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tv   Focus on Europe  PBS  July 4, 2016 6:30pm-7:01pm PDT

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damien mcguinness: hello, and welcome to "focus on europe" with some of the very best personal stories behind the headlines from all over europe. i'm damien mcguinness. great you could join us. we have some cracking stories for you today. in france -- keeping soccer fans safe. in ukraine -- how amber is taking the shine off the governments record on corruption. and in finland -- why postal workers are branching out. but first to one of the biggest concerns facing many europeans
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-- another islamist terror attack. the challenge for the security services is how to identify potential extremists. it's particularly difficult because jihadis don't necessarily come from abroad. and so the big worry is that rather than sending in fighters, the so-called islamic state is recruiting and radicalising european citizens to carry out terror attacks here on european soil. until now, belgium has been one of the breeding grounds for jihadis. but there are also fears something similar is happening in bosnia. a muslim country, which is traditionally very liberal. but where over the last few years a more extreme and potentially more dangerous version of islam has been gaining ground. >> on the road in north eastern bosnia, in the village of gornja maoca. salafists live here, and camera teams are not welcome. this is something that this man wants to make perfectly clear. what is the problem? this is a street. >> it doesn't matt, you are not allowed to film me, if i
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don't allow it. >> we are not the first camera team that has come to gornja maoca, where an estimated 200 people live as devout muslims. in the center of the village we are told to turn the cameras off. they say gornja maoca is not a zoo and they are not animals. we have arranged to meet with edis bosnic. he asked for a shotlist in advance because he believes that the media only spreads lies. we declined. nevertheless, bosnic who is the spokesperson for the islamist enclave, agrees to speak to us. some bosnian state prosecutors believe that gornja maoca is a transit camp, where fighters are trained for the so-called islamic state. edis bosnic: if that were the case many of us would be behind bars. it's all pure fiction.
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>> the police have been here multiple times to take down the i.s. flag. since 2013, travel to syria and iraq is illegal for bosnians. to date, more than 200 bosnian fighters have travelled to syria to join i.s. in the fight against assad. some probably came from gorna maoca. mr. bosnic: people watched the news and saw how their fellow believers were being murdered and suppressed on a daily basis. their conscience compels them to go and support their muslim brothers. religious ties are much stronger than national ones. >> sefik cufurovic is an unhappy man. his wife has left him, he is in trouble with the authorities and he lives in a simple hut.
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but what upsets him most is that he lost his son ibro to radical islam. before ibro cut off all contact with his family and left to join the i.s. in syria, he destroyed all of his family photos and insulted his father, calling him an infidel. this wanted photo of ibro was released by europol. he is wanted for organizing a terrorist group, and it breaks his father's heart. ibro was a good student and got his leaving certificate. then he came into contact with the radical islamists. sefik cufurovic: after graduation, he left home and went to bilal bosnic. he took care of his goats and sheep. >> this is bilal bosnic. a key radical islamist in bosnia. he was accused of inciting terrorism and recruiting volunteers for the so-called islamic state.
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in november, he was sentenced to seven years in prison. vlado azinovic: bosnic has a very convincing, persuasive style. his disciples followed him religliously. he interpreted religious quotes saying that only path to fufillment and enlightenment is to die for allah, to kill and be killed. >> this is bilal bosnic's home. before he was jailed, he lived here with four women and 18 children. sharia law allows polygamy, but under bosnian law, it is illegal. the women are not willing to talk to us and call the police. ibro cufurovic, the lost son who went to syria, spent time here. in this area in northwest bosnia, there are a striing number of new mosques.
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they were probably financed by the gulf states and saudi arabia. secret services suspect training camps and islamic cells in the region. mr. azinovic: the i.s. see bosnia as a country where you can relax. where i.s.-fighters can change their identies and then can travel on to the eu. where they are able to find new recuits and get logistical support for the i.s. >> border controls are quite lax between the eu member state croatia and northern bosnia. perfect for terrorists who want to smuggle money or weapons into europe. weapons produced in the former yugoslavia were among those used in the paris attacks. friday prayers in velika kladusa. ibro cufurovic used to attend
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this mosque before he went to syria. many members have long beards, and other distinguishing features of extremely devout muslims. some have lived in germany or austria. >> in kladusa where we live, there are very many devout muslims. bearded men like me, who follow the word of the prophet, our women are covered. but in bosnia, many are not as strict and do not understand islam. >> the bosnian muslims live in a much more tolerant islamic society. headscarves were seldom seen, but that seems to be changing and the number of religious zealots is growing. also in cities like sarajevo, people are being recruited and radalicalized. bosnia seems to have become a refuge for islamist
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extremists, right here in europe. damien: at the moment those of you who are soccer fans are no doubt glued to your tvs watching the european football championship. now, this is, of course the , competition held between europe's top national soccer teams every four years here and , this year's host country is france. but the party is being overshadowed by major security concerns. that is because france is still reeling from last year's islamist terror attacks. well to find out more we've been , to meet one of the men who is not only doing his bit to keep fans and players safe, but also helped save lives in one of the terror attacks last year in paris. >> salim toorabally is on the alert, ready to spring into action in an emergency. with tens of thousands of
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football fans attending euro 2016 matches to cheer on their national teams, france is on high alert. toorabally is one of hundreds of security guards at the stade de france. salim toorabally: i try to recognize in advance which people might present a threat. i pass on the information using this microphone and headphone. it's then relayed to stadium security. >> still, holigans have managed to smuggle fireworks into the stadiums. and there have been severe clashes both before and after the matches. it's just not possible for toorabally and his colleagues to have everything under control. mr. toorabally: i was worried earier. a bus with germans arrived, and they were actually drinking beer at 7:00 in the morning.
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>> he says he and his colleagues have to react immediately to keep situations from escalating. and he knows what he's talking about. his attentiveness prevented a massacre. he drives around the stade de france with us, to entrance l, where he was posted on november 13 of last year, for the match between france and germany. a young man tried to get into the stadium through this gate, without a ticket. mr. toorabally: his behavior attracted my attention. he was different from other spectators. he had a goal. he said, "i must get in. the person who has my ticket is inside." >> toorablly instinctively blocked the man's way and made sure his colleagues didn't let him through either. what he couldn't know was that the man belonged to a suicide commando. just moments later, a bomb exploded in front of the stadium, killing a passer-by. mr. toorabally: there was blood everywhere and i didn't have any
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gloves. i still see the strips of flesh on the legs of the injured person. each time there's an attack somewhere, i see all the panic and sadness. >> at first, toorabally didn't want to work during soccer games again. but now the security guard, himself a football fan is back at the stadium. , and germany is playing again, this time against poland. many of the fans who've come to paris despite the terrorism threat have pushed aside any fears, and are blindly trusting the security personnel. they started early with the -- >> they started early with the security checks, so it's all fine. i'm not scared. they've got everything under control. >> police have created ample cordoned-off areas around stadiums and fan zones, but it's mainly private security companies that carry out the controls at the stadium entrances. their staff usually protect buildings against break-ins, and experts say they have no
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training format sporting events. -- four mass sporting events. for cost reasons, the companies often hire immigrants, and allegedly do not conduct proper background checks. patrick haas: a problem that is relatively new is the radicalization of private security staff who turn to radical islam. and are obviously in very sensbile positions. we estimate that there are dozens, and i would say several hundred, security officers who are radical islamists. >> can they be fired? mr. haas: it's legally very complicated. >> toorabally is critical of the cash sector's employment practices. he thinks staff assigned to major public events should be very carefully vetted.
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mr. toorabally: if i work in security, then i have to be a role model. i can't instruct other people on how to behave if i'm creating the much bigger problem in my private life. >> if it were up to toorabally, all security personnel would have emergency services training. during the attack in november, the 43-year-old was one of the few people present who knew what to do, since he's had first aid training. now he has been honored for his efforts at the highest level. mr. toorabally: see this photo -- look at this photo. i'm with president hollande. he said i was an example for the whole sector.
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>> toorabally's wife bibi is proud that her husband has become a role model in france. but now during euro 2016, she's very aware of the danger he puts himself in each day. mrs. toorabally: it does make me afraid. >> it seems others are afraid too. fewer people are visiting the fan zones than in past european championships. the euphoria is rather subdued. and salim toorabally will continue to be on the lookout for potential danger. damien: next to ukraine. the conflict in eastern ukraine may no longer be on the front pages. but the region remains volatile. and over the last few months we've even seen an upsurge in fighting between ukrainian forces and pro-russian separatists. international observers blame both sides. the problem though for the ordinary ukrainians who are trying to set up a free and democratic pro-european state, is that they're fighting on two fronts -- with rebels in the east. and with corruption within their own government in the capital kiev. and when it comes to the country's large reserves of amber, corruption is not only
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having a devastating effect on the country's finances, but also on the environment. >> it looks like a lunar landscape. dmytro leontijuk has come here to survey the damage. he's an environmental activist and belongs to the pro-european automaidan movement. these craters are the result of amber mining. the company responsible was supposed to have reforested the land, but that clearly hasn't happened. instead, new craters have been formed. dmytro leontijuk: it was probably illegal amber diggers who took advantage of the opportunitiy or bribed the police who guard t area. >> the activist meets a group of men nearby in the village of klessiv in north-western ukraine. eventually, they agree to show him the fruits of their mining activities. possession of illegally mined amber can lead to prosecution in ukraine. this small heap of stones could fetch 1000 us dollars on the black market. the men say that the gemstone is
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especially sought after by chinese buyers. the illegal mining has been a financial boon for the village, where the money's been used to build houses. the men responsible say they're doing the local area a favor. they've been able to build a playground. and there are plans to improve the roads, too. wassyl maintainsis aware of andn on illegal mining. wassyl: illegal amber mining is good business for the guys at the top too. the bureaucrats don't have to invest anything and still end up better off. >> he's referring to bribes. the miners say police officers and security officials turn a blind eye to the illegal activities in exchange for cash payments. dmytro leontijuk wants to change that.
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he says huge areas are being destroyed by illegal mining. mr. leontijuk: we're talking about thousands or even hundreds of thousands of people who are mining amber in the forest. it's totally chaotic. there's no system in place. there's evidence to back up the claim. this aerial footage shot by the -- a group of activists gives an indication of the extent of the damage. the illegal miners are using pumps to wash the amber towards the surface. they plumb to a depth of 20 meters. the fracking is a huge earner. dmytro leontijuk and the other activists managed to film the illegal mining with their cell phones. the footage shows miners almost resembling worker ants laboring hard. it's said that installing a pump costs around in bribes. $600 that ensures the
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authorities turn a blind eye. and this is what the landscape looks like after the illegal miners have left. the areas around the mine have become barren. mr. leontijuk: that's the really terrible thing. the amber miners don't do anything about it. they should at least re-forest the area. but that's not happenening. >> the government in kiev appears to be displaying a laiisez faire attitude to the environmental damage occurring in the north-west of the country. occasionally, there is a crackdown though. dmytro leontijuk has got a trip about a raid in a amber grinding facility in the city of rivne. the police officer tells dmytro the machines are to be confiscated. mr.: -- mr. leontijuk: that will
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lead to a court hearing and the machines will be returned. that's always what happens. >> some accuse the courts of taking bribes, too. the factory manager maintains his operations are all above board. instead, he says he's being targetted by raids because he refused to pay bribes to the authorities. oleh krawtschuk: it's immposible to abide by the law here. they want to force us to partake in an illegal economy. >> but the businessman does admit that he skirts around the law in other respects. he says there's no way of buying amber in ukraine legally, so he has to look elsewhere.
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mr. krawtschuk: i bought the amber in poland so i could start work. >> that said, it's still ukrainian amber. that was probably smuggled to poland. under the eyes of the authorities, says dmytro leontijuk. sales of the final product fetch billions on the global market especially in europe and china. dmytro leontijuk can understand why the the many impoverished people from this region feel entitled to a piece of the pie. especially given that the amber is literally beneath their feet. mr. leontijuk: mining could be legalized and we could organize it in such a way that everyone can profit. a co-operative with 10 to 15 residents would have enough work for two or three years. after they've mined the area, they should then have to re-fill the holes, plant trees and re-forest the area.
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>> dmytro leontijuk envisions a system in which the money generated from mining would stay in the area and not end up in , the hands of corrupt officials. dr. lekutat: i don't know about you, but i can't remember the last time i went to the post office to send a letter. which of course begs the question -- the more communication becomes electronic, what is the role of the post office? in some countries national postal services are struggling and postmen themselves have less and less to do. well, finland, though has come , up with a solution. the postman may not be ringing twice but he is likely to be , doing two jobs. >> when eetu paakanen signed on with the finnish postal service, this was probably not what he had in mind.
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in the 21st century, snail mail is becoming a thing of the past. so instead of just delivering the mail, he's also mowing lawns here in a helsinki suburb. finnish mail workers need to be flexible. eetu paakanen: it gets pretty hot. but it's a nice line of work just the same. >> finland's mail workers mow the grass on tuesdays, when the least amount of mail is available. they receive 65 euros per lawn, double that for larger ones. the postal employees don't do the gardening for free, but elderly people are glad to pay for their services. matti tertsunen: this offer is fantastic. i'm 75 years old. at my age, any service like this is welcome. >> finland is a modern nation. and the amount of mail is on the decline. for now, bills are still sent through the mail.
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so how can the postal service keep its workers busy? by looking for unusual tasks for them. petri kokonen: we asked the mail deliverers which alternative services we could offer and what functions could be implemented in their own districts. >> near the sorting office, a hospital kitchen is preparing lunch for thosuands of patients. as well as many elderly residents in the neighbourhood. heidi eilola delivers meals every day. she, too, is a postal employee but there is little left to do in her traditional role. heidi eilola: it takes two hours to deliver the midday meals. we collect them at the hospital and deliver every day at the same time. it starts at 11:00 a.m., and normally we're finished in about two hours.
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>> heidi spends about a quarter of her weekly worktime delivering meals. many of the elderly customers are disabled. most of them live alone in large homes and look forward to her daily visits and a few kind words. ms. eilola: i have about three minutes. the rules say three minutes per delivery. that gives us enough time to ask how they're doing. >> once the lawnmowing is done, eetu can get back to his real job. he's been cutting grass for two hours. now it's time to deliver the mail. he thinks the postal service will expand the services to the public. eetu paakanen: i could imagine us as movers on the weekend. the post office has the equipment we need. i would do that. >> once the job is done, eetu stores the lawnmower again.
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it belongs to one of the families on his mail delivery route. they'll have to do the edges on their own. meanwhile, eetu is back on the road. because despite all the new services on offer, the mail still needs to be delivered on time. damien: they are obviously a pretty hard-working bunch, finnish postal workers. let me know what you think about that or any of the stories on today's show. we always love hearing your thoughts. you can get in touch with me via twitter, e-mail or facebook. , but in the meantime that's it for today. thanks very much for watching. and i look forward to seeing see you next time. [captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit ncicap.org] ♪
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hello there, welcome to nhk "newsline." it's tuesday, july 5th, 9:00 a.m. i'm catherine kobayashi in tokyo. the families of japanese killed in a bangladesh terror attack are get something closure. they've traveled to dhaka to identify their loved ones, and they've now brought the bodies home. a plane carrying the seven caskets and families touched down tuesday morning in tokyo. the victims died friday after gunmen stormed a cafe. 22 people in total were killed including two police officers. most of the victims were foreign and included italians, an american and an indian. japanese

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