tv Global 3000 PBS November 30, 2016 12:30am-1:01am PST
>> everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of including food, clothing, housing and medical care and the right to security in the event of unemployment sickness, article 25 of the un declaration of human rights: work, wealth, greater equality. how can we make it happen? that's the topic of today's global 3000. we're speeding towards a new era, digital, automated, interconnected. just where are we headed? we're in the midst of a new industrial revolution.
forget about companies cutting costs with robotic production-lines. industry 4.0 is about merging the real world and the virtual one. linking-up factories around the globe, and enabling whole new paths of communication. the internet of things, the universe of big data, everything stored in clouds. machines fitted with sensors connecting them to the web. and the vast sea of data produced will be analysed, with the help of artificial intelligence. what does all this mean for us, a world without work? >> behind these glass walls, people's jobs used to be secure. but how many financial analysts
will be needed in a world governed by algorithms? hans-georg scheibe: i certainly wouldn't advise my son to become a banker, for example, if he wants a profession that won't be negatively influenced by digitalization. >> but it can work as long as you stay open to new technologies. hans-georg scheibe is on the board of roi, a munich management consulting company. it specializes in helping companies become ready for industry 4.0. sociologist sabine pfeiffer researches the changes taking place in work and society. she thinks that jobs with a high degree of routine will be most in danger. sabine pfeiffer: conventional office jobs will be most affected. and i think that seems to have fallen under the radar of public attention. conventional office jobs will be most effective.
clerical jobs, doing things on computers, jobs that don't need many qualifications, that are based on standardized processes. the step to automate those functions completely -- not just with machines but algorithms -- is relatively easy and will cut a lot of costs. >> many industries are affected. china is at the forefront of this development. taiwanese-based manufacturer foxconn, a major supplier of apple, has already acquired thousands of robots to do its work. in this year alone, they've replaced 60,000 workers in their factories. soon, the company plans to deploy a million robots. 600 companies are following suit in kunshan, a major chinese manufacturing hub. sabine pfeiffer: on the one
hand, these kinds of employee numbers are unheard of in germany. on the other hand we don't refer to china as a developing country anymore, but rather as an emerging economy. of course in the industry that foxconn is working in, they're undergoing extremely rapid industrial development -- a process that took us 100 or 150 years. hans-georg scheibe: there's no way around it. china will boost its productivity, and that will be accomplished by means of digitalization. >> many future jobs could be taken over by computer-driven sensors. they will be networked with factories and parts suppliers across the globe, which will autonomously determine when and where a component is needed and also arrange for transport. so where are the people? hans-georg scheibe: software development will of course
benefit from automating and networking everything. what's often forgotten is that automation will also enable less qualified people to accomplish highly-skilled tasks. not just through automation but also through support of human-machine interfaces. but some professions will disappear altogether. self-driving trucks could put more than three million drivers out of a job in the united states alone, and another five million people who work in diners, filling stations and motels could be replaced by robots. another example is adidas. the sports manufacturer is starting production again in germany this year. but that won't mean lots of new jobs. its robot-operated shoe factory uses 3d printing technology. hans-georg scheibe: if the technology's there, it's going
to be used. that's the whole basis of this discussion. sabine pfeiffer: society might have to decide not to pursue certain developments. if we take a purely technology route, then the gulf between poor and rich will grow. the gap between the developed capitalist countries and the rest will continue to widen. we can already see that europe has changed dramatically. >> so how will we aren't a living in the future? in industrialized nations, alternative models, like the unconditional basic income, are being discussed. even internet giants have expressed support. but do they have ulterior motives? hans-georg scheibe:the basic income model benefits the likes of google or if it were to be introduced, who would profit the most? precisely these us companies.
and who's going to pay the unconditional basic income? i'm sure it won't be google or facebook. sabine pfeiffer: we shouldn't be using basic income to paper over social inequality. if the few people still in work are expected to finance the basic income of the rest, then i don't think that is the answer. >> a basic income. the premise that every person, regardless of their situation, has an unconditional right to certain kinds of social and financial security. the idea that everyone should be able to meet their most fundamental needs. many governments say current tax schemes could never cover it. critics say it would make people dependent on the state. and yet now, with many jobs
under threat, the topic is once again on the table. in berlin, a private crowdfunding project offers people the chance to win a basic income. the canadian government also wants to start a project in ontario. and next year, several hundred people will start to receive a basic income in the finnish capital, helsinki. in 2008, a basic income experiment began in otjivero, a village in namibia. its goal was to fight poverty and create jobs. we first went there in 2010. frieda nembwaya set up this little bakery using money she was given without strings attached. we first visited her in otjivero back in 2010. frieda nembwaya: i always had
the idea for the business in my head, but i didn't earn enough money on the farm where i worked. but i just decided i couldn't go on like that. so i came here, i had nothing, and things were very bad for us. when the b.i.g. project started, i could put my idea into practice. i worked hard at it. >> there are countless villages like otjivero in namibia. the test project b.i.g. -- or basic income grant -- began in january 2008. 930 villagers received a grant of 100 namibian dollars per person, per month. at the time, this equated to around 9 euros. josef ganeb invested the money in cement to make bricks. the income from his business put food on the table, and sent his children to school. he wanted to expand and employ people.
so how did things turn out for the people of otjivero? after six years, we've come back to revisit the village. the project's donors wanted to see otjivero become a model for the rest of namibia. the country is politically stable and rich in natural resources. but a third of the population still lives below the poverty line. the project aimed to demonstrate how an unconditional basic income system can create more jobs. international donations came from a range of organizations, including several german churches. other funds came from within namibia. the payments became increasingly irregular, and by april 2015, the money had completely run out. before that, things had begun to change. the extra income meant 90% of
the children could go to school. now many of the parents tell us they can't afford the school fees anymore. prospects dwindled for everyone, but for young people in particular. residents tell us that while they were receiving big, as they refer to it, there was less violence too. we call in on josef ganeb. is he still running his business? what's life like for him now? josef ganeb: when big was around, i was always selling bricks. but now that we don't get the grant money anymore, now that the project's dried up, i can't do it anymore. i spend the little money i do earn on my children. i can't buy cement at the moment.
>> we ask about the future. josef ganeb: my plans for the future? i need to carry on with my project and keep expanding. elizabeth geingos: i'm sick. now there's no money i can't afford the medicine, the pills i need. it's tough. betty ntsika: it's really hard without big. we have no work. we lived off it. >> if we still had big i could've built my house. i don't understand why the money stopped. >> many residents share that disappointment. no other benefactors have been found and the government hasn't stepped in to finance the project. time to visit frieda nembwaya. is she still making bread, as
she was doing in her shop six years ago? frieda nembwaya: people buy a lot from me. but i just don't have the materials and ingredients and i don't have a kneading machine. i have to do everything by hand. it means i can't make enough bread for the whole community. but i have good customers. >> she had a plan. but now the money's stopped she can't go through with it. shhoping for a private sponsor. frieda nembwaya: my plan is to built a proper bakery, because it's too hot and too small here. i want a big bakery where i have enough space. i can do more than bake bread, i can make all kinds of things. i just don't have space. i could provide work for other
people too. >> many haven't given up hope that the grant will return. but without sponsors, the country simply can't afford it. the plan to make otjivero a model for the whole of namibia is, for now at least, on hold. >> what do you do if you have no prospect of work? that's reality for millions of people today, even in europe. unemployment figures are sky-high throughout southern parts of the continent. a good education used to be a guarantee for a well-paid job. but now occasional work is all millions of qualified young people can hope for. in greece, the job market has been devastated by the debt crisis, at over 23%, unemployment is the highest in europe.
in that atmosphere, it's hard to remain positive. >> in greece today, most people have a sad story to tell about the financial crisis. but not these two. christina katopodi: you cannot stay and cry all the time. you have to be a little optimistic. because life is now! konstantinos kouvaras: everybody was like: you are crazy, what are talking about to create something now? and we say now. now it's the best moment, because now, during crisis, this is zero point, this is the bottom line. now we can go up, create something. >> what they achieved has its roots in this tree, the armiriki. christina katopodi: armiriki is a tree that can survive under very difficult circumstances.
in a salty water and climate and near the sea. every person, that knows armiriki tree, usually has a experience under the tree. an experience of rest and calm and sleep or of cool thoughts. konstantinos kouvaras: and of greek summer. christina katopodi: all those in the greek summer. >> they moved from pricey athens to nafplio, a seaport and popular tourist destination 140 kilometers away. in march 2016, they opened a t-shirt shop, and named it armiriki. konstantinos kouvaras: we didn't have anything to do with t-shirts. with brands, with design communication, with brand identity. >> the founders started up without a bank loan or money from their family. this is all uncharted territory for the couple, who both trained in other fields.
konstantinos kouvaras: i studied civil engineering, i went then to seattle to the university of washington for a masters degree. and you? christina katopodi: and i studied economics at the technology institution of thessaloniki. my studies are good. not many, many studies. i used to work in a bank and i saw many things. >> things involving people in dire finanical straits. christina became disillusioned with the conventional banking sector, as did many of the individuals running the companies they now supply with orders. the owners of this print shop only recently started up their business. konstantinos gregoris: we started off with no money at all. you don't need that to get started. maybe you need it to develop,
okay, but after it started, money comes, usually. konstantinos kouvaras: we searched a lot, as in every part it was very difficult to find very good people to their job, but especially to trust us, because we didn't have any experience. but then we found fuzz ink, this team, and step by step we create a relationship between us for this project. >> they've produced about 2000 t-shirts so far. here's where the labels are made. this company creates a huge range of product tags to help establish a brand's identity, vital for the many new firms founded since the financial crisis. konstantinos kouvaras: to make something special you have to put your soul, that's the main thing. and when you put your soul you put things that you like. so for us, when we search for all the parts of the production line, we search for the best parts, because we believe that
through time we can create the circumstances, that this product can survive. >> finding the right design is critical. they only realized this after they began production. so they had to partner up with an agency. konstantinos kouvaras: joshua and costas were in the same stage like us. they gained their independence, they created something by themselves, a few time before, they were open to new things. >> they're currently developing a website with a database that shows where armiriki's customers are located. after only six months, their t-shirts can be found on all continents. a success story in the midst of a crisis. joshua olsthoorn: the crisis in itself is already related to a creative process, which is also
something very ambiguous to say. because probably you need also some material to be creative. but with less material you can be more creative sometimes. and i think that concerns also the identity for armirki. >> right now, they don't have much more than their own determination. the money they set aside to start the business didn't last long, so they had to have faith in themselves. konstantinos kouvaras: we have a personal vision to create something. even under worst circumstances we want to show that you can do something different and you can move on. and you know, people just need this, somebody who can tell them, that you can do it. to see it to your eyes. and they get the energy that's needed to do it. and they will do it. this is missing today.
>> one thing is certain in life: you have to eat! and cooking is a job with a future, today's global snack comes from israel. >> tel aviv, israel's bustling commercial capital. it's friday and there's still time to take care of some final errands before the sun goes down, marking the beginning of shabbat. observant jews may not perform any kind of work on shabbat, which lasts until just after sunset on saturday. they pray in the synagogue and eat a traditional meal. for fresh ingredients, the carmel market is a popular destination. the shabbat meal is normally prepared by the women in the family on thursday, sometimes even as early as wednesday. tel avivians wanting to avoid the stress of preparing food come to grandma's snack bar for a shabbat take-out.
>> the women who cook here are the grandmothers of the owners and the owners themselves. this is why they call the place grandmommy cooking place and people feel like its the food they do by themselves. and this is the reason it's always full and people come from all over the city to buy the food here. >> yes, every time i do shabbat i come here. or when i do my shabbat with my friends. >> this woman buys all her ready-made food here. >> if you want to buy food for shabbat, so you dont need to work all the day in the kitchen and make everything. you come here, 10 minutes, 15
minutes and you have a dinner for shabbat. >> well they cook very good. it's kosher, very kosher. >> so jews who keep kosher can shop here with a clear conscience. >> i think if you are a couple and you want a dinner for shabbat, with 100 shekel 22 euro you can make a good dinner. >> leah shows us her purchases. she's bought couscous because she is moroccan and that's what they eat at her house. same with the meat. this dish looked tasty so its with meat and peppers and pasta. and she's bought salmon, which she eats every shabbat. >> so we have 10 different kinds of fish and twenty kinds of meat. meatballs, chickenballs, fishballs, vegetable things, rice, potato, pasta.
>> with so much to choose from, it can be difficult to make up your mind. but one dish stands out as a crowd favorite. it's a real best-seller. >> and we have a klops here, we have a meatball, that i like very much. >> kzizot! this is the best food, kzizot. it's beef with vegetables and the sauce together. you eat it with bread and its very, very, very good. >> kzizot is a kind of meatball. it's prepared with salt, pepper, coriander, turmeric and other seasonings, and onions and garlic. it's sometimes served with pita bread on the side. grandma's snack bar dishes it up with a spicy tomato sauce. after your shopping is done, sample a small portion before you head home. it's delicious!
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[jazz music] (male narrator) memphis, tennessee. it has been written if music were religion that memphis would be jerusalem and sun studio, its most sacred shrine. and you are here with susan marshall. [singing] - hello, everybody. my name is susan marshall. welcome to memphis, tennessee and sun studios. growing up, we listened to all kinds of music. we listened to big band. we listened to jazz. we listened to rock, gospel, pop, folk, everything. but the music that really got me was from here,