funding for the tri-town -- triton sea patrol. >> the people in these situations often attempt the trip in boats or ships that are unfit to across the mediterranean. with that in mind, we must urgently improve our ability to rescue them. reporter: the eu also plans to take action against the criminal traffickers who smuggle the migrants across the mediterranean. leaders have been summoned from -- for an emergency summit later this week.
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brent: now to our correspondent who is following developments at that summit in luxembourg. good evening to you. what has come out of the meeting so far today? reporter: the eu is finally moving. triton will be turned into the european search and rescue mission. more boats, more money, and a new mandate being talked about. help shall be given t italy and greece. particularly help with processing the refugees that arrive. the problem that many european interior ministers have here is that people just sort of float away from italy, they make their way to the north in an illegal manner. nobody knows where they are and who they are. they want to change that. plus there will be a step in the way of the redistribution of
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recognized war refugees, people who have to be protected in the european union. they will be distributed according to an allocation key. brent: more equality there. what you are talking about is improving what already exists. a lot of the criticism at this meeting has been of things outside of europe, for example, the crisis in libya or the problem with human traffickers in africa. these are things that europe really cannot change. is there a sense of almost helplessness? reporter: of course there is because there are some problems that are simply intractable for the european union. the foreign ministers can call for the stabilization of libya as often as they want. it will not change anything on the ground. libya will remain in chaos. everybody knows that, really. there is a certain amount of anti-rhetoric -- of empty rhetoric. concerning the people smugglers
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they are now trying to take the fight to them. the german ministers talked about, we need to destroy their boats. they are considering a military elements to add to the search and rescue missions, so that they can have guns on board or on another ship and somehow get people to give their boats away and sink them or destroy them right there where they are. brent: barbara is on the story for us in luxembourg at that summit. thank you very much. we will call it genocide. matt: germany is set to join a growing list of nations and institutions who say the massacre of 1.5 million armenians by ottoman turkish workers -- forces a century ago was indeed genocide. brent: the pope recently added his voice. turkey continues to reject it. reporter: 100 years ago, an estimated 1.5 million armenians were killed throughout the ottoman empire as world war i took its toll.
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turkey objects to the term "genocide" and successive german governments have sought to avoid a row. but from now on, the killings will be referred to as "genocide." the german parliament has passed a resolution to this effect. >> the fate of the armenians during world war i is a primary example in history of mass murder ethnic lensing, and the genocides of the 21st century -- ethnic cleansing, and tha genoci -- and the genocides of the 21st century. reporter: the move came just a day after walt -- frank-walter steinmeier cautioned against it. this step is supported by germany's protestant church. >> i think this is about acknowledging what actually happened. by using the term that truly expresses what happened there, we are showing respect for the victims. reporter: on thursday in the
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berlin cathedral president joachim gauck is expected to refer to the massacres as "genocide" or the first time. -- "genocide" for the first time. brent: our correspondent is in berlin. why this change, and why now? michaela: i can't give you a definitive answer, but i can tell you what we believe, from what we are hearing people say who are much closer to the process, what the reasons might have been. it most likely was that joke and out -- joachim gauck will use the word "genocide" on thursday. there had been a lot of discussion on this resolution that is due to be passed this coming friday. now it will contain the word "genocide," which is a very long time in the making. 10 years ago, when those parties now so pushing for the word
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"genocide" to be included, the social democrats and the green party were in government together. they only mentioned that word in a footnote, saying that many historians agree that it was genocide. now it took 10 more years for it to be actually spelled out as such here in germany. brent: is anyone there in politics talking about what this could do to germany's relationship with turkey? michaela: no doubt, this is something that will not go down well in ankara. this is due to the fact that the ottoman empire is still seen as something very positive. also, the word "genocide," which has been used by the multis prime minister -- the maltese prime minister in relation to those deaths of hundreds of migrants in the mediterranean, that implies intent. that implies wanting to kill a group of people, and ethnic group or religious group -- an
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ethnic group or religious group for who they are. it is a very strong violation of international law. brent: no one is saying germany is leading the way with this decision. france has done this. the european parliament, the pope. michaela: absolutely. germany was not leading the way on this. more than two dozen countries who came first. this can be criticized, but, of course, there is a large turkish community here in germany, so it seems that berlin took care not to offend them and not to offend that important partner in turkey as well. brent: it is easy to see how sensitivities can change, even if it does take a decade. michaela, thank you very much. michaela: you're welcome. brent: the number of environmental activists killed
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for taking a stand is on the rise worldwide according to a new report by global witness. matt: that group says 116 green activists were killed in 2014. that comes during the awarding of the goldman environmental prize, which honors wrasse roots activists -- honors grassroots activists. brent: our next report looks at the struggle felt by two of them. reporter: berta caceres faces constant death threats. she and her family are members of the indigenous lenca community in honduras. they live along a river which is sacred to their people. in 2006, work began here to build a hydroelectric dam. it would have cut off the water supply to the lenca community and the land they live off. caceres organized peaceful protests. security forces turned out in force. the dam had wealthy
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international investors and the government was determined to push ahead. the protesters refused to be intimidated. they set up roadblocks to stop the work proceeding. some were detained and tortured. finally, one community leader was shot and killed. only then did some of the international funders pull out signaling the end of the dam. a victory for berta caceres, but one that came at a high price. she is one of today's recipients for the goldman prize. another is phyllis omido halfway around the world in kenya. when her son was just a baby she discovered that her own breast milk was making him sick. the reason -- lead poisoning. it came from a local smelter where she worked. phyllis soon realized that many other people in the mombasa shantytown where she lived were also affected. the factory was illegally pumping contaminated water into the river, which locals depend
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on for their daily needs. children were getting ill. women were suffering miscarriages from stillbirths. she set up an action group and persuaded local government doctors to run tests. one child was shown to have 20 times the normal amount of lead in his blood. thanks to phyllis omido's lobbying, the smelter was eventually shut down. brent: good for her. we want to take a short break now. when we come back, pakistan scores a mammoth foreign investment program from china. matt: and the fbi admits it made errors -- errors that may have sent many people to their death by execution. hundreds of convicts now doing time can hope to have their cases reopened. brent: we will be right back in one minute. stay with us.
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matt: welcome back. we start with innocence behind bars. brent: the fbi has admitted it made what it calls errors in forensic analysis that helped secure criminal convictions in death penalty cases. matt: this issue came to light after "the washington post" reported that fbi examiners used forensic evidence that was wrong and favored prosecutors. reporter: cleveland writes -- cleveland spent more than half his life in prison for a crime he did not commit. at age 20, a jury found him guilty of murder, based primarily on here samples. dna tests -- on hair samples. dna tests have proven the samples were flawed. >> i did not know much. i knew i was innocent. reporter: this case is not an
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isolated occurrence. the american association of criminal defense lawyers has been arguing for decades that hair analysis was an unreliable technique. it has identified 268 cases from the 1970's to 1999 where fbi hair analysis led to convictions. in 256 of those cases re-examination revealed false findings and an error rate of 96%. the two were sentenced to death, 12 executed, and two more died behind bars. >> the fbi and doj has to redouble their efforts to get the transcripts of the hundreds and hundreds of cases of people where fbi agents gave exaggerated testimony. reporter: u.s. justice department has issued a statement vowing to ensure that affected defendants are notified of past errors and that justice is done in every instance. hundreds of convicts can now hope to prove their innocence. matt: let's stay with this troubling story and explore some of the issues that surround it.
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let's turn to our washington correspondent, richard walker. richard, we hear these prisoners who were specifically affected by these false positives are going to be informed. how many of them are there, and how are they going to react? richard: there could be a huge number. we are hearing the fbi has identified at least 2500 cases that it thinks merit some form of review. the few hundred we have just heard about, which have already been subjected to review, that is just the start. it should be pointed out that, in many of these cases, there may have been other evidence that was used for a conviction. but many defendants, many other lawyers will be looking at this as more than enough grounds to go to appeal, especially in cases where there evidence was crucial -- where hair evidence was crucial to conviction. we can expect to see a wave of appeals over the next few years. it is too late for those people who have already been executed. matt: i don't think i need to
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remind anyone who has been watching the news with any degree of frequency this year that u.s. justice system and law enforcement have not had a very good time. where does this story fit into that narrative? richard: well, obviously, the issue over the past year has been mainly looking at relations between the police and the african-american community. this, of course, throws the focus onto the fbi, an institution with even more trust riding on it, an institution that is called in to conduct civil rights investigations in places like ferguson, where there are question marks about the independence of local authorities. apart from any institutional focus, this will throw into question what is an article of faith in the public mind, that is that science and technology are the ultimate ways to solve crimes. it's an idea that has been fueled by hundreds and hundreds of episodes of the hit show, "crime scene investigation," over 15 seasons, going back to
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the year 2000. and the knowledge now that, not just a few of these cases but 96 percent of these cases -- 96 % of these cases involve questionable use of hair analysis will blow that faith out of the water. the fbi and white house insist they are using better technology now, but the big question will be have a placed too much faith intechnology -- have they placed too much faith in technology. matt: thanks for joining us. china is set to invest over 40 billion euros in pakistan. most of it will go to energy and infrastructure. brent: after china's domestic growth shrank to just 7% last year, it seems beijing is looking abroad for investments. this is meant to increase china's trade across asia. -- asia, while countering u.s. and indian influence. reporter: as the chinese
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president's plane touched down in islamabad, pakistan is ready to rewrite history. the country issued a warm welcome to president xi jinping. his visit marks the start of a major investment. china will invest more than 40 billion euros to build a network of rails pipelines and roads. construction has already begun. called "the economic corridor," it will stretch from pakistan to china. that fulfills important strategic goals for china. it offers easier access to the indian ocean and additional markets. pakistan's president and prime minister are not interested in talking china's plans to expand its power. after all, pakistan's developing economy could get a huge boost from the deal. >> we welcome the chinese
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president. we have good relations with china. our politicians have maintained this relationship. america is not our sincere friend. china is a good friend. reporter: and it is a friend with big plans. pakistan is just the beginning. china wants to expand its economic court or westward, but it's not -- it's economic corridor -- expand its economic corridor westward, but it is not where it would end. >> it will help them complement each other and communicate with each other about economic development strategies and form a community with shared interests and common destiny. reporter: beijing aims to become the leader of this community and to cement its status as asia's economic superpower. brent: i want to pull in our correspondent, joining us from islamabad.
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talk to us a little bit about how significant this is for pakistan. we know it is a big deal for china and chinese business. what about for pakistan? reporter: yes well, it has been a day of pop and ceremony -- pom p and ceremony here. it is the first president -- first visit of a chinese president to pakistan in years. no expense was spared to give him a state welcome. experts say that this has taken the friendship to a whole new level of major economic cooperation and partnership. just today, 51 agreements signed and over 30 concerned this ambitious china-pakistan economic corridor. it is a multibillion-dollar investment. this eclipses u.s. spending in pakistan.
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no was sharif -- nawaz sharif said this was a watershed moment for pakistan. for china, it enables the country to create a shorter and cheaper route to increase china's strategic role in the region. brent: we know that this is a major event for pakistan. you can't help but wonder, what's in it really for china? it knows that pakistan has so many problems, the islamist insurgency terrorism. why would china invest so much in a place that has so much instability? reporter: well, that's the major question a lot of people are asking. security concerns were not ignored. china promised to help pakistan strengthen its ability to fight terrorism. economic worries -- cooperation with security must go
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hand-in-hand and reinforce each other. now it is up to pakistan to convince the chinese has a handle and can guarantee safety of chinese workers who will be sent here. the promise of such a huge injection of cash may just focus the mind of the government to work a little bit harder, stabilize the country and secure long-term investment. brent: all right. thank you very much. talks between greece and its international creditors lumber on with no resolution inside. both sides want to reach agreement before -- no resolution in sight. both sides want to reach agreement before friday. matt: that hasn't happened. reporter: patients who come here without health insurance are not turned away. the athens clinic has over 200 doctors and other medical personnel.
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over the past four years more than 30,000 people have been treated here. volunteers sort the medical supplies. the clinic is financed solely by donations. no one receives a salary. this woman has been working here for years. like many, she is furious at the cutbacks the country has been forced to make, but her country -- her angry is directed at the eu rather than athens. >> what do they want? o salariesur -- our salaries and pensions were cut by 30%, 40% 50%. what do they want us to do, to make us all beggars, going out into the streets? reporter: much like these athens -- greece has all but come to a standstill. >> i feel frustrated. we greeks feel very alone. we face endless cuts and have to pay more and more taxes. there's a saying in greece, "wet
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people aren't afraid of rain." we are pretty wet right now. reporter: brees's creditors are standing firm on the need for further reforms -- greece's creditors are standing firm on the need for further reforms. matt: it was great having you along. brent: see you at the top of the hour. [captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit]
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@ damien: hello it a very warm welcome to "focus on europe." great you could join us. we've got a fantastic program
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lined up or you today. why kosovan women are not getting what is theirs. why norwegians are uncovering the scars of nazi history. why an austrian hotel is giving refugees not a room but a job. the small balkan state of kosovo was one of europe's poorest countries, yet it is also one of the most corrupt. a big problem facing women in particular in rural kosovo was that their legal right to inherit property


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