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tv   Focus on Europe  PBS  April 2, 2016 6:00pm-6:31pm PDT

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♪ quick hello. will come to focus on europe. today, we start with the attacks in brussels. once again, islamic terrorists have struck in europe. once again, they targeted innocent bystanders. on tuesday morning, two explosions ripped through the airport. dozens were killed and injured. people fled in panic. a short time later, another last hit the brussels metro. the islamic state has claimed responsibility. belgian authorities have put the
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country on high security alert. islamist terrorists are targeting europe. the deadly explosions in brussels came just days after the capture of the suspected ringleader of last year's paris attacks. more and more, the belgian capital has been pinpointed as a place where many jihadists are based. many young men have left belgium for syria to fight for islamic state. on their return they have been able to find even more new recruits for the militants. how and why are these young muslims being radicalized in belgium? previously we went to a brussels suburb to find some answers. and we met some of the young people the extremists are trying to groom. the district of vilvoorde on the northern edge of brussels was once known as a breeding ground for jihadists. many young muslims here felt ostracized from belgian society. even today there's still a lot of distrust. >> hey, don't talk to reporters. they only what to make us look bad.
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>> stop filming. stop. >> but then a few do speak to us. they say they feel stigmatized because in the past so many young people from vilvoorde went to fight in syria, recruited by the so-called islamic state. >> it's bad. i don't like thinking about it, 'cause sometimes you know them. and they come back dead. >> i'm against these guys going to syria. that's my opinion. >> moad el boudaati knows almost all of the young men who went to syria. he himself did not fall prey to the recruiters. his muslim parents always taught him that war is not holy. >> these guys really believed they must take part in the fighting. for them, jihad is an ideal. and they want to follow this ideal.
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>> the imams in belgium's mosques have lost their influence over many young people in the suburbs. so they use the internet to offer help, in an attempt to prevent young people from being lured by hate propaganda. >> we are active on facebook. our koran teachers call on their students to engage with radicalized young people on facebook and use arguments to show them islam is a religion of peace and love. >> the jihadist recruiters typically reach out to disaffected young people, promising they can be heros. the sharia 4 belgium website used to tell young muslims they would one day head up an islamic republic in belgium. the website is now banned. its leaders have been convicted of terrorist activities.
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dimitri bontinck was one of those who filed a lawsuit against sharia 4 belgium. his son jejoen believed the propaganda of the extremists and went to syria. dimitri risked his own life to bring him back. he's bitter about how the belgian state left him in the lurch. >> of course we asked for help by the authorities and by the police, by youth organizations. and the answer was, they couldn't do something because there was the freedom of organization, there was freedom of speech, there was freedom of religion. you know, they were laughing at me, they took me as a clown. you know what they said to me? it was not my business to know where is my son. i say, excuse me, i'm a father. >> the belgian state has come in for much criticism. for years, the country has been strongly divided. that's why belgium is finding it harder than most other european countries to integrate foreigners.
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according to islam expert anne-clementine larroque. >> in the last 20 years, belgium has failed to systematically combat radical islamism and now it's become a huge problem. that's also due to belgium's lack of unity. islamists have taken advantage of the lack of coordination between the flemish and walloon communities. >> belgium raised its security threat to the highest level after tuesday's attacks. but the mayor of vilvoorde says increased security is not enough. society needs to reach out to those at risk of radicalization. >> we need more facilities for young people and new schools, particularly here in vilvoorde. we also need more sports facilities. i think sports is a great way of promoting integration.
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>> the mayor of vilvoorde is credited with improving conditions in his district. but he says it's important to remain vigilant and keep reaching out to those most vulnerable to the jihadist recruiters. >> wall the islamic state is causing terror here, people are fleeing the violence and devastation. many refugees are going to europe from turkey. many of them are stranded and stuck. one camp had some of the poorest conditions is on the greek and macedonian border. it is the largest favela. thousands of migrants are holding out. our reporter met with a syrian family is holding on to the hope of a better life together in europe. x --
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>> the refugees stuck in idomeni at the border between greece and macedonia feel more desperate every day. >> they want to close the train way and to make pressure and say, we are here, we are living people here, so please open the border. but it has happened before and it doesn't work. clocks -- >> baha is a syrian. unlike everyone else here, he has already been granted asylum in germany. he's come back here to pick up his children and his wife lina. they followed his flight from syria, later. but this border is as far as they got. >> he had to come because we need help. he is really good at english so he is helping us a lot. and he has to go again because he has 3 weeks and if he doesn't go he cannot go back to germany. so i hope we see him in germany. >> more than 10,000 people are holding out here in idomeni.
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they're living in small tents pitched under the open sky, although the greek government has promised to build them housing. baha says the worst of it is the night. >> at night degrees average zero. children here without heating, they start crying because of the cold and non-stop crying. all of them. so, you can't you can't sleep while all these children are crying beside you. >> the next morning, baha and his wife lina set off for nearby thessaloniki. if he can't take his family to germany, baha wants to find an apartment for them in here in greece. they visit a real estate agency in the center of the city.
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but their talk with the agent lasts only a few minutes. >> he said we have a lot but not for 1 month but for 6 months. so we left. >> but baha and lina don't want to give up, so they try another agent. >> i want to help you but. -- >> 10 minutes later, the agent shows the syrian couple an apartment. she's asking 500 euros a month rent. >> they say they can pay 250 a month, but that's too little for such a large apartment.
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>> it looks like there's no chance, but negotiations continue outside. baha increases his offer by 50 euros. it's still less than the agent wants, but she agrees to it. >> it is ok. it is ok it is ok. it is ok. ok, it is a deal. >> there is water, there is shelter, a roof, it is wonderful. it is better than a tent in the middle of nowhere. back to civilization again. >> back in the refugee camp for the first time in weeks, baha and his family can forget their worries, if only for a moment. >> i don't want to think about the day that i will have to say goodbye to them again.
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i don't want to think about it now. >> this is the last night, for now, that baha, lina, and their two children will have to sleep on the ground. baha has to return to germany soon. he doesn't know when or where he'll see his family again. >> growing up in the united's dates it was always a fight to get oranges. they made you feel like you had a piece of sunshine in your hand. the same can be said here about you to from -- fruit from the orange orchards. it is one of spain's at best exports. overproduction, competition, and big supermarkets has meant that some growers earn basically nothing. >> this is about oranges. and about orange growers like
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ricardo sanz sanchis. all his life, he has grown oranges in the region of valencia. but now he's had enough, ricardo says, as he shows our reporter around his plantation. it's not that he no longer enjoys the work. it's that it is no longer profitable. >> in the past you could live off growing oranges, even better than today. forty years ago, the price of an orange was the same as it is today. but the production costs are much higher now. >> this year, ricardo will earn about 18 cents for a kilo of oranges. fertilizer, pesticides, weed killer, and wages for the orange pickers will cost him more than that, so it's a money-losing business. ricardo would like to sell his plantation. but since it doesn't make a profit, no one wants to pay much
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for the land. >> and who's to blame for this? the problem is overproduction. and the competition. in morocco, for example, wages are much lower than here. in spain today, oranges are dirt cheap. two kilos are on offer for one euro and thirty cents at this green grocer's. as a result, thousands of hectares of citrus groves in the valencia region have been taken out of production. ricardo's plantation will probably join them soon. but decline is not inevitable. despite this difficult situation, some people have just begun to cultivate oranges. >> gonzalo urculo studied economics. in 2010, he and his brother decided to take over the el carmen plantation in the village of betera. it belonged to their grandfather.
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the brothers converted the plantation to organic farming and reorganized distribution. the urculos now sell their harvest directly, online, all over europe. and to look after the german market, the urculos hired anna maria wanninger. >> we were eager to cultivate oranges, but we were a little uncertain. we wanted to find a way to live from agriculture again. we wanted to continue our grandfather's work. >> and what's your job? >> i'm in charge of the german market. marketing, customer service, and acquainting germans with our new project, which we call crowdfarming. simply letting people know what's happening here in betara. >> today, 13 people live from their work at el carmen, producing certified organic oranges. the customers like the quality. the fruit is fresh, because it isn't harvested until an order comes.
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a few hours later, it's packed and ready to ship. >> it's just two days from the tree in spain to the breakfast table in germany. the new crowdfarming project is a success. the urculos sell individual trees to foreign customers. for a fixed price plus shipping costs, they are entitled to 80 kilos of oranges a year. >> i'm convinced that there are still innovations to be made in agriculture. the supply chain can be improved in many ways. farmers have to learn to ajust to the times. and above all, not to turn their backs on the customers. we should try to eliminate the middleman and sell directly to the consumer.
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>> 600 germans have already become owners of an orange tree. this model may not be the solution for all the citrus farms around valencia. but it can rescue some of them. ♪ >> now, to the final installment. we look at walls across europe. we look at poland. this is one of the poorest countries in europe. now, it has a large middle class and it holds the european record for gated communities. it would see the the fall of the iron curtain made people feel free, today, many people want to live behind high walls and locked fences. some say it is a division
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between the haves and have-nots. >> there are several beautiful beaches in gdansk. for many in poland, it's considered a dream place to live. the protective sand dunes offer the promise a quiet life. a quiet and safe life is what this gated community is supposed to guarantee. strangers have no hope of entering here uninvited. residents have to come and meet them in person. wojciech sulecinski bought his apartment three years ago. as a successful journalist he's a typical of poland's wealthier middle class. he made a conscious decision to move into a gated community. >> i certainly have quite an elitist lifestyle. i don't have to meet anyone here that i don't want to meet like people handing out advertising, or homeless people or anyone who could pose a threat to me, or just not fit in here. that's a kind of luxury for me.
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>> safe, clean and a good investment that's how many in poland see gated communities. so not surprisingly, they're becoming increasingly popular, especially among successful professionals. >> neptune park is another community just a stone's throw away. we meet with architect piotr lorens, in the hope of looking round the place, which covers several hectares. but we're unable to get past the locked entrance. the architect is not impressed. he takes quite a critical view of poland's trend towards gated communities. >> people who buy an apartment here are not just driven by security interests. they're sending a signal to people who don't live here that they are inferior, that their children are inferior.
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this is a division within society that could lead to tensions and conflict in the future. >> conflicts have already occured. the 3 sails is another gated community. residents here seem not particularly interested in keeping the peace with their neighbours. those inside the gates wanted to have the entire complex to themselves, from the chemist to the supermarket. the manager of the supermarket says it's like an island in the middle of the city. >> the few customers that come from the neighbouring estate are constantly complaining about the fence. they can't get direct access to the hospital or the bus stop anymore. it's the same with the beach they have to make a huge detour. there are constant complaints. >> angry neighbours eventually
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decided to remove part of the fence themselves. the security firm responsible for the complex immediately came and closed the gap but in the night the hole reappeared. the dispute has been rumbling on for months. >> people who are very ill need direct access to the hospital entrance. but despite our protests they have fenced everything off. they haven't even left us just a narrow path. it's so inconsiderate. so we had no choice, we had to solve things our own way. >> and then she once again hurries across the complex, trespassing on the ghetto of the rich, to get to the bus stop. >> gated communities are big business in many parts of poland. there are dozens of complexes in gdansk, and more than 400 in warsaw. but the development surely comes at a high price.
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critics say ostracizing poorer members of society is a disaster waiting to happen. >> even if it's private property, no one has the right to seal themselves off with an electric fence and guard dogs trained to attack people. these communities are still part of the public space, they are there for everyone and everyone needs to realise that. >> despite the public criticism, gated communities continue to grow in popularity. and as long as the authorities continue to earn from them, that's unlikely to change. >> while the middle class are amassing wealth, many high earners say they want to give their money away. the old church tradition of typing to benefit the left
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fortunate has declined. in fact, the practice is almost extinct. now, some altruistic people are committed to giving away part of their income to charity. they say they are happier because of it. >> london's canary wharf. this is where the wolves of britain's financial center work. brokers, investment bankers, it specialists. and many of them earn over 80,000 euros a year. marek duda, a data analyst at a big bank, is one of them. but he is also an altruist. he wants to help others with his salary. that's why he donates 10% of his gross income every month to charity. he won't say exactly how much that amounts to. >> i am quite convinced by the research into the relationship between money and happiness that i have been reading which suggest that for every doubling of a presence income you gain about 1 point in a sort of 1 to
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10 scale of happiness that a human being can have. and if i am able to take some of the money that i would have been not that much more happy with and i give it to some people who really need it then i am able to create quite a bit more happiness in the world and that seems like a good thing. marek does not donate his money to just any charity. he's a member of giving what we can, an international trust that gives money to those charities it believes are most effective the ones that do the most with the least money. the 1,600 members have all pledged to donate at least 10% of their income. the community has already raised over 11 million euros. >> we are trying be really wide-ranging in the research, so we think that even though we, you know the charities are able to give us some information, we need to make sure that we verify that.
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>> according to giving what we can's evaluations, the against malaria foundation is one of the most effective charities in the world. it distributes mosquito nets in various parts of africa. the insecticide-treated nets have already helped avert hundreds of millions of cases of malaria and are thus combatting child mortality. this is all very well, say certain critics, but how can these altruists take such a calculating approach to relieving suffering? >> this is an incoherent criticism, says the oxford-based philosopher will macaskill who co-founded giving what we can. he's been wondering how to help the poor for years. his solution is to spend money wisely. >> when we think about helping others, we think of that as a kind of bonus, an additional thing rather than something that is important for living a good, moral life. and that's what i'd like to change.
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♪ >> marek duda has made a lifetime pledge to donate 10% of his income. now he's trying to persuade others to do the same, like his flatmate tim. so that money is distributed a little more justly around the world. >> that is the beauty of a democracy. people can choose whether or not to give. the goal of terrorists is to make us change our way of life. it is important to preserve these values. particularly when they come under threat. thank you for watching. in the meantime, it is a goodbye from me. which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit] [captioning performed by the national captioning institute,
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steves: a selection of ferries make the 50-mile crossing between helsinki and tallinn nearly hourly. because of the ease of this delightful two-hour cruise and the variety a quick trip over to estonia adds to your nordic travels, pairing helsinki and tallinn is a natural. stepping off the boat in tallinn, the capital of estonia, you feel you've traveled a long way culturally from finland. its a mix of east and west. tallinn's nordic lutheran culture and language
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connect it with stockholm and helsinki, but two centuries of czarist russian rule and nearly 50 years as part of the soviet union have blended in a distinctly russian flavor. fins and estonians share a similar history. first, swedish domination, then russian. then independence after world war i. until 1940, the estonians were about as affluent as the fins, but then estonia was gobbled up by an expanding soviet empire and spent the decades after world war ii under communism. when the ussr fell, estonia regained its freedom, and in 2004, it joined the european union. tallinn has modernized at an astounding rate since the fall of the soviet union. its business district shines with the same glass and steel gleam you'll find in any modern city. yet nearby are the rugged and fully intact medieval walls, and the town within these ramparts has a beautifully preserved old-world ambiance.
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among medieval cities in the north of europe, none are as well preserved as tallinn. the town hall square was a marketplace through the centuries. its fine old buildings are a reminder that tallinn was once an important medieval trading center. today it's a touristy scene, full of people just having fun. through the season, each midday, cruise-ship groups congest the center as they blitz the town in the care of local guides. like many tourist zones, tallinn's is a commercial gauntlet. here there's a hokey torture museum, strolling russian dolls, medieval theme restaurants complete with touts, and enthusiastic hawkers of ye olde taste treats. woman: [ laughs ] steves: but just a couple blocks away is, for me, the real attraction of tallinn -- workaday locals enjoying real freedom and better economic times. still-ramshackle courtyards host inviting cafés.
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bistros serve organic cuisine in a chic patina of old-world-meets new. and just outside the walls, it seems there's no tourism at all. under towering ramparts, the former moat is now a park, perfect for a warm afternoon stroll.
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