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tv   Focus on Europe  PBS  August 6, 2016 6:00pm-6:31pm PDT

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♪ elizabeth: hello and a very warm welcome to "focus on europe." this week, many europeans are looking anxiously at turkey. that's because people here are increasingly worried about president erdogan's human rights record. tens of thousands of people sacked or arrested and shocking reports of abuse in prisons. a justified response to a failed coup or disturbing treatment of government critics? we'll be talking to one of those targeted to find out. my name is elizabeth shoo. thanks for joining us today. in a week when people here in germany are reeling from a spate of violent attacks. panic was caused last week in munich by a deranged teenage
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gunman. the city is in mourning. barbara nalepa ao lost her daughter in a similar incident. she tells us that her life will never be the same. for many of us here in europe, munich is almost a symbol of germany at its most affluent and peaceful -- relaxed beer gardens and good food -- but last week, that all changed when nine people were killed by a gunman in a shopping center there. initially, there were fears this was also an act of islamic extremism, but we now know that this was a gun attack carried out by a disturbed teenager who was born in germany. he was inspired by a similar assault in germany years ago, an attack which the families of those victims are still trying >> when barbara nalepa looks out
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her window, she thinks of her daughter nicole and how she watched early the house for school on that morning seven years ago. it was the last time she would see her daughter. on march 11, 2009, deadly violence shook the small town of winnenden. tim k., a former student at the albertville secondary school, burst into the building and began firing a gun owned by his father, who was in a sports shooting club. by the end of the day, he had killed 15 people including 16-year-old nicole. and now, munich. nalepa: when i saw that young man with a weapon, it was really hard. i imagine what was going on back then. it brought back all the old images really badly. when i saw the boy, i thought, "that's no terrorist attack. it's a shooting rampage."
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>> the munichhootas parently inspid by the winnenden attack. on july 22, he killed nine people and himself in a shopping mall. soon after, in the shooter's home, police discovered photos from winnenden, apparently in preparation. ali david s. also looked up to this man, and his brave it -- anders breivik. exactly five years ago before the munich rampage, breivik killed 77 people in oslo and the island of utoya, the worst massacre in the history of norway. he posted information online, including about weapons. the munich shooter ordered his gun online. investigators say he played violent video games.
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>> it's a kind of game that practically every identified mass killer far has played. >> in winnended, this sculpture commemorates the victims. nicole nalepa's name is inscribed here. another is jana schober. she was only 15. for years afterward, her father campaigned for tougher gun laws and against violent video games. now he has given up. >> none of the demands we made were met. regarding gun laws, regarding certification of video games. it's a fight against windmills, and the mills are stronger than you. >> the munich killer had a gun. ali david s. apparently felt bullied by his fellow students, and as we now know, he was here in winnenden at the albertville secondary school and took photos in preparation. that realization reopens old wounds among the victims' parents and creates new ones
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among victims' parents in munich. barbour: i wish i could tell the parents something good, but i'm sorry, i cannot. life will never be the same again. the pain will never go away. never. elizabeth: a tragedy. the attack in munich was just one of four violent assaults in germany within the space of a week, and what has shocked people here particularly is that three of the other attacks were carried out by young asylum seekers. some of those who argued against angela merkel's open-door refugee policy now feel vindicated. you will remember of course that last year, germany took in more than one million refugees and migrants. others worry that these latest attacks will simply stigmatize asylum-seekers, but many of the migrants are in fact unaccompanied children, themselves at risk of violence
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or exploitation. >> a photo of his mother on the beach. abdulrazak always keeps a close. it is in the mental of the time before the war. many neighborhoods of his hometown of damascus look like this. he is only 14, a child, but his mother sent him off anyway. better to flee a loan then be killed. he said he was totally dependent on the traffickers en route, who took all the money his mother had given him. >> i saw young refugees whose rubber boat ank. they tried to swim. they had no phones anymore to call the parents. their parents don't know if their kids are alive or dead. >> in turkey, he worked in a cafe to earn money. other young people sold their bodies, he says, including in
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europe. they do almost anything to survive. when he arrived in germany, he got a dangerous offer. abdulrazak: i was asked to transport a bag with drugs. i was supposed to bring it to a certain person, pick up the money, and then go, but if something happens, if the bad gets damaged or something is missing, you're in big trouble. >> i don't know where some of them even our anymore. >> veronika holzinger supervises juveniles who fled without their parents. 20% of her charges disappear, she says. two suddenly departed just a few weeks ago. holzinger: they were attending
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school perfectly normally, and then they just left. they didn't even pack a bag. they left all the things behind here and hopped on a train. >> she called the police and reported them is missing. authorities have now registered nearly 9000 such cases in germany, 10 times more than in 2015. most move on and then vanish from the authorities' radar, in search of work to pay their families back. next up, the big city. munich's main train station. we are following the drug squad. during the refugee crisis, they have seen more and more juveniles here working as upfront dealers handing drugs to customers. nearly 50 underage refugees have been arrested on drug trafficking offenses. police noticed a group of very young looking refugees. their ids are checked. their officers have seen how kids like them are forced into a life of crime, and they worry.
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>> if they cannot pay the people smugglers for these voyagers -- voyages, it's possible they will be recruited by criminal gangs to smuggle drugs or sell them or drum up business. people that young can easily become dependent and exploited. >> counselors and eight organizations criticized the fact that the german government has practically put family reunification's on ice for juvenile refugees. another problem is that these facilities are designed to help kids with behavioral if you -- issues. refugee kids have very different needs. holzinge i think it's difficult for refugees to understand germany, and there's simply the danger that in the beginning, it all seems insurmountable to some juveniles, and they cannot rely on the system and let it work for them.
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and getting involved in criminal activities is always a threat. >> every morning, holzinger fears she will arrive at work and discover that another boy has vanished. they all dream of the big city. >> i like the big city. my friends are in berlin. i like berlin. >> for 14-year-old abdulrazak, berlin almost became his downfall. he was offered a job as a drug courier, but he managed to resist. his mother would surely be proud of him. elizabeth: the refugee crisis has divided society in europe, but the other big divide sparking a debate here is the growing disparity between rich and poor. traditionally, european societies have well developed social welfare systems, but since the financial crisis, some countries have been struggling
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with high unemployment, making social welfare harder. one option being debated across europe is the idea of a guaranteed basic income for everyone. in britain, though, people are not so sure it will work. >> manchester is widely known as britain's capital of poverty, even though it might not look like it at first glance. if it is 1.6 million people, the .6 live below the poverty line. one of the 600,000 poor is stan. once a successful businessman, he suffered a stroke six years ago. he's been living on welfare in a subsidized lat ever since. >> i live like any normal person would live, and i appreciate life. also, i have to thank the government for looking after me
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in dire need. i really appreciate that. >> about 100 kilometers south lives psychology professor theodore dally rumbled. as he sees it, living on welfare saps people's will to live. he would like to see it abolished. >> if people have in life in which they have nothing to fear and nothing to hope for and they have no transcendental purpose in life, either -- they do not have any religious belief or political belief, they do not have any cultural activity, what is left for them? in those circumstances, you must not be surprised if people start to behave in a very self-destructive way. >> before he retired, the professor worked in some of the trouble spots of britain's working-class areas. since the 1970's, he has witnessed mass unemployment and the vicious cycle of life on welfare. as he sees it, and unconditional
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basic income would suppress any trace of initiative. he says even the meager welfare some receive now is enough to stifle their initiative to a great extent. >> unless people are recognizing there's something wrong, there's nothing you can do. and of course, we don't live in a time when anyone is prepared to point out there is something wrong. we live in a time when all ways of life are regarded as more or less equal. and so it's difficult to persuade people that actually it's necessary for them to contribute to make some difference to their own lives. >> if you come around, i will show you. >> stand and professor dalrymple not know one another. it's possible the professor would see him as an exception. stan has no shortage of energy. >> the communal garden. if you walk this way, i will show you. >> and has no shortage of
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dignity, but without state health, his stroke would have left him on the streets, and undignified existence. stan: i'm not in it to sponge off the state. i have earned it. i was born here. i paid my tax, i paid my insurance, so, yes, i do get disability and it does bring a lot of dignity back. and a lot of my pride and my confidence. >> professor dalrymple does make allowances for emergency situations, but he insists to many people are on the dole here and almost everywhere in europe. he says it does not bring out the good in people and neither would unconditional basic income. >> this is a kind of romantic argument that everyone has an enormous town within them which would enable him to play an outstanding role in society, but i don't think that's actually
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true. people will still have to do very ordinary work and is nothing wrong with doing very ordinary work. it is a perfectly honorable thing to do. >> in fact, stan agrees. he and professor dalrymple share the same opinion concerning the unconditional basic income. stan imagines that most people would probably just end up hanging around the pub and probably doing nothing. elizabeth: but now, back to turkey where there are growing concerns that president erdogan is clamping down on dissent, particularly since the failed coup earlier this month. there are fears he is using that as a pretext to silence critics, including human rights activist and journalists. some are losing their jobs. others are being imprisoned in -- in prison. it's intimidating for those targeted but also really tough for their families.
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>> sibel hurtas has come with her lawyer to find out how her husband, a human rights activist, is doing. the couple were arrested at an airport after turkey declared a state of emergency and he remains in custody. sibel: they told us, "we are arresting you," and it was clear they were enjoying it. they took us away without explanation. they did not even have an arrest warrant. >> the turkish president feels threatened by people like hurtas and her husband, especially since july 15 when soldiers attempted a coup. they occupied tv stations and ministries, blocked off bridges, and attacked the seat of parliament and erdogan's home. more than 300 people were killed. the attempt was soon killed -- quelled any suspected plotters arrested. since then, the country has been
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swept by a wave of arrests, targeting all government critics. hurtas says her husband once defended a newspaper affiliated with the movement in court, enough to warrant suspicion from the turkish government. sibel: there's no evidence that he supports gulen. as a lawyer, he fights for everyone's human rights. >> her husband has been in custody for 48 hours. neither she nor her lawyer have then allowed to talk to him. that is a clear breach of law. >> the government cannot just do whatever it wants during a state of emergency, no matter if it lasts 3, 6, or however many months, and then just say everything will return to normal. , it must observe the law now.
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even when it comes to the crew -- the coup plotters. otherwise, it is no better than them. >> it will be a wild before turkey goes back to normal. buslods of people are being transported across the country to face prosecution. the atmosphere is tense. meanwhile, erdogan supporters backed this tough stance and think the 13,000 arrests are justified. >> the people demand that those who have damaged this country receive the punishment they deserve. >> look. all the shops are open and life goes on as normal despite the state of emergency. >> after hours of waiting, sibel finally learns her husband has appeared before a judge, so she heads to court, but yet again, her husband is not released. he is sent back to jail without having spoken to her or his
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lawyer even once. after four days, he is finally released. sibel does not want to talk about the anxiety and here she felt during this time. she is glad her husband was not abused during his incarceration. >> there was a bit of a tense atmosphere. i saw some people that could not even open their eyes. of course, these plotters should be prosecuted and punished, but this doesn't mean that this kind of investigation gives a green card to the government. the second thing, this never
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gives a green light to torture anyone. >> only a few media outlets -- most of them foreign -- reported on his arrest and his wife's fight to free him. most turkish newspapers shied away from the topic, preferring not to address the government's heavy-handed crackdown. elizabeth: what a great couple. finally, to the netherlands, always thought of as a country of cyclists. it seems the dutch are also pretty keen on walking. so keen that every year, tens of thousands gathered together to march up to 125 miles over four days. sounds very exhausting if you ask me. to find out why anyone would themselves through that, our reporter there got his trainers on and took to the road. >> is fascinating to see masses of people walking. some folks can sit and watch them for hours. the grout of people numbers
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almost 50,000. they march as much as 55 kilometers a day. >> marching through holland in four days, i join and walked around. part of it, anyway. >> temperatures are hovering just under 35 degrees celsius. that tends to beg the question -- why are these people doing it . what is the meaning of this walk? >> trying to lose some weight. >> et al.? why are you here? >> i don't know. i took a reading break. i'm reading and walking now. it's good to save time. >> what's the reason for you to take part? >> to take part. just for fun. i want to walk. >> it takes a dose of willpower as well, but not so much on the first 250 meters.
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>> it's easy. >> it's the 100th time the masses have gone for this collective walk, a colorful international festival and for a number of professionals. this is how the swedish troops celebrate every stage they compete -- complete. the origin of the walk of the world is military. the dutch armed forces introduced the practice as fitness training for their troops. now soldiers from more than 60 countries join in. there are no power blocks or political alliances here. military personnel from the world over walk side by side. >> we are all here from different countries but all doing the same event and cheering on the same people. it means a lot. we will definitely be spreading
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the word to tell more people about it because a lot of people back in the states don't know about it. >> the soldiers try to march in time, but for most others, it is a matter of just completing every stage, especially toward late evening. military personnel here and civilians fraternize openly. the world becomes a village in the best sense. together with friends and meet new people, this is an option. this is an option to do it. i also walk different places in the world, so this is the biggest one of all of them. it's a good opportunity to meet other people. >> i want to be healthy. i want to exercise. >> that's the basic idea as an
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exhibition along the way explains. the aim of her moaning understanding among nations through hiking is relatively new. in 1909, the motives were strictly athletic in nature. >> the goal was to have a lot of people walk and exercise in a healthy way, so not like the tour de france or a marathon that is really exhausting and a very difficult effort, but just a normal workout for a lot of people. >> at the world campground, there are hikers from all over. but some of them are nursing injuries from the road. >> terrible. i stumbled early in the morning just after the start against a student who passed out drinks. ice packs, beer, and rest. >> you don't walk anymore? >> no more walking anymore. >> an excellent idea. time to check out the field kitchen.
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>> i and the asian chef today. tomorrow, i am the italian chef, so you are welcome to come back. >> at this festival of nations, even an exhausted reporter can find a place to rest his weary head. time for a short break. see you in about 12 hours. good night. elizabeth: looks a lot more sociable than the gym. that is all for this week. thanks for watching. feel free to get in touch with us any time with your thoughts and comments. for now, goodbye and see you again next week. [captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit]
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steves: while dedicating a month of your life to walk the camino may be admirable, it doesn't work for everyone. but any traveler can use this route as a sightseeing spine and as an opportunity to appreciate some of the joys and lessons that come with being a pilgrim. just 5 miles before the spanish border stands the french basque town of st. jean-pied-de-port. traditionally, santiago-bound pilgrims would gather here to cross the pyrenees and continue their march through spain. visitors to this popular town are a mix of tourists and pilgrims. at the camino office, pilgrims check in before their long journey to santiago.
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they pick up a kind of pilgrim's passport. they'll get it stamped at each stop to prove they walked the whole way and earned their compostela certificate. walking the entire 500-mile-long route takes about five weeks. that's about 15 miles a day, with an occasional day of rest. the route is well-marked with yellow arrows and scallop shells. the scallop shell is the symbol of both st. james and the camino. common on the galician coast, the shells were worn by medieval pilgrims as a badge of honor to prove they made it. the traditional gear has barely changed -- a gourd for drinking water, just the right walking stick, and a scallop shell dangling from each backpack. the slow pace and need for frequent rest breaks provide plenty of opportunity for reflection,
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religious and otherwise. for some, leaving behind a stone symbolizes unloading a personal burden. the first person to make this journey was st. james himself. after the death and resurrection of christ, the apostles traveled far and wide to spread the christian message. supposedly, st. james went on a missionary trip from the holy land all the way to this remote corner of northwest spain. according to legend, in the year 813, st. james' remains were discovered in the town that would soon bear his name. people began walking there to pay homage to his relics. after a 12th-century pope decreed that the pilgrimage could earn forgiveness for your sins, the popularity of the camino de santiago soared. the camino also served a political purpose. it's no coincidence that the discovery of st. james' remains happened when muslim moors controlled most of spain. the whole phenomenon of the camino helped fuel the european passion
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to retake spain and push the moors back into africa. but by about 1500, with the dawn of the renaissance and the reformation, interest in the camino died almost completely. then, in the 1960s, a handful of priests re-established the tradition. the route has since enjoyed a huge resurgence, with 100,000 pilgrims trekking the santiago each year.
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