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tv   Newsline  PBS  October 16, 2015 7:00pm-7:31pm PDT

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thanks for joining us on nhk "newsline." i'm ross mihara in tokyo. leaders from the european union have agreed on measures they hope will curb the influx of refugees and migrants from the middle east and africa. they include tightening border controls and speeding up talks with turkey on cooperation. the leaders agreed to enhance the activities of the eu body in charge of border controls with non-eu nations. they confirm they will step up screenings in italy and greece and immediately deport economic migrants. the two countries are key entryways into europe. the eu leaders also agreed to accelerate talks with turkey on how to work together on border patrols.
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many people traveled through the country to reach europe. but turkey is reportedly seeking financial remuneration in return. european council president donald tusk says a deal with ankara depends on what it does next. >> they made clear from the very start an agreement with turkey makes sense only if it effectively contains the flow of refugees. >> the leaders believe the tide of refugees and migrants will continue to rise as the security situation in the middle east grows more unstable. a warning shot by a bulgarian border guard meant to subdue migrants turned deadly. the bullet ricocheted and killed an asylum seeker. the fatality is said to be the first of its kind in the refugee crisis. the guards came upon a group of about 50 people on thursday night. they had crossed into bulgaria from turkey and were in the southeastern town of sredets.
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it's believed they came from afghanistan. guards tried to detain them but some resisted. a warning shot hit one man. he died while being taken to a hospital. bulgarian authorities are investigating the incident. more and more migrants and refugees are dying while trying to reach europe via the mediterranean sea. international organizations say thousands have lost their lives this year. >> so far this year, mediterranean deaths as a whole stand at some 3,100. >> staff from the office of the u.n. high commissioner for refugees and the international organization for migration outlined the situation. they said many of those who died had been on boats that capsized. they said the number of deaths is about the same as it was this time last year and could rise in winter weather. the international organization for migration said more than 600,000 refugees and migrants
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have entered europe this year. that's nearly three times the number for the whole of last year. around 470,000 have arrived this year in greece. with winter approaching, the situation facing refugees and migrants in europe is growing increasingly grim. officials in european countries admit they are struggling to cope with the influx. nhk world's kazuto sassa has this report. >> reporter: the refugees arriving on europe's shores come from africa and the middle east, including syria. they are putting their lives at risk to reach a safe haven. most often their chief destination is germany, which is one of the countries that is most generous to refugees. up to 8,000 refugees enter austria every day. with the goal of getting into germany and other eu countries.
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one of the main departure points is from the central train station in the capital vienna. many of the migrants come from warmer climates and are finding it difficult coping with the increasingly cold weather. they are doing their best to try and keep warm. by mid-october, it's not unusual for the temperature to drop below 10 degrees celsius. the biting cold plagues the refugees who are all exhausted from their long journey. in the station, groups of volunteers are providing support. they are offering the refugees hot drinks and winter clothing donated by local citizens. >> it is really cold. we came here for warm clothes. otherwise, it's going to be really cold. >> everybody feeling cold and
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they come here, especially i have now -- >> more and more people coming here, but they are already sick. the problem is that they are -- they don't have good clothes, and they are sleeping in the cold in tents. >> reporter: there is a backlog of refugees waiting on the austrian border to enter germany. but because of the screening process, only a few dozen people are allowed to pass through each hour. in the meantime, the refugees are being housed in tents while austrian officials try to cope with the situation. but the officials admit they are overwhelmed and that the situation may persist for the time being. >> translator: since more and more refugees are arriving here,
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we are having problems with supplying sufficient food and clothing to them. >> reporter: there seems to be no end to the refugee crisis in europe. with winter right around the corner, the situation is becoming increasingly difficult, not only for migrants but also for the people who are trying to help them. kazuto sassa, nhk world, vienna. president barack obama's decision to slow the pace of withdrawal of u.s. troops from afghanistan appears to show the scale of the security threat still posed by the taliban. patchari raksawong in bangkok has been following the story. >> president obama said on thursday that afghan forces are not as strong as they need to be. he said u.s. troops would remain at the current level of 9,800 and that 5,500 would stay beyond 2016. but few afghans believe those numbers will be enough to
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counter the increasingly confident taliban. nhk world's nazar ul islam reports. >> reporter: people in the afghan capital, kabul, had mixed reactions to obama's announcement. some welcomed the move. others said u.s. forces should leave as planned. >> translator: if u.s. troops work really hard for afghans and serve our nation, they will be able to defeat the terrorists. so i'm happy they will remain longer. >> translator: we don't need u.s. troops in afghanistan. we afghans can defend our own country ourselves. >> reporter: taliban fighters last month launched a major offensive and seized the strategic northern city of kunduz. it was the taliban's first capture of a major afghan city since it was toppled from power in 2001. backed by u.s. air strikes, the afghan government regained
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control, but the strength of the taliban was already clear. shortly after the fall of kunduz, afghanistan's chief executive abdullah abdullah called on washington to review the timeline of its troops withdrawal. abdullah established a unit i government with ashr ashraf ghani last year. >> the fears of the officers on the ground, in afghanistan, as well as our own security leadership. security and military leadership is that maintaining a level of force beyond 2016 is necessary. >> reporter: president rouhani welcomed the u.s. decision, saying it sent a message to the taliban and terrorist groups that they would be defeated. after the collapse of the
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taliban regime in 2001, the militants retreated to the mountainous region near the border with pakistan and regrouped. meanwhile, the afghan people grew frustrated with the government of former president hamid karzai amid corruption and slow economic development. most afghan troops are poorly trained and have low morale. they are powerless to maintain security across the whole country. the taliban has taken advantage of the weaknesses of the government and the military, conducting terrorist attacks and suicide bombings. it has been on the offense in the north beyond its power bases in the south and east. the fall of kunduz exposed how the afghan military still needs u.s. support. but some experts stress obama's review of the u.s. exit strategy is not enough to turn around the situation.
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nazar ul islam, nhk world, islamabad. ten years ago a powerful earthquake in northern pakistan killed more than 70,000 people. many others were left seriously injured and sometimes physically disabled. women who are disabled face deep-rooted social prejudices in pakistan. nhk world's fumio sugaya reports on a project giving female quake survivors both work and hope. >> reporter: a fashion show took place in pakistan's capital islamabad. all eyes were on the models' multicolored accessory beads made of an ordinary material, paper. >> thank you very much and enjoy the rest of the evening. >> reporter: elli takagaki from japan was the organizer. working around the world in the field of international development, five years ago she
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arrived in pakistan. she soon became painfully aware of the low social status given to women. after the 2005 earthquake, injured women unable to work were often seen as burdens and abandoned by their families. a decade on, many of them are still living in shelters. >> translator: the earthquake changed my life completely. many people told me it would have been better if i died. >> reporter: takagaki met a woman whose lower body was paralyzed. she was deeply moved by the woman's courage. >> translator: she told me she wanted to use her hands to do something. i looked around and came up with the idea of making paper beads. >> reporter: takagaki set up a
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group called the paper miracles two years ago and started making paper beads with women disabled by the earthquake. operating with limited funds, they recycle waste paper like old calendars and leaflets. they shred them into long strips, paying close attention to the colors. rolling the strips into beads requires nimble fingers and keen concentration. the circular patterns create a distinctive charm not found in natural stones. the group has responded to about 200 members, including women from poor families. they receive about two or three cents per bead earning up to $110 a month. about half the starting wage of
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a pakistani civil servant. shaheen abdul razzaq was 16 when the quake hit, trapping her under a collapsed building. her lower body was paralyzed. after years feeling life was meaningless, finally she says she can be useful to society. >> translator: people are happy buying my accessories. and seeing these people makes me happy, too. it also gives me confidence that i can do something. >> reporter: the bead-making project continues to give marginalized pakistani women confidence and opportunity. fumio sugaya, nhk world, islamabad. >> that wraps up our bulletin. i'm patchari raksawong in bangkok. u.s. president barack obama has repeatedly raised his concern over the situation in the south china sea in recent
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months. china has been building military capable facilities on some of the artificial islands they created in the area. nhk world's alex wortman tells us how experts in the u.s. view the security risks in the region. >> reporter: the spratly islands in the south china sea have recently made headlines in the u.s. new satellite imagery from the center for strategic and international studies indicates that china has been reclaiming and building upon artificial islands in the area. gregory poling of csis says the chinese have completed construction of a landing strip of three kilometers in length on fiery cross reef and are building two more on mischief and suve reef. >> having three of these with airstrips that can accommodate anything in the chinese arsenal and presumably with greater military construction in the
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future, they would not be without risk to u.s. and allied operations. >> reporter: in a recent parade, china clearly demonstrated the rapid modernization of its military capability. the country prominently displayed its latest weaponry, including the anti-ship ballistic missiles or carrier killers for the first time. andrew erickson of the u.s. naval war college says china's new weapons systems are designed to increase the cost to the u.s. military in case of a conflict. >> china is trying to develop some deterrent and push away or keep out capabilities. we call this in the u.s. military anti-access area denial. >> reporter: erickson further explains that with the massive construction projects, china intends to solidify its control over the south china sea.
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>> one of the oldest examples we can think of is the great wall. this appears to be perhaps the third major instance in history of trying to fundamentally alter its strategic geography. >> reporter: how should the u.s. respond to china's strategy? international law dictates islands are entitled to 12 nautical miles of territorial water, but that same standard does not apply to artificial islands. china argues these islands are legitimate. at a u.s. senate hearing, some lawmakers insisted that the u.s. navy should sail within 12 nautical miles to show that the u.s. doesn't recognize the chinese claims. but the obama administration has been cautious. the president so far has only
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called on china to respect the rule of law. >> we have an interest in upholding the basic principles of freedom of navigation and the free flow of commerce and in resolving disputes through international law, not the law of force. so we will defend these principles while encouraging china and other claimants to resolve their differences peacefully. >> reporter: the south china sea continues to be one of the key areas of tension in the asia-pacific region and will likely remain a strategic challenge for the u.s. alex wortman, nhk world, washington. another reactor at a nuclear power plant in southwestern japan is back online. it is the second restart under new regulations adopted after
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the 2011 fukushima accident. the operators are preparing to restart three more reactors, but many nearby residents say they want a thorough explanation. nhk world's tomoko kamata explains. >> reporter: the number two reactor at the sendai nuclear power plant went back online thursday. the number one reactor at the plant was restarted in august. until then, all of japan's nuclear reactors had been offline since december 2013. two reactors at the takahama plant and one at the ikata plant have been found to be in compliance with the new regulations. the operators of takahama plant want to go back online by
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january, but a court decision is blocking the way. the ikata plant is undergoing checks by regulators. another 20 reactors have applied for regulatory approval. government officials say restarting japan's nuclear plants will ensure a stable power supply and lower greenhouse gas emissions. and plant operators say the cost of fuel of thermal plants is extremely burdensome. this man lives in the town of takahama and believes restarting the reactors is necessary but is unhappy with how the local government is handling the issue. he said town officials broadcast information about safety measures on television six times a day, but there were no face-to-face meetings with residents.
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matsumiya responded to a questionnaire and asked how radioactive water will be kept from seeping out. he received a reply saying the government is working on it. >> translator: officials don't understand how we feel when we ask such questions. i'm disappointed that this is how they respond to residents. >> reporter: some other residents pointed out problems with the town's evacuation plans. most are expected to use a coastal road. but town officials predict the route would be inundated if a tsunami hit the area. experts also suggest that many evacuees would e up gettg stuck in traffic. >> translator: the cabet office is currently doing its best to support and coordinate with local officials to respond appropriately should an emergency occur. >> reporter: an nhk survey conducted last weekend asked
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people how they feel about restarting the reactors. 18% of respondents said they support bringing the plants back online, while 43% are opposed. experts say the government must demonstrate how it plans to protect public safety if it wants to gain public support. tomoko kamata, nhk world. chinese medical researcher tu youyou won this year's nobel prize in physiology or medicine for developing an anti-malarial drug based on an ancient remedy. she's the first chinese nobel laureate in the field of natural science. the countria aiming to promote its medical tourism industry
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and her win could prove to be a big help. more from nhk world's naoki makita. >> reporter: a group of tourists is visiting a botanical garden on the outskirts of beijing. they are here to learn about plants used in chinese medicine. the garden cultivates more than 2,000 varieties of medicinal herbs and plants. >> translator: this herb, called sanchi, grows near river banks or along shorelines. it contains a lot of calcium. >> reporter: four years ago, the city of beijing began to identify institutions dealing with traditional medicine. there are currently more than 20 such places in the city. this garden alone gets about 50,000 visitors a year. >> translator: i think it's a good idea to promote these
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places as tourist sites. people here are proud of our traditional medicine. >> reporter: the facility has a restaurant that features dishes made of medicinal herbs. the herbs and vegetables are freshly picked from the garden. this is deep-fried aloe vera, a plant often used in health and beauty products. and this is one of the restaurant's signature dishes. it contains a plant that promotes detoxification. >> translator: everything is very mild, but i can taste the distinct flavors of every plant or vegetable because there are no other heavy seasonings. >> reporter: to create these nus, chefs at the restaurant get advice from experts on the medicinal effects of various
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herbs. >> translator: this weed helps digestion in the summer, and it can prevent colds in the autumn. >> reporter: as living standards improve in china, people are paying increasing attention to their overall health and to medicinal cooking. >> translator: i hope many more people w traditional medicine by eating our medicinal cuisine. i want them to see how this kind of food therapy can be used to treat ailments like headaches and fevers. >> reporter: to boost tourism, the city government is adding hospitals to its list of visitor interactions. this hospital was opened in 2013 as a one-stop health care center, specializing in traditional treatments such as
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herbal medicines, massage and acupuncture. it welcomes tourists from overseas and has already treated about 600 travelers so far this year. officials believe that combining western and chinese methods is an important step in popularizing china's traditional medicine around the world. >> translator: in chinese medicine, we diagnose patients by analyzing the entire body. at our hospital, we try to improve the sometimes vague aspects of chinese practice by incorporating more targeted methods used in western medicine. >> reporter: china's government celebrated the nobel prize win by saying it reflects the contribution china's traditional medicine and pharmacy has made to the health of humankind. it remains to be seen whether this is a turning point in
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global attention for chinese traditional therapies. naoki makita, nhk world, beijing. china has signed a deal to build a high-speed railway in indonesia. it's the contract japan failed to win last month. delegates from an indonesian consortium signed an agreement establishing a joint venture for the project with china's state-run railway. the 140-kilometer line will run between jakarta and bundong. a representative of the consortium says the project will open a new page in the country's railway history. china's ambassador to indonesia says it will be the nation's first overseas high-speed railway project and a symbol of bilateral ties. indonesian officials say the $5.5 billion project will be partly be funded by loans from china. the work is scheduled for
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completion by 2018 and will begin operating the following year. let's take a look at the weather forecast. that's all we have for now on "newsline." i'm ross mihara in tokyo. from all of us here at nhk world, thank you for watching.
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michaela: hello, and welcome to "global 3000." the world is supposed to have become a better place by this year. 2015 marks the deadline to reach eight u.n. millennium goals. the results are mixed. more children go to school than ever before, the number of people going hungry has been halved, but that still leaves some 800 million people struggling to get by. this month, world leaders meet in new york to define what ought to come next. reporter: 17 new sustainable development goals for 2030 should make the world a better place. end poverty end hunger

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