tv PBS News Hour PBS December 5, 2013 6:00pm-7:01pm PST
captioning sponsored by macneil/lehrer productions >> woodruff: nelson mandela has died at home in johanesburg, south africa, at the age of 95. good evening, i'm judy woodruff. >> ifill: and i'm gwen ifill. we remember mandela, a towering man whose passion, sacrifice and battle against aparthied changed south africa and the world. >> woodruff: tonight we devote our whole program to life and legacy of nelson mandela. >> major funding for the pbs newshour has been provided by: ♪ ♪
moving our economy for 160 years. bnsf, the engine that connects us. >> and the william and flora hewlett foundation, working to solve social and environmental problems at home and around the world. >> and with the ongoing support of these institutions and foundations. and... >> this program was made possible by the corporation for public broadcasting. and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. >> ifill: nelson mandela's death was formally announced late
today by south africa's current president jacob zuma. he expressed the country's love and sense of loss for their iconic leader, often referred to, out of respect, by his clan name, madiba. >> our beloved mandela, thefounr democratic nation, has departed. he passed on peacefully, in the company of his family, around 2050, on the 5th of december, 2013. he is now resting. he is now at peace. is our nation has lost -- our
nation has lost its greatest son. our people have lost a father. although we knew that this day would come, nothing can diminish our sense of the profound and enduring loss. his kind of struggle for freedom and in the respect of the world, his humility, his combustion and his humanity and in their love, our thoughts and prayers are with the mandela family, our
thoughts are with the south african people, who today, mourn the loss of the one president who, more than any other, came to embody their sense of a common nation. our thoughts are with the millions of people across the world who embraced madiba as their own. and who saw his cause as their cause. this is the moment of our deepest sorrow. our nation has lost its greatest
oppressed or dispossessed of another. let us commit ourselves to strive together, spelling neither strength nor courage, to build a united, nonracial, nonsexist, democratic and prosperous south africa. let us express each in our own way, the deep gratitude we feel for a life spent in service of the people of this country. and in the cause of humanity. that is indeed the moment of our deepest sorrow. yet, it must also be the moment
of our greatest determination. a determination to live as madiba has lived, to strive as he has strived, and to not rest until we have realized his vision of a truly united south africa. a peaceful and prosperous africa. and a better world. we will always love madiba. may his soul rest in peace. god bless africa. >> that was south africa'spresi. this evening at the white house, president obama expressed his
condolences to nelson mandela's family and praised the transformative leader. >> at his trial in 1964, nelsonm the dock saying, i have fought against white domination, and i have fought against black domination. i have cherished the ideal of a democratic and free society in which all persons live together in harmony and with equal opportunities. it is an ideal which i hope to live for, and to achieve. but if need's be, it is an ideal for which i am prepared to die. nelson mandela lived for that ideal and he made it real. to achieve more than could be expected of any man. and today he's gone home and we've lost one of the most
influential, courageous and profoundly good human beings that any of us will share time with on this earth. he no longer belongs to us. he belongs to the ages. through his fierce dignity and unbending welfare sacrificing his owning live for the freedom of others, madiba, sacrificed, for others, in the belief that human beings can change for the better, reconcile those who jailed him, set an example that all humanity should aspire to where in the lives of nations or our own personal lives. and the fact that he did it all with grace and with humor and ability to acknowledge his own impeimperfections, only makes te
man more remarkable. he set once, i'm not a saint, unless you consider a saint a sinner who keeps on trying. i'm one of the countless millions who draw inspiration from nelso nelson mandela's lif. my very first political action, the very first thing i ever did that involved an issue or policy or politics was a protest against apartheid. i would study his words and his writes, and the day he was -- writings, and the day he was released from prison gave me a sense of what human beings can do when they're guided by their hopes and not by their fears and like so many around the globe i can't imagine any own life without the example that nelson mandela set. and so long as i will live i will do what i can to learn from
him. to graca machel and his family, michelle and my family, send them good wishes and i only hope the time spent with his last few weeks, brought strength and comfort to his family. to the people of south africa, we draw strength from the renewal and resilience that you made real. a free south africa, at peace with itself. that is an example to the world. and that is madiba's legacy to the nation that he loved. we will not likely see the likes of nelson mandela again. so it falls to us, as best we can, to forward the example that he set, to make decisions guided
not by hate, but by love. never discount the difference that one person can make, to strive for a future that is worthy of his sacrifice. for now, let us pause and give thanks for the fact that nelson mandela lived. a plan who took history in his hands and bent the arc of moral universe towards justice. may god bless his memory and keep it in >> ifill: other reaction began coming in from the u.s. and around the world. in new york, ban ki moon: we have to learn from the wisdom and determination and commitment from both president mandela to make this world better for all. former president george h.w. bush issued a statement saying of mandela, "he was a man of tremendous moral courage who changed the course of history in his country. and in another statement, former president jimmy carter said, "his passion for freedom and justice created new hope for
generations of oppressed people worldwide. and now to a personal retrospective on the life of nelson mandela from one of our own. former "newshour" senior correspondent charlayne hunger gault covered the south african leader for more than a decade, and interviewed him on a number of occasions, from the time he left prison to his election as south africa's president. she prepared this remembrance. >> to my generation, the onetha, nelson mandela was a towering man of myth and legend, of action and passion, of selfless sacrifice and before any of us dreamed he became the embodiment of a notorious decades long struggling against oppression, these were images from the book, mandela, the authorized portrait, helps tell the story
of mandela's long road to freedom,. born in 1818 on -- 1918 ons, the legend was nurtured. spending some of the happiest years of his boyhood, this is a gentle place of rolling hills and farms, where children still play as he did. in times, they would call him madiba, his clan name for respect. here, boys even ones like mandela descended by royalty, were tradition that taught respect and responsibility for others. as mandela grew into manhood,
the kosa mantle, deprived and demedian mandela and his fellow africans. in 1948, oppression was legalized into a system known as apartheid. as a young lawyer in the 1940s, mandela joined the african national congress, an organization that peacefully pursued rights for south africans. staging mass rallies and strikes against apartheid's unjust laws. but by 1960s the harsh right's resistance to the peaceful process, caw caused mandela and his colleagues to form a military wing operating underground. their cause was called spirit of the nation, aimed at civil
installations and not soft or human targets but in times can, the anc their acts bore no comparison to the thousands murdered in otherwise disappeared by the regime. >> there are many people whofeed futile for us to continue talkintalking peace and nonviole against a government whose reply is only savage attacks. well i'm on the defenseless people. >> in 1962 a vishz crack downwas caught up in the regime's wide net. his anc colleagues were rounded up and jailed. in 1963 during what came to be called the ravonia trial, the
government tried and convicted mandela and seven of the top command of the anc on charges of sabotage and fomenting revolution. a capital offense. the eight were sentenced to life in prison. even from his cell on robin island, the alcatraz like island, six miles from cape town, mandela was uncompromising, says helen, a parliament service person. >> mattresses, the fact that thr between, and mostly about the behavior of the war den who has
a tattoo on the back of his hands of the swastika. he says this man is very bad, he treats us badly. >> but even then mandela waseve. >> remarkably self confidentman. he was never making outrageous remarks about the government. he was always, what he said was you know, in keeping with someone who wanted peace. >> and he used the captiveaudiee his young followers for future he envisioned, they even called it mandela university. tokio sapelli was one of the students. >> he was teaching spirit ofrec. studyinstudying history, studyig science. studying everything but what we were supposed to equip ourselves, to prepare ourselves for new south africa.
>> mandela's sentence releasedht of apartheid put his spirit was felt throughout the townships of south africa, control of a black population that refused to be silenced. in 1985 i made my first trip to the land of mandela's birth to find out what was driving the country's people, black and white and also to determine how much of mandela's spirit was still alive. >> what are you singing about?t? what is the song about? >> mandela, mandela.singing. >> mandela and -- ambe batambo. >> and -- >> and exact,.
>> there's one man you allrespe. none other than nelson mandela, if and only if that man can be released, he can see the direction of south africa. >> in those otherwise dark dayse horizon. as pressure at home and abroad mounted on the regime. the apartheid system was, mandela, began secret negotiations with the government that would eventually lead to releasing of several prisoners, the south african government admitted as much to me in 1985. >> i made my position clear, wen apartheid. >> but mandela's own releasewoue
years, in 1990. after 27 years, nelson mandela took his first steps as a free man. he was 71 years old, and few had seen him or any up to date photograph of him in all those years. at his sierd were now 1ie mandela his defiant wife who had kept his name and his message alive and others from the african national conference. >> congress and fellow southafre name of peace, democracy and freedom for all! i stand here, before you, not as a prophet. but as a humble servant of you, the people.
today, the majority of south africans, black and white, recognize that apartheid has no future. [ cheering ] >> it has to be ended!by our own order to build peace and security. >> i left for south africa assod few days from his release i found myself in his backyard, when i soon gained insight into his iron resolve and his humility. >> i was not the only one whofo. we all fought them. >> in what way? >> and the amount of bravery ofs
absolutely marvelous. we had hunger strikes, and anything which was considered humiliating. >> were you aware of thismythics being built up in the outside world, reports through television, movies, this sort of thing? and did that concern you at all? >> well, it did worry me a bit. >> why? >> because i wanted to bepresen. and i'm an ordinary human being. with weaknesses, and you don't want that to be turned into something that you are not. >> still, nelson mandela was thd no time on efforts to dismantle
the apartheid regime, even before a full united nations assembly in 1990. >> we also have the hope that we pursuit of that common vision which -- falter in the common vision of a common democracy of justice and peace. >> in 1993, the year beforeapard his vision of a new south africa as he shared the nobel peace prize with the man who had seen the handwriting on the wall and acted, the last apartheid president, f.w. de clerck. >> this must be the a world ofdn rights.
>> but in south africa, changewp of the regime as it had black on black inls vo. on the 27th of april, 1994, mandela himself voted for the first time in his life, at age 75. a few days before mandela and i sat down in johannesburg, and i got a glimpse at his steely side, that mandate la's presidency would not be as powerful as his. >> my power of persuasion issuf. i have wielded power as a prisoner, without acquiring any position, and mr. de clerck had to recognize that. we had to take decisions and forced him to use his legal powers, the decision was taken
by us. take, for example, how he dismissed two, gave them an ultimatum that the judicial commission of the question of violence, he dismissed two ministers. he would never do that. we embarked on mass action. he was forced to do exactly what he said he would never do. so when parliament isn't before, we assumed power of the government and that was how the should have been. >> in 1994 mandela took anothert took him from prisoner to president. >> a society in which allparticd white will be able to walk tall,
without any fear in their heart, with the right to human dignity, a rainbow nation, at peace with itself and the world. >> elements of the repressiveapt mandela and his young government rose above them, insisting on forgiveness and reconciliation which would become the hallmark of his presidency. >> it is necessary for one tohef you're going to build your country and to have unity. i am working with people who fought me very bitterly, before the elections. it was my responsibility as a man who is leading the majority party, my responsibility to heal the wounds of the past and to work with men who were my operatives. >> mandela kept his pardon ofths
called the truth and reconciliation commission. countless black victims came forward but almost none of the whites who had ordered or committed atrocities did or told the truth. but the process is credited with averting a bloodbath as the government changed from white to black hands. moreover mandela's government put to rest concerns that the anc's past leftist rhetoric would lead to an economy, instead, he told the world his government would be a democratic exaltist society and kept his word. mandela also established principles of redress aimed at bringing blacks into the economic mainstream while building millions of houses and basic services that didn't exist for the poor. not enough and not fast enough for all but enough to earn the
gratitude of millions and the patience of most ofists long-suffering -- of its long-suffering people. but mandela's only personal life suffered. the mandelas divorced. mandela stepped down after serving only one term, setting a new standard on a continent for president for life. at the same time mandela had set the bar so high it would be close to impossible for anyone to fill his shoes or think of south africa as anything but a nation, creating problems for anyone not the icon mandela had become. not least because the icon stayed in the adoring public's eye. on his 80th birthday mandela married his third life, graca machel, widow of president
machel. mandela announced his retirement from public life. >> don't call me.[ laughter ] >> i'll call you[ laughter ] >> but even in his later years,. joined by his wife in their advocacy for the world's children and boldly making up on the silence in hiv and aids dade dating back to his own time in office. mandela began to realize the disease was threatening the freedom he sought to assure, not to mention taking the life of his one son. talking about the ability that others of high position to join him though few did. >> because the people, that isw.
where so there is no difference whatsoever to turn somebody who is hiv positive and my son. >> mandela was equally positives own and graca mavhel. honor him from far and near as he becomes an ancestor. buried in the mandela family cemetery in his quiet village, free at last from his epic journey, free to take a moment of rest on his now long walk to eternity. >> that's charlayne huntergault. >> ifill: for that we turn to three people knew or watched south africa for decades. gay mcdougall was a member the south african election commission which administered the country's first democratic, non-racial elections in 1994.
prior to that, she served as director of the southern africa project of the lawyers committee for civil rights under law. douglas foster is the author of "after mandela: the struggle for freedom in post-apartheid south africa." he's an associate professor at northwestern university's medill school of journalism. donald gibb and john stremlau is vice president for peace programs at the carter center. he taught at the university of the witwatersrand in johannesburg. >> welcome to you all.gay mcdour first reaction tonight on hearing of the loss of nelson mandela? >> well, i'm terribly sad.of co. we knew it was coming. but nevertheless, it is a shock. and it's quite sad thing. i think first of all, the people of south africa who would be mourning in a very special way, but i think all around the world
has lost a hero, a hero that we desperately needed, when he came forward and faif us hope. >> -- gave us hope. >> as we continue thisconversat. we do want to say to local stations that we are not going to be taking a break tonight so we can continue to discuss nelson mandela's life and legacy. and i want to pick up with you professional john stremlau. you taught as gwen just said in south africa for a number of years after nelson mandela was released. what did you see of the man? what did he mean to his country? >> el with, he -- well he means. i think the challenge is to live up to the example as he set, as president obama indicated. what was great about mandela was his respect for the rule of law. think about it for just a moment. 27 years in jail on an ill
legitimate situation, his advisor said no no no you can't do it, you can't appear on this case of rugby and discrimination, a libel set of some sort, it was that stubborn sense of fairness which kept the process on track. and we americans owe him and the country of south africa a great debt. because nothing would have torn this country apart in the 1970s or perhaps in the '80s but a race war in south africa. so all i want to do is celebrate this wonderful, wonderful man. >> i actually want to pick up ou had been appointed by an african american president, you had seen
the current day legacy of nelson mandela in south africa. how did it resonate? >> it resonated incredibly --hie country. you know from people on the street to people in government. everyone aspires to live up to the legacy he left. it is a difficult challenge to live up to someone of his iconic nature. but he really inspired all of us i think around the world. and the message that he left for all of us is one that i think the world needs, whether it's our congress, or people around the world. of putting aside our differences to work for the greater good. you know i was so inspired, my most inspiring moment in south africa was actually holding some of the letters that he wrote from prison. at the center for memory. and reading about what he gave up to fight for freedom and to fight for a better south africa for everyone. and i think if, given what he
gave up, we all need to take this moment and decide how we can make the world a better place. >> douglas foster, you got tokne last decade you moved to south africa for a time to write a book about what, after mandela, the struggle for freedom after his time as president. what how did you experience this? what would you add to this question of his affec effect one country? >> sure, i got to know the oldmn south africa through his grandchildren, primarily through his grandson endaba. the last time i saw him in jafg, he johannesburg, he did this incredible puckish thing. he said oh, it's nice that young people still come to a old man
who has nothing to say. i think one of the important legacies of nelson mandela is to have given the challenge to half of the population in south africa that is 24 and under and didn't have direct experience of conditions under apartheid to understand that this is their moment. and the time to shout the freedom of one of their names and the south african editor said nelson mandela had prepared his people for his passing in an unusual way, she said, quote, like a good parent, unquote. that's worth marking on a day like this, that most leaders attempt to, one of nelson mandela's great gifts was to live long enough and to be conscious enough to step away
from power that he has given his people the gift of dispensability, the creation of a nonracial nonsexist, nonhomophobic society that survives him. >> i want to ask you, the sensef president of south africa, where that had an effect on others arnold the region? >> i think he inspires peopleard the world. i witnessed people coming to south africa to pay tribute to him during the world cup and at other moments. there is no greater figure in my lifetime, i think as president obama said, his inspiration, i think he has inspired people not just in south africa or in
africa but around the world. and in the end what he did in south africa is an example that we all need to follow. >> gay mcdougall, what was theeo on to be the great leader that he was? qus. >> he was quite a remarkableind. i don't think there's anything, he has a down home folksiness to him as well. but i think the mixture of knowing how to handle and to deal with power, that seems very much as a member of a collective. of decision makers. as a member of a liberation movement of a political party,
of south africans as a whole. i would never forget the, really, transcendent moment, that i was prinched t privilegee with him. put my name forward to be on the commission. but it was a remarkable moment. for him and for his nation. and you know all of the suffering and struggle that had occurred before that moment was now telescoped through him and into the future, as he dropped miss ballot into that -- his
ballot into that box. so he has been a manifestation of all of the hopes and dreams and aspirations of his country. and he's been able to articulate that. and to live a life that is worthy of that. >> jom stremlau, in watchingcha, it was he was convinced in the amount of moral persuasion. was that a sense of his legacy as well? >> absolutely, gwen.the one erre presentation which was understandable as well, when he said he was just an ordinary man. this is certainly not an ordinary man. he had an appreciation of the humanity in all of us. he took an inspiration from dr. king. he understood what the civil
rights struggle was in this country and he understood what tolerance and justice is for all. his hope to make south africa, which now celebrates next year 20 years of democracy, we are celebrating 50 years to a trend towards greater justice in our own country. he also was willing to sort of look at the individual in his own country and say, you matter, and what you do, really does count for something. and so as a professor, the born free, the so-called new generation of kids coming along that didn't know apartheid, they have to be reimbued with this history of mandela as was said in his obituary. >> people do amazing things butn
he really stands apart. >> well, i think it's partly ink about the idea of contingency and history, he stitched together, so many divergent parts of south african culture. he grew up as a shoeless cow herd. he made something of himself as a lawyer. but he traded in that earned privilege to become a person who was denounced as a traitor in the united states and south africa. and as charlay isne told us, came out as a singular vision, that commitment and consistency, the requirement of a very disciplined mind and a very
steely man, too. as much as we're tempted on a day like this to only sing praises about the soft and warm side, he did not succeed by being a pushover. he succeeded by being very tough. very strategic. and committed. absolutely committed to a vision during periods where one would not have guessed that it would succeed. >> gay mcdougall, here inwashina remodeled south african embassy, there is a statute going up, mandela with his fift fist up ie air. as you think of nelson mandela tonight and you think legacy, how do you think about his effect on the present and the future? >> well, i think that he standsn
commitment. for being true to one's principles. of working with people who share that kind of a vision. and of modeling the new kind of leadership for the -- i think there are lfn lessons of young people in the united states as well as south africa are going to quowl continuously turn to. his lessons will live forever. while we of course all mourn his passing, i feel that you know very soong we will -- soon we will be taken with how much of a gift his life has been to all of us.
>> well, gay mcdougall, we thann stremlau and douglas foster, and ambassador gips who was with us for a few minutes. we appreciate you being with us on this day. >> thank >> woodruff: pbs's special coverage of mandela's death includes a frontline documentary: "the long walk of nelson mandela: an intimate portrait of one of the 20th century's greatest leaders." >> ifill: in addition to the passing of nelson mandela, there was other news today: the u.s. economy gave off a new round of mixed signals-- a day before the latest unemployment and job creation numbers come out. the commerce department reported growth hit an annual rate of 3.6% between july and september-
- the best since early 2012. at the same time, consumer spending was the weakest in nearly four years. meanwhile, the white house lobbied to keep benefits going for the long-term unemployed. white house press secretary jay carney. >> even though the unemployment rate has come down significantly from its high because of the great recession, it is still too much too high at 7.3%, considerably higher than it was, when it was the right thing to do for president bush to sign into law an extension of unemployment insurance. so if it was right then, it is certainly right now to do. >> ifill: republicans have argued that extended benefits may make it more attractive to stay unemployed, than to actively seek work. house speaker john boehner had this to say today. >> if the president has a plan for extending unemployment, i'd surely entertain taking a looking at it. but i would argue the president's real focus ought to be creating a better environment for our economy and creating more jobs for the american people.
that's where the focus is, not more government programs. >> ifill: the white house says if congress does not extend the program, 3.6 million americans will run out of benefits over the next 12 months. fast food workers walked off the job and held rallies today in a number of cities, demanding better wages. organizers said they want $15 an hour. the current federal minimum wage is $7.25 an hour and was last raised in 2009. president obama has called for raising the federal minimum wage, but prospects for passage in congress are uncertain at best. an arctic blast kept the northern plains in the deep freeze today, and spread east and south. parts of north dakota expected wind chills of 40 below zero. in denver, the bitter cold had crews de-icing airliners early this morning. snow arrived before dawn in wichita, while oklahoma and arkansas faced a possible ice storm this evening.
britain and northern europe are facing what could be their most powerful storm in years. at least three people died today, as hurricane-force winds swept out of the north sea. we have a report from liam dutton of independent television news. >> reporter: december. a time of year when you would expect the british weather to deliver it's worst and today it did. scotland bore the brunt of today's damaging winds with gusts of around 90 miles an hour hitting much of the country. transport was severely affected with all train services suspended for a time this morning before slowly returning to normal this afternoon. the pilot of this plane had to abort landing at birmingham airport buffeted by strong crosswinds. 100,000 homes in scotland were left without electricity with another several thousand homes in northern ireland and northern england affected as the strong winds move southwards. in north wales as well as gales, emergency services were prepared for coastal flooding as large
waves combined with high tides were expected to crash over sea walls. parts of newcastle city center are flooded this evening after the river thine burst its banks. tonight the risk of coastal flooding continues for north sea coasts where the environment agency are warning of the worst storm surge in 60 years. those deadly floods of 1953 took the lives of more than 350 people in england and scotland as the torrent of water hit the coastline. today's storm is now heading for northern europe taking the stormy weather away from the uk with the danger of flooding coast receding late tomorrow. the u.n. security council authorized new military action in the war-torn central african republic today. the former french colony has descended into chaos since a coup last march. a reported 100 people died today as muslims and christians battled in the capital. in yemen, a coordinated attack killed more than 50 people at the defense ministry.
the victims were medical staffers, including a number of foreigners. smoke billowed after a suicide bomber drove a car packed with explosives through the complex's gates. the blast cleared the way for a vehicle full of gunmen in army uniforms to storm the compound. an american teacher-- ronnie smith-- was shot to death today in benghazi, libya, by unknown gunmen. he taught chemistry at the international school there. local officials said he'd been jogging near the u.s. consulate, where the ambassador and three other americans were killed last year. the quarterback for top-ranked florida state university will not face sexual assault charges. a woman had accused jameis winston of raping her last december. winston's attorney said the sex was consensual. the investigation had been inactive, until news accounts surfaced recently. today, the state attorney in tallahassee said there's not enough evidence to proceed. >> we do not believe after we examined all of the evidence and interviewed all of the witnesses
we could find did everything we know how to do, and there may be something else we could do. i don't know, but don't think so. we came to the decision it was not a case we could bring forward because we would not have the burden of proof the probably cause and the reasonable likelihood of a conviction. >> ifill: 19-year old winston is a leading contender for the heisman trophy-- the most prestigious award in college football. cases of measles are surging this year to nearly three times the annual average. the centers for disease control reported today there've been 175 cases in 2013. more than half involved people who were never vaccinated and were infected overseas. china today barred banks and other financial institutions from handling bitcoin. the computer-generated currency has been widely traded in china, but the central bank issued a statement saying it has no legal
status. the agency said the ban will prevent money laundering and promote financial stability. private individuals are still allowed to trade in bitcoin, at their own risk. on wall street today, the dow jones industrial average lost 68 points to close at 15,821. the nasdaq fell nearly five points to close at 4,033. >> woodruff: again, the major story of this day: south africa's first black president-- nelson mandela-- died at his home in johannesburg, at the age of 95. he'd been ill for many months. this evening, the current south african president jacob zuma announced mandela's death, and said, "we've lost our greatest son." other reaction also poured in. former president george h.w. bush praised mandela's tremendous moral courage, and former president jimmy carter said he gave new hope to generations of oppressed people everywhere. >> ifill: on the "newshour" online right now-- a challenge for students.
world more reaction from arounf the world pbs documentary all that and more is on our website newshour.pbs.org. >> woodruff: and that's the "newshour" for tonight. i'm judy woodruff. >> ifill: and i'm gwen ifill. we'll see you online and again here tomorrow evening with mark shields and david brooks. for all of us here at the "pbs newshour," thank you and good night. >> major funding for the pbs newshour has been provided by:
>> and the william and flora hewlett foundation, working to >> and with the ongoing support of these institutions and foundations. and... >> this program was made possible by the corporation for public broadcasting. and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. captioning sponsored by macneil/lehrer productions captioned by media access group at wgbh access.wgbh.org
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