tv Global 3000 PBS December 24, 2016 12:30am-1:01am PST
host: this week, "global 3000" heads to china, where property prices are sky high, even for rundown apartments. but there's always someone willing to pay. in uganda, chimpanzee poaching is a real problem. heal the scars of traumatized survivors. but first we go to iran where dabbling in drugs can be punishable by death. it's something human rights organizations have been demanding for years, the worldwide abolition of the death penalty. despite this, 58 countries still implement it.
among them, the usa, japan, and china and india, the world's most populous countries. in 34 of these countries, people who commit drug offences, including possession, use, and dealing, can be executed. according to amnesty international, 11 countries have sentenced people to death for drug crimes in the past two years alone. hundreds were executed in iran in the first half of this year. she still hoping against hope that her husband will not be executed. but there is the fear that they will knock on her door and inform her that her children are now fatherless. we meet in an anonymous location in tehran.
she does not want to be seen with a camera crew at her home. she is too afraid of being ostracized by the community. comfortable talking about her fate on the street. we get into a car. once inside, she shows me a document, her husband's death sentence. he is going to be hanged for smuggling drugs, a sentence that cannot be appealed. >> there were almost two kilos of drugs in the package that he was transporting. he was caught two years ago. the sentence came a year after that. now, we have a notice from the highest court that his execution is impending. my husband was not dependent on drugs. he was just unemployed. her husband lost his job two years ago and took on occasional
jobs, including courier services. she says she did not know that one of the packages he delivered contained crystal meth, and he also did not know who gave him the delivery contract. anyone caught with more than 30 grams of the drug in iran faces a death sentence. >> how am i meant to manage? if only he were back home again! i cannot go on alone like this with the children. my father died. my mother is so poor that she even had to sell her kidney. reporter: koran is it a tough battle along the border with afghanistan and pakistan. more than 3700 policemen are said to have been killed here since the islamic revolution in 1979. 500 tons of drugs cross the border each year.
some of that is confiscated, but some go into the interior of the country and then on to europe. haro when is especially prevalent on the iranian market. according to the government, there are 1500 drug addicts in iran. the unofficial number is twice that. many of them live on the street, completely cut off from society. there is the nongovernmental aid organization, toloo, which helps. every week, they offer meals, financed by private donations. otherwise, we accompany them on their work. otherwise, we would not be able to see sites such as these.
ali is noticeably nervous. just last week, drug dealers attacked them with knives, but ali is convinced their work is important. >> the food is just a way to get closer to the homeless people and drug addicts so that they know that they are not alone in the city. by providing meals, we want to make it clear to them that they still have hope. we don't think that they are inferior people. reporter: after the warm meals, the volunteers when the trust of the addicts, strike up a conversation, and convince some of them to stop, but the iran death sentence has not brought out -- drug abuses at ap, despite the fact that many have been executed.
the iranian government seems to be reconsidering its strategy. vice president shahindokht molaverfdi often warned that the families would be robbed of their fathers without change. there is national pressure. to commute death sentences for drug smugglers into prison sentences. >> the justice commission is presenting a draft law to parliament. the experts will now grapple with it. we hope that a decision will be made as quickly as possible. reporter: we asked whether she knew about the planned law that could possibly spare her husband's life.
>> i have heard about it. but they began hanging men in my husband's prison cell about a month ago, one after the other. four or five other men were in the same unit until just recently. now, they have all been hanged. reporter parwaneh tells us that : she prays every day for her husband back again, but she has already lost hope. most likely, she will have to raise her two small children on her own. host: and now to our "global ideas" series, where we meet people working hard to protect our planet's plants and animals. this time we're in uganda, home to around 5,000 chimpanzees. these intelligent creatures are our closest animal relatives. but they're also a popular
target with poachers. some lucky survivors have found sanctuary on the island of ngamba. our reporter, carl gierstofer, travelled to the "chimpanzee island" in lake victoria. ♪ carl: today's delivery, several tons of fruit and vegetables, is very welcome. some of these chimpanzees were rescued from traps set by poachers. others are orphans, left behind after their families were killed. the chimps stay in these cages only at night. in the morning, the day begins with one of three feeding sessions. waiting for breakfast can be a frustrating business. for some, mealtimes are a free-for-all. others rely on their ingenuity. but in the end, everyone's happy
and well fed. ngamba island is a sanctuary for chimpanzees. the chimps who arrive here all have a traumatic history. survivor lost his mother. he had no one to socialize him or protect him from bullying by other chimps in the group. survivor was attacked by another male chimp, who bit him and broke his leg. >> i'm trying to palpate the area where the fracture was, where the bite was, and he's not feeling any pain. carl: but scars have been left behind, even if they're not visible. >> he became a bit more fearful. whenever he could hear them pant-hooting as they come back, you could see him a little bit fearful.
carl: chimpanzees are emotionally complex creatures. the loss of their families leads to behavioral disturbances. the caregivers on ngamba spend a great deal of time helping the chimps deal with the trauma they've experienced. medina was going to be sold by poachers in the middle east. as a baby, she was found in the carry-on bag of a passenger on board a flight to cairo. for a long time, she was very shy and fearful. but then she discovered painting. none of the chimpanzees here will ever leave the sanctuary. they're too traumatized to able to reintegrate into a chimp community in the wild. though humans and chimps have much in common, they rarely get along as well as they do on ngamba island. we head for northern uganda, where peace has finally returned after decades of civil war. chimps and other primates still
live in the small areas of intact rainforest here. but their habitat is under threat. much of what was once forest is now under cultivation. there are few alternatives to farming here. the chimps and other apes who once lived in the forests now come to the fields in search of food. >> we had to destroy this because we had some problems with the wild animals and the chimpanzees, the red-tailed monkey, the baboons were -- sugar canes here. so that i could not have a lot of losses, this has forced me to cut out a lot of trees. because they were lying, sleeping, making their houses there. carl: every year, about 3% of uganda's rainforest is cut down. the country has a tremendous diversity of primate species. how can they be preserved? that's the question that julius kwamya asked himself some years ago. he used to hunt chimpanzees
because they laid waste to his fields. he's since teamed up with the chimpanzee sanctuary and wildlife conservation trust. they discovered a method of cultivation that can sustain both people and wildlife. >> these are passion fruits. they give high returns. we are encouraging farmers to produce these high-value crops and increase the income. carl: the farmers can make a decent income with the fruit, which has two growing seasons. and there's also enough for the chimpanzees, who love passion fruit. julius kwamya also cultivates raffia palms for the tobacco industry. chimpanzee mothers often hide their babies from predators in the thickets of the palm tree groves. in what remains of uganda's rainforest, chimps can still
live undisturbed. they're also a big draw for scientists who come to study the behavior of our closest living relatives in their natural habitat. chianda bosco is also a regular visitor. in budongo forest, one male is currently challenging the existing pecking order. he wants to be the leader of the group. >> that's kato. he is approximately 26 years old. he ranges between number four and five. carl: kato likes to spend his afternoons alone. he rarely seeks direct confrontation. instead, he prefers to find allies. and kato does have friends.
>> how they struggle for their hierarchy. it involves a lot of processes. it's not all about being strong, it is not all about being wise, and it particularly requires wisdom and strength. carl: whenever kato joins the rest of the group, he creates quite a stir. the current group leaders keep a particularly close eye on their rival. >> almost the same as we do. so it makes me excited and i , learn a lot. i think, i hope to be another great politician. carl: chandia bosco says he would use his position to advocate policies that are beneficial to chimps and their kind. ♪
host: nature might be enticing, but it's large cities that have the greatest appeal for people right now. in many of the world's big urban areas, living space is becoming scarce. that combined with low interest rates and cheap mortgages has led to a huge increase in demand for property. which in turn is sending prices through the roof. worldwide, within just 12 months, property prices rose by 4.4%. in auckland, new zealand, prices saw a rise of almost 17%, in stockholm they increased by more than 17%, and in istanbul by almost 20%, all within a year. in china, things are getting out of hand. house prices in the city of shenzhen have increased by 62%! and the situation is not much better in shanghai. reporter: we're in shanghai, on the sixth floor of an apartment building. the real estate agent guides us
through the gloomy hallway. a one-bedroom apartment is up for sale, some 80 square meters in area. wie feng has been looking for a flat for two years now. and the offers seem to get crazier with every day that passes. the apartment isn't very attractive, but it's centrally located. the view is also rather humdrum. wie feng was hoping for something a little better. he asks what it costs and is shocked by the answer, the equivalent of more than 1.1 million euros. >> frankly speaking, this desire is always, you know, kind of frustrated by the reality that it is so expensive and so old, and i can't really picture myself living in this apartment. reporter: welcome to china's commercial capital. here in shanghai, apartment prices are rocketing. they rose 20% to 30% this year alone. people who want to buy and
who aren't exactly swimming in money are desperately trying to find something before the prices are completely beyond their reach. wie feng is also under pressure from his parents. he's 31, high time, they think, to get married and buy his own apartment. but he can't even afford a place in this shabby building. music echoing around the stairwell, a lock that jams. and a construction site right outside. soon, a new building will be blocking out the light. >> so it is going to be taller? >> yes, an office block. reporter: wie fang works in import/export. he went to university, and now takes home about 3000 euros a month, above average for shanghai. but even this small, run-down apartment costs 930,000 euros.
the real estate agent is confident he'll find a buyer. >> there are enough people with money who don't know what to do with it. they think a property will retain its value. in a bank account, inflation can erode your savings. reporter: wie feng is looking for a decent apartment, nothing luxurious. but he's not alone. >> my standards are higher than my pocket, than my wallet. so that's very tricky. whenever i like something, it's going to be overpriced, or it's over my budget. within my budget it's not really something i want. it's very frustrating. yes. reporter: some are afraid the property bubble might burst. they're trying to cash in, while they still can. this one-bedroom apartment went for over a million euros. he yi made a quick sale. but many buyers aren't even interested in letting the properties. they're speculating that property prices will continue to
rise. this is an especially popular location. >> we are situated in the catchment area of two extremely well-equipped schools. and all parents want their kids to have a good education. reporter: if you live 200 meters away, you can't send your child to these top schools. the buildings across the street are in a different catchment area, and their prices are 20% lower. he yi is concerned that even people with good jobs can no longer afford to buy. or are saddling themselves with unrealistic levels of debt. >> it's not normal any more. it's like a wildfire. prices have risen so rapidly and continue to do so. with every investment you have to weigh the risk, when to pounce, but also when to safeguard your money. reporter: in the 1990's, chinese
were able to buy their state-owned apartments for small sums. many of them are now rich, especially those in big cities, where property values are sky-high. jeff liu's family also benefited. twenty years ago, when the private property market was just getting established, they moved into this 100-square-metre apartment. most of his family now live in the u.s., and it's no longer needed. the entrepreneur fears the property market in shanghai is overheating. even though the next buyer would probably offer him more, he's happy to accept 800,000 euros. that's 24 times what was paid for the apartment. >> in china, people like to own properties. and, you know, if you're talking to people, they say, "oh, this is my house, this is my home," you know you're doing well. this is one thing. another thing is if you read. often, you could be pushed out because the owner wants to sell the place.
so there's no stability. reporter 40 kilometers from the : city centre, there's a big greenfield project. the housing complex isn't ready, but wie feng is going to have a look. the modern two and three bedroom apartments cost between 500 euros and 800,000 euros, and they're going fast. even the more affordable ones are beyond wie feng's means. he could only afford it if his parents and his girlfriend's parents also club together and top up his savings. even then, he'll need a big mortgage. the apartments are well-planned and fairly spacious. but the location is a big drawback, especially if you have to travel into shanghai every day on congested roads. >> here you've got a good apartments.
you have got a new house. it is brand-new, but you sacrifice your social life and quality of life and you have to , buy a car. reporter: the government is trying to curb the price explosion with rules and regulations, but that hasn't helped feng so far. back in the city center that evening, he checks out the latest offers. soon everything could be even more expensive. unless the property bubble bursts, of course. >> i think it will burst. it is just a matter of time. it is just that there is a tricky thing that you do not know how long it will take. maybe one year. what if it is 10 years? i cannot wait for 10 years. my life is here, so, like i said, eventually, even if it did not -- even if the bubble doesn't burst, i'll have to compromise. reporter: china's property market is so big that if the bubble does burst, it will send shockwaves through the chinese economy and beyond.
my father drives a motorcycle taxi, and my mother is a housewife. i spend time feeding our animals, the geese, ducks, and chickens. i enjoy that. ♪ ♪ people throw so much garbage onto the beach. that bothers me because the ocean should be clean. it's a global problem nowadays. i'm not happy when i walk along the beach because it's just full of garbage.
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