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tv   PBS News Hour  PBS  April 7, 2015 3:00pm-4:00pm PDT

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captioning sponsored by newshour productions, llc >> ifill: caught in the crossfire. islamic state militants fight to control a palestinian refugee camp in syria, leaving the displaced trapped in a "catastrophic" situation. good evening, i'm gwen ifill. judy woodruff is on assignment. also ahead this tuesday: an inside look at the battlefields of yemen the fighters, the stakes and the escalating conflict. >> there was a loud bang and everybody just thought it was a loud firework. >> ifill: how a san diego elementary school moved past the trauma, after a gunman opened fire on its playground.
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>> we decided that we really needed to celebrate america and not let this incident destroy us but help us come together. we wanted to choose love over hate and courage over fear. >> ifill: endangered waterways, a new report finds development threatens the colorado river and the ecosystem of the grand canyon. a grand challenge to build a better suit for health workers fighting ebola. >> how can a group of novices address a problem and come up with solutions that are better than what the establishment has come up with? we decided to just give it a try. >> ifill: those are some of the stories we're covering on tonight's pbs "newshour." >> major funding for the pbs newshour has been provided by:
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>> lincoln financial-- committed to helping you take charge of your life and become you're own chief life officer. >> and with the ongoing support of these institutions and... >> this program was made possible by the corporation for public broadcasting. and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. >> ifill: jurors in the boston marathon bombing trial spent their first day deliberating today without reaching a verdict. dzokhar tsarnaev is accused in the 2013 attack that killed 3 people and wounded 264. he's also charged with killing a policeman. the defense admits his guilt, and has focused, instead, on trying to save him from the death penalty. there's word the government tracked calls from the united states to nations linked to drug trafficking for more than 20
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years. "u.s.a today" reports the effort was ultimately discontinued, but it served as a model for even more extensive surveillance after 9/11. the account says drug enforcement officials recorded call numbers and patterns, but not the content of the calls. republican senator rand paul has formally launched his 2016 presidential campaign. the tea party favorite announced in his home state of kentucky, with a libertarian message that blasted washington and government surveillance. he told supporters in louisville that he wants a "return to liberty." >> i've been fortunate. i've been able to enjoy the american dream. i worry though that the opportunity and hope are slipping away for our sons and daughters. as i watch our once-great economy collapse under mounting spending and debt, i think, what kind of america will our grandchildren see? it seems to me that both parties and the entire political system are to blame. >> ifill: the first-term
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senator's father, ron paul, has run for president several times, without success. the c.i.a.'s former station chief in pakistan, and its one- time general counsel, will face criminal charges over a u.s. drone attack. a pakistani judge ordered the charges filed today. they're related to a strike that killed two people in the north waziristan tribal region in 2009. in iraq, forensic teams have begun exhuming bodies from mass graves found in tikrit. the remains are believed to be soldiers massacred by "islamic state" fighters last june. the city was recaptured last week. relatives of the victims, along with shiite militiamen, paid respects at one of the grave sites today. they offered prayers and lit candles for the dead. the iran nuclear agreement gained a key endorsement today, from the country's powerful revolutionary guard. the guard's commanding general said negotiators "succeeded in defending the rights of the iranian nation, and the iranian nation and the guard appreciate their honest political efforts." separately, president obama told
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n.p.r. that iran would remain a year away from building a bomb, for at least a decade. >> what is a more relevant fear would be that in year 13, 14, 15 they have advanced centrifuges that enrich uranium fairly rapidly, and at that point, the breakout times would have shrunk almost down to zero. keep in mind, though, currently, the breakout times are only about two to three months by our intelligence estimates. >> ifill: house speaker john boehner shot back, saying the president has now confirmed what critics of the deal have been saying. this was election day in chicago, with the mayor's office on the line. incumbent rahm emanuel was heavily favored to win a second term in a runoff against jesus "chuy" garcia, a cook county commissioner. and three city council seats were at stake in ferguson, missouri, in the city's first election since last year's shooting of a black teenager by
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a white policeman. the council could go from five whites and one black member to a 50-50 split. the national transportion safety board is calling for urgent safety improvements for trains hauling crude oil. the agency issued four recommendations today after a series of derailments and fires. they include installing ceramic "thermal blankets" and other systems on oil cars to withstand fire, and sharply reducing the speed of oil trains. wall street had a quiet day, with all of the major indexes drifting slightly lower. the dow jones industrial average lost five points to close at 17875. the nasdaq fell seven points and the s-and-p 500 slipped four. and duke celebrated today after its return to the pinnacle of men's college basketball. the blue devils topped wisconsin last night, in a 68-63 comeback victory. it's the fifth title for duke head coach mike krzyzewski the women's championship game is tonight, between connecticut and notre dame.
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>> ifill: still to come on the newshour: palestinian refugees in syria trapped by islamic state advances; an inside look at the fight for yemen; how an elementary school moves on after a shooting; threats to the colorado river and what it means for the grand canyon; creating technology to help small farmers around the world; twitter, facebook, instagram and the price of constant connection; a grand challenge to build a better ebola suit; plus, pushing for motorcycle helmets to save lives in cambodia. >> ifill: the united nations is demanding immediate access to a palestinian refugee camp in syria that's come under islamic state control. about 18,000 civilians at the yarmouk refugee camp near damascus are caught in the crossfire.
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one u.n. official described the scene there as "beyond inhumane." paul davies of independent television news narrates our report. >> reporter: syria's civil war has reduced many communities to rubble. yarmouk on the outskirts of damascus is particularly tragic. for the civilians caught in the crossfire are not even syrian. they are palestinian refugees who came here to escape their own conflicts only to find themselves in the middle of someone else's, and at what a price. yarmouk, officially a refugee camp, became a battleground because fighters from groups aligned to islamic state moved in and used it as their base. the syrian army responded bombarding the area, effectively placing yarmouk and all those who have taken shelter there under siege. the u.n. has become increasingly concerned about a developing humanitarian crisis. last year, a u.n. photographer
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captured this remarkable picture of a civilian population trapped in a war-zone. it's estimated 18,000 palestinian men, women and children remain in yarmouk. today the security council said it was time for intervention. >> the members called for the protection of civilians in the camp for ensuring humanitarian access to the area including by providing life-saving assistance. >> reporter: but getting help to trapped civilians is not possible while islamic state and other groups are locked in war with president assad's military. humanitarian groups are calling on all powers that have influence over the men with guns to use it to organize a cease- fire that would allow an evacuation of non-combatants. >> ifill: in saudia arabia
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today, deputy secretary of state anthony blinken announced the u.s. will accelerate delivery of arms and intelligence, to boost the saudis' 13-day-old bombing campaign against houthi rebels in neighboring yemen. yemen's slide towards humanitarian disaster has seen airports and sea trade cut off, and a government coup. iran's supreme leader, who is said to back the houthis, said today foreign interference must stop. journalist safa al ahmad gets a rare inside look inside an unstable nation, and into the lives and aspirations of houthi fighters in tonight's frontline documentary, "the fight for yemen." >> al ahmad: for the moment, the saudi border may be the limit of houthi control. but their ambitions go way beyond it.
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our borders are tehran and the islamic and arab world. we will help oppressed people all over the world. >> this barbwire here means nothing to you? >> ( translated ): it means nothing. it represents nothing. if the relationship between the yemeni and saudi arabian people is strengthened, then it will ease the fall of the house of alsaad. yes, it will be a painful surgical procedure but in the end there will be healing from the sickness. >> reporter: the saudis see them as a stress and accuse the haugabooks of collusion with their regional archrival, iran. it has been widely reported that iran gives the group weapon, money and training. >> ( translated ): this is not true. these accusations have been made for a long time. >> ( translated ): no financial, military or moral support? >> ( translated ): no financial
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or military. if there is moral support, we support chavez in venezuela. why this insistence that we receive support from iran? other than wanting to turn the struggle in this country and the region into a sectarian one, based on the american and zionist agenda. >> al ahmad: but the struggle against the houthis inside yemen is fierce. for years, powerful yemeni tribes received money from saudi arabia. now the saudis back the sunni tribes opposed to the houthis with cash and arms. and then there is al qaeda. >> ifill: i spoke to journalist safa al ahmad a short time ago. thank you for joining us. you spent some time on the border, as we just saw, going places most people don't get to go in yemen and talking to people most people don't get to talk. to what is the attitude on the
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ground? what is the sense of this irrevocable slide we're seeing in yemen? >> yeah, when i was there i could see the beginning of that schism within the yemeni society between those who are pro and anti-houthis. they're suffering through a lot of corrupt political. a lot of people followed the houthis thinking there would be an honest government but that wasn't true. the victims, the houthis, for over a decade now have been the victimizer. >> ifill: you were there before the saudis started their air strikes that began 13 days ago. tell us about what the houthis, how they came to be where they came to be now, as you describe? >> in the beginning it was an ideology.
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houthi was the founder of the movement. this is where the movement came from. he started off as a revivalist which is a very specific sect that falls under the umbrella of the general group but there are very different beliefs than iranian shia. and he had very strong antiempirist ideas, as well. he was quite affected by september 11th and he saw the wars on iraq and the war on afghanistan as a pretext by the americans and the west to occupy muslim land. and so beginning with that the former president of yemen was really worried about that ideology. he waged six wars against the houthis. he's the one who effectively transformed them from an ideology, from just a group of people having religious discussions in the mountains in the north of yemen into a fully fledged rebel movement. and one of the things that came
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out of that is they no longer wanted to be marginalized. they want to be at the table of power. this is how they took control from in large part the women. >> ifill: you describe in your piece that there was... then there came al qaeda. is there a connection and a comparison that can be made, especially in ideology, between the houthis and al qaeda? >> yell i mean, the ironic factor that is between the houthis and al qaeda, they both have very strong anti-american sentiment. the slow gone of the houthis is "death to america and death to israel and good curse the jews and victory to islam." besides that there are very little in common between al qaeda and the houthis as far as ideology goes but they do see themselves as having a common enemy, which is america. so america is in an interesting situation, where the houthis are
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fighting al qaeda quite viciously on the ground, yet now the americans are allied with saudi arabia in strikes against the houthis. it shows you how complex yemen is and the whole region. >> ifill: what is iran's role here? >> i don't know. it depends how much you buy into the iranians are fully backing the houthis. i think what is happening is that houthis and the iranians have common interests, but there's very little good journalism that's been done to uncover the truex -- true extent of that relationship between the houthis and iran. i think they benefit of the rhetoric from the houthis on the ground, but also they do have a connection. but not to the extent that is being covered in the media at the moment by describing them as shia militias backed by iran. i think that's an overstatement. >> ifill: safa al ahmad, your
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documentary tonight "the fight for yemen" airs tonight on most pbs stations on "frontline." thank you for joining us. >> thank you. >> ifill: now, a unique look at school safety issues, through the eyes of young people. today we're launching a new feature from our network of student reporting labs, middle and high school journalism programs around the country. it explores how the concept of safety has been redefined since the sandy hook tragedy two years ago. our first report comes from student television network correspondent sydney payne at carlsbad high school in california. as part of our series on what's changed, she and her team visited a local san diego elementary school that was the scene of a terrifying shooting in 2010. we're calling the series "the new safe." >> reporter: friday october 8 2010, began as any other day begins at this suburban san diego elementary school. it was lunchtime and the
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students were heading out on to the playground. at about the same time 41 -year-old brendan o'rourke pulled up to a curb outside the school. he was armed with a .357 magnum revoferler a red gasoline can and a propane tank. >> it was a typical friday. everyone was wearing their spirit ware. it was very relaxed. we heard a gunshot. we heard over the walkie talkie the custodian was yelling that somebody was shooting at the children. >> there was a loud bang and everybody thought it was like a big firework. so everybody is looking up, like up over there because that's where he was. everybody just looks up at everything, and nobody knows what's going on. and then a few people start screaming and everybody starts screaming. >> it's lunchtime and carson and his friends are out on the playground. the loud ping that he hears is actually the sound of a bull fret a .357 magnum handgun hitting this metal pole only about ten feet away from where car isn't and his friends were
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playing. >> a man who looks like he's wearing all black with black everything, a beanie and shirt and long sleeves. and he's just running with a gun. >> he ends up shooting a couple rounds and ends up getting confronted by a school aide. at that point he raises the gun points it at the chest and pulls the trigger. he ran out of ammunition. >> reporter: before running out of bullet, the gunman randomly shot six rounds into an open playground of children, two girl, ages six and seven were caught in the gunfire. >> his statements were, "shoot them, burn them, blow them up." i don't think it was take a couple shots and leave. >> reporter: alarmed by the students' screams, three construction workers who were working on the roof of the school noticed brendan o'rourke as he climbed back over the fence. o'rourke had run out of ammunition and he was heading become to his car to reload. the men were able to wrestle him to the ground after one of the workers hit the shooter with his truck. nobody at kelly elementary school ever expected something
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like this to happen here. >> my life won't be the same. no. i mean, i worry when i send my kid to school, you know, that something could happen. it won't be the same. our bubble was broken that day. >> i think when somebody tries to hurt kids that badly and we love these kids so much and you think that somebody tried to do that to them it's emotional. that hurts that that happens to them. i'm also very proud of them because kids are super resilient. >> peggy parish teaches kindergarten. as the school went into immediate lockdown parish ushered 15 students and three classroom help inteers a bathroom. they would stay there for the first 45 minutes of the merely four-hour lockdown. >> about 45 minutes we were all in this one bathroom and then we had some go into the other bathroom after about 45 minutes. at the beginning we were all
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just up against the wall, and as time went along and as i was reading, i had to sit there on the floor. it was cozy. there were... it was tight. >> parents were asked to congregate in a nearby park. for nearly four hours, they would wait law enforcement searched the campus ruling out the possibility of a second gunman. >> it was amazing to see them waiting in the park oso patiently. they just waited. it was amazing. >> reporter: carson was asked to testify at o'rourke's trial. his vantage point on the play structure allowed him to get a good look at the gunman. four years have passed since the shooting at kelly elementary school. it takes time the heal, and for some the process can be a difficult one. >> i think what if it happens again? what if somebody comes again and shoots at our school? >> kids are going to be in school for a long time.
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and i don't want them to approach every morning as a place that they're going to a place that's scary. i want them to know that school is safe. and that people way more people are good people in the world than people who might try to hurt them. >> educators, not just me, but everybody, the staff would put their lives on the line for children. when push comes to shove and there's a big situation, the adults who are caring for the kids will put their lives on the line for them. and the public out there needs to be aware that educators are really dedicated to the kids in their care and will do what it takes to make sure that they're safe. >> the shooting happened on a friday. meeting other the weekend, the staff decided to reopen school on the following monday. this would be the beginning of an extraordinary healing process. >> we decided that we really needed to celebrate a miracle
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and not let this incident destroy us but help us come together. we wanted to choose love over hate and courage over fear because that's how this community works together. >> while a few families transferred to other elementary schools in the district after the shooting the vast majority chose to remain at kelly. >> i decided to stay at kelly because it is like... it really brought us all closer together. and i thought not to run away from your fear. i thought it was cool that even after that that i could come become and feel safe. >> ifill: you can see more student reports on >> ifill: you can see more student reports and the entire "new safe" series on our website. pbs.org/newshour. >> ifill: the grand canyon has long been recognized as one of the seven natural wonders of the world.
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but increasingly, there are fights over what kind of development should be allowed near it, and even within it, to allow visitors to see more. the latest battle is over the colorado river that runs through it. jeffrey brown has the story. >> brown: much of the fight revolves around what could happen to the 277-mile stretch of the lower colorado river at the bottom of the canyon, a crucial part of the ecosystem, and the majestic vistas five million people come to see each year. one issue: a developer wants to create a tramway to bring as many as 10,000 tourists a day to the bottom. it would be on navajo land and the company has been working with some tribal leaders to create a hotel near the plateau and a restaurant at the bottom. separately, a mining company hopes to re-open a uranium mine near the canyon's rim. and a nearby town wants to create 2,000 more homes near the park's south rim entrance. all of this led the environmental advocacy group, "american rivers", to put the colorado at the top of its new "ten most endangered rivers" list.
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its president, robert irvin joins me now. welcome to you. >> thank you for having me. >> brown: to be clear, this is not a list of nose polluted or damaged rivers. this is what might happen. >> that's right. this is the ten most endangered rivers. we have three criteria. the rivers have to be of national or regional importance. there has to be an imminent threat to them, and most importantly there has to be something that's going to happen this year, some decision that's going to be made that concerned citizens can influence. >> so in the case of the colorado river at the grand canyon, i just listed some of their concern but fill that in a little bit. >> well, everyone knows about the grand canyon and the colorado river is the lifeblood of the grand canyon. this was an amazing national and indeed international resource, and there are significant threats to it. we all think of it as being protected as a national park. but the reality is that there is a huge construction project proposed right in the heart of the canyon.
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there's the threat of expanded and new uranium mining around the canyon. and there are proposals to add 2,000 homes to an existing town just outside of the south entrance of the park. which will be terribly damaging to the water supply in that region. >> now we reached out to a developer and others and they were unable to join us tonight, but we found on the website of the developer, they've been working with some navajo tribes people. we found this audio clip from that site. let's listen to that. >> it would be nice to have a job for my mom and i that's closer to home. i would have more time with my mother and not have to worry about her driving morning and might to work. this project will benefit many people of my generation. it's our jobs, our community, our state, too. >> brown: so more jobs. that's one of the arguments. better access for more people to see the canyon. do you deny that or do you just think that the costs outweigh
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any such benefits? >> well no one can deny that the navajo people need greater economic development. the question is: what type of economic development? is it the best thing to do to sacrifice this nationally important, internationally important resource the grand canyon and the confluence of the colorado and little colorado rivers in the name of economic development? the confluence of the colorado and little colorado river is a sacred place to many navajo, to the hopi, to the zumi and the other tribes and it's an internationally important place as well. brown >> brown: you have nine other will rivers on this list. can't go through them all. can you give us a sense of the kinds of threats you see with a couple other examples? >> sure. one of the common themes in this year's list is the threat to clean drinking water, be it from mining operations or from inadequate sewage treatment
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around the country. and so we have a couple rivers in tennessee, the hartmouth river and the holliston river and in montana the smith river which is threatened by a massive copper mine. and even in alaska a river is being threatened by one of the world's largest strip mines for coal. >> brown: so the purpose of the arist is public awareness? what do you want to happen next? >> well, mostly we want americans to stand up for their rivers and say we care about our rivers. they're important to us for drinking water, they're important to us as places to fish and the paddle and they're important to our children and our grandchildren. and so this list alerts people to the threats to their rivers and gives them the tools they need to stand up to protect them. >> all right. robert irvins of the american rivers, thanks so much. >> thank you. >> ifill: now to minnesota,
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where one part old technology, and several new ideas from retired workers, are creating a recipe of hope for many in the developing world. special correspondent fred de sam lazaro has the latest story in our breakthroughs series on innovation and invention. >> i promise you a perfect cake every time you bake. that's right. perfect. you be the judge. or write general mills minneapolis, minnesota, and get your money back. >> reporter: minnesota is where the idea of making thing easier in the kitchen became an industry, the birthplace of such fictional legends as the pillsbury doughboy, the jolly green giant and betty crocker. >> our perfect cake every time you bake, cake after cake after cake. >> reporter: perfect? maybe not. but convenient and efficient, no question. >> some with nuts. some without. >> reporter: and that's the idea behind a non-profit company
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in st. paul called cti or compatible technology international. different kind of cakes, though. >> just plain trash. >> reporter: discarded peanut shells are being squeezed trying to make fuel. he's 83, one of dozens of retired engineers with ties to the food business who volunteer here. they're now working on conveniences for a very different kitchen and customer. millions of mostly women in developing nations who toil for hours to provide food or to collect water for their families. >> if you want to do the cranking there... >> get me up to speed. >> reporter: 78-year-old vern cardwell is working on a hand-cranked pressure that could save hours of labor and extract grain far more efficiently than the manual methods used now. >> we're obviously stripping all of the floor ets off that
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contain the grain. >> this test was on stocks of millett, a staple in parts of africa. >> just blows your mind when you think how overnight we can help the useful millett from 30% to 35% to darn mere 90%. the impact here is endless in terms of the impact on people. >> reporter: at least in theory. over the years they have learned hard lessons about the reality in a minnesota lab and that in a village in say malawi or tans kneea. steve clarke says they went to try out one invention in those african nations. >> we had this great tool here called the grinder, which we knew could grind peanuts into peanut butter very, very well. but when we got over to those countries, we found out they didn't make a lot of peanut butter. >> reporter: what they needed was a peanut sheller diet, social traditions and general all play a role in how a product is received, says cti's director
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salling dr. spieldock. tools designed in a void are largely not going to be adopted. the whole process of design needs to be about really understanding the context. >> reporter: one device they've had some success with is a water chlorinator. unlike those used in rich country, this one use no, sir electricity or pumps. wesley meyer is one of few paid staffers at cti. he heads this program in nicaragua. >> simple device to design by engineer based out of st. paul. so it's a container for the tablet. this is actually a chlorine tablet. there's five of them in here. >> dozens have been installed in remote mountainous communities in this central american nation. >> the water supply in this area is mostly driven by gravity. it comes from natural streams up the mountain and flows by gravity into tanks. the tiny community is having a chlorinator installed.
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when it's done the 380 residents of the village will have safe wait at almost no additional cost. the device costs just $150. its plastic pipes and chlorine tablets are available locally. >> ( translated ): at this point the water passes through the chlorine tablet and mixes with the water. as it mix, it eats up the become tiera and cleans the water. >> reporter: community leaders like emily juarez are instructed to monitor and change the tablets periodically. >> ( translated ): we really didn't have portable water. we really needed to install this system. we know unclean water can lead to diseases like diarrhea and hepatitis. >> we go to play bridge at the club. people will oftentimes come along about once a month and say, how is the water system doing? i usually put a little needle in and say well, we could do a lot better if we had a little more
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money, you know. >> reporter: does that end the conversation? >> no. >> reporter: cti's annual budget is $750,000. mostly from charitable donations. but that doesn't include thousands of hours volunteers like irv put in pursuing the perfect pedal powered potato slicer, grinder or shredder. vern did manage to come up with the peanut sheller and got to see it demonstrated in malawi. >> by hand they can get two pounds of nuts shelled an hour. and with our disk peanut sheller we can do 50 pounds to 60 pounds of nuts an hour. and the women look at that and they're just giggling and they're all excited about this piece of equipment. and everybody wants, you leave
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it here, you leave it here so we can use it. and that kind of excitement is very infectious. >> reporter: it's what's kept him and the other coming here almost full time for years. this is fred desam lazaro for the pbs news hour in st. paul minnesota. >> ifill: a version of this story aired on the pbs program "religion and ethics newsweekly." fred's reporting is a partnership with the under-told stories project at st. mary's university of minnesota. >> ifill: now, the latest addition to the newshour bookshelf, "terms of service." it's a look at the erosion of privacy in the age of social media. jeffrey brown recently talked to author jacob silverman at "busboys and poets," a restaurant and bookstore chain in and around washington. >> brown: welcome to you. >> thanks for having me. >> brown: the case you're
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making, and it's a strong case, we don't know or we don't seem to care enough about what we're giving away in our digital lives. >> right. well, the same systems that make it so easy to communicate with one another and live these lives where we're essentially all public figures make it easy the spy on us to, collect personal information, whether you're companies or governments or other bad actors, and i think that a lot of people don't really realize how much is being collected on each and every one of us, that there are big data burgers on hundreds of millions of people. >> brown: there's been a lot of emphasis on government surveillance. here's what we don't know as much about corporate surveillance. >> corporations have led the way the turn the internet into a remarkable surveillance machine. ever since the introduction of the cookie about 15 years ago, we've sort of shifted tabs to make the internet all about monitoring what users do so we can direct ads toward them, but
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really that same framework has caused it so that we are only giving away more and more personal information as the years go by and as these systems become more sophisticated, more intrusive and more intensive in their data gathering. >> what did you find? we all get to that point where we have to push the button, read the terps or push the button. what did you find out that shocked you? >> one thing that troubled me is that i learned that facebook, not only do they track everything you do on the site, not only what you post, but whose profiles you look at, how often you log on, where you're logging in from, but they'll even track statements that you write into the status bar and then delete, and they call this self-censorship. they think if someone is writing something into the status bar and deminds not to post it, that's form of self-censorship that we're denying ourselves some form of expression. they really want to know everything we're doing and
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thinking and our responses to pretty much almost any form of stimuli. i think that's really troubling and not really a fair arrangement. >> brown: so what do you do? when you come to the terms of service, the language that we're all supposed to read and i suspected most of us push the button to move on? >> i often do the same. i've tried to be a little more careful and pay more attention to things like app permissions when i install apps on my phone but really these problems are very difficult for any individual to tackle. and that's why i often talk about more collective solution, whether it's things like regulation or more transparency on behalf of companies of what data are they collecting. how are they using it. who are they selling it to, how long are they storing it for. these are very basic pieces of information about how these companies operate and we really don't know the answers to these questions. >> people feel like they're getting something out of this digital life. whether it is convenience, whether it's information whether it's connections to communities. we perhaps understand that we're
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giving up something to get that. >> well there will also -- always be a bargain. no one has ever said it has to be so lopsided. >> brown: you think that's the issue? the balance is out of whack? >> there is real lack of power on behalf of users. we don't know what kind of information we're giving over and how it's being used and we have to accept the data collection regimes and the privacy standards for these companies. it's either all or nothing. we have very little control, and i would like to see some more control returned to the hands of users. >> do you see a difference in generations? young people who have grown up giving away in a sense more about themselves? >> there is sort of a kind of more ease for young people in terms of slipping into these systems and adopting them wholesale. but i also think young people are very savvy. they often take steps to protect their privacy and even their identity online especially if they're minors in ways we might not appreciate. there's an old technique called white walling which a lot of young facebook yearsers do in
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which they post messages on each other's walls and then will completely delete every message on their wall after they know it's been seen. so there are these sort of savvy methods that some young people have shown. and i think you can even point to something like snapchat which had its security issues over the years, but this is an app that took off with young people not only because of the more prurient possibilities but because young people knew it provided some measure of privacy because their messages wouldn't be permanently stored. >> so some things individuals can do. the rest you think requires what you call collective action? >> sure. i mean, privacy isn't just an individual issue. it really involves all of us. a lot of regular sort of john q. internet user might be some middle class person who is very comfortable on facebook and twitter giving away a little personal information here and there and isn't very worried, but privacy is much more about the collective, about society. i might not be worried about my own, but i should care about the privacy of other people people
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on the margins, more vulnerable people people might not have the time to sort of tend to their online profile and reputation. those are the people who privacy legislation and various tools are supposed to protect. >> the book is terms of service social media and the price of constant connections. >> thanks so much. >> thank you very much. >> woodruff: the most recent west african ebola outbreak in guinea, liberia and sierre leone sickened nearly 25 thousand people, and killed 10,000. medical professionals are particularly vulnerable, as they work closely with infected and highly infectious patients. but a potential breakthrough may make it easier to fight the virus. newshour special correspondent mary jo brooks reports. >> reporter: jill andrews is normally busy this time of year.
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>> i thought that would be really cute. >> sowing silk, lace and beads to create elaborate wedding gowns in her baltimore studio. >> you like that? >> . >> reporter: but for the last few months she's been making an elaborate yesiation of a different sort, an ebola protection suit made of bright tyvek. >> it was all-consuming. i'm playing origami in my mind with tyvek. we're solving problems but it's just about constantly solving problems and thinking about what needs to happen next. >> reporter: andrews was among 60 people who took part in a grand challenge at johns hopkins university. participants included doctors, engineer, public health experts and grad students. the goal: to devise better ways of protecting health care workers from a deadly ebola virus. >> what we do is we define the problem and put that challenge out for the world and get some of the brightest minds to come forward and think about new ways to tackle these problems. >> u.s. aid's wendy taylor was
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responsible for creating the grand challenge competition. >> i come from malawi. >> raised in baltimore. >> canada. >> for the past several years she's put out the call for people from all walks of life to help solve difficult global problems. >> it's human powered. >> first challeng issued in 2011 resulted in new ways to reduce infant the morning hour -- infant mortality. >> there are tough development challenges that we haven't been able to crack. >> last fall u.s. aid decided it needed a new way to think about fighting ebola. >> we start to see health care workers on the front lines face some real obstacles in providing care to their patients, and we thought of an area that was ripe for innovation. >> johns hopkins responded by holding a weekend-long hackathon. >> frankly i was sceptical of what would come out of it. how can a group of novices address a problem and come up with solutions that are, you know, better than what the establishment has come up with. but we decided to just give it a
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try. >> so what's the plan? >> yousef yazby, who spearheaded the efforts said they assembled a wide variety of materials to test the ideas. >> we had everything you would need, cooling equipment, chocolate syrup, sew mag sheens. >> reporter: why chocolate syrup in. >> you want the see if you can protect yourself from contamination. so ru rub this all over yourself and take off the suit and see if any of it got on your skin. it's a poor man's simulation. >> reporter: the working group divide into eight teams, each trying to deal with a different problem with the existing protective suit. they're hot, goggles fog up. it takes too long to put on and take off and there are too many places where infection can put it. >> it's a big problem. skin is showing. you can't have any skin showing when you treat ebola. >> reporter: so that is one of the problems you had to solve. >> absolutely.
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and this is 60 degrees and in the humid. so you can see how much worse it would be. >> reporter: the prototype they built limb mates the need for separate going goggles and creates an air channel in the hood to prevent fogging. >> it's very different from the neck up. you see all of the face. as you breathe, the exhales, the fogging is limited to this area. and all of the exhale leaves here. so you're constantly bringing in fresh air from above, from these inhale vents. >> reporter: the new suit is cooler, which means workers can wear it twice as long instead of 45 minutes they can wear it for an hour and a half. >> the zipper to the back the front is generally the most contaminated. hopefully by moving it from the front to the back we can reduce the need for an apron which they wear, which is heavy and adds to the heat burden. >> the new suit is also easier to put on and take off with less chance of contamination. but not all of the ideas at the grand challenge were good ones. >> one of the first things i was
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interested in was using magnets, but that got nixed. >> plenty of bad, won't hfer headed, stupid ideas. that's what we love. even if it's crazy, write it down. as a leadership team we filter through them to see which ones were feasible and fit within the constraints. >> reporter: enough good ideas were generated to design a prototype suit that was then one of 15 projects chosen by u.s. aid to be funded out of 1500 ideas submitted by individual, labs and universities all around the world. the prototype is now being further refined and many of the changes will appear in suits that will begin manufacture this summer. >> we're placing the idea of tubing. >> professor yazdi says he's become a big believer in the idea of grand challenges. >> the more this type of approach that the government takes of other organizations, the gates foundation, et cetera. >> i think it's a wonderful model to rapidly solve problems.
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the old approach of having people spend years in the lab developing stuff is great with new science and technology. but when it comes to solving problem, to bridging between human knowledge and human need, this approach is really i think a very good one to take. >> reporter: in baltimore maryland, i'm mary jo brooks reporting for the pbs "newshour." >> ifill: in cambodia motorcycles outnumber cars ten to one. there were 43,000 motorcycles on the road in 1990, now it's up to more than two million. but there's a down side. motorcycle crashes represent 67% of all road deaths. our report is part of a collaboration with the pulitzer center on crisis reporting. it comes from video journalist steve sapienza and is narrated by hari sreenivasan. >> sreenivasan: in phnom penh, 19-year-old chhieng sreylea is
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shopping for a motorcycle with her dad and older brother. >> today i'm buying this motorcycle and i will drive it to school. >> sreenivasan: they're a family of five and this will be their third motorcycle. they don't own a car, but like many cambodians, thanks in part to more available small loans cheap motorcycles and rising incomes, they can afford the equivalent of $1,100 this motorcycle costs. it's the case across all of asia, where most of the world's motorcycles are sold. >> today, we have sold more than ten. >> sreenivasan: and, that's before noon. 85% of all the vehicles on cambodia's roads are motorcycles, and according to the government, they cause the majority of all accidents. nearly 200 people die on these roads every month, up almost 20% from the year before. >> ( translated ): we also notice that most of them are young adults aging from 16 to 29.
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>> sreenivasan: motorcyclists are also more likely to die of a head injury, because while motorcycle sales are booming, helmet sales are not. did all countries in southeast asia have mandatory helmet laws, but the laws are lightly enforced and largely ignored. in 2004, just around eight percent of motorcycle riders wear helmets. but now it increased up to 65% for the driver and 9% for the passenger. >> sreenivasan: in cambodia, historically, helmet compliance has been very low. one survey on a treacherous stretch of road north of phnom penh showed that only 24% of drivers wore helmets during the daytime, with that figure dipping to 5% after dark. that sort of weak compliance means youtube videos like this featuring cambodian youth performing daredevil stunts, all
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without helmets. advocates of better helmet laws, say targeted education is needed. >> people know well about the benefit from helmet wearing, however there were some misperceptions about that, that helmet wearing was not needed for short distance or when they travel at low speed. >> sreenivasan: the growing numbers of child passengers, prompted the asia injury foundation to find ways to get affordable helmets onto small heads. >> since we started our "helmets for kids" initiative in 2006, we have donated around 20,000 helmets cambodian students, teachers, and also road users in cambodia. we were able to build the first ever non-profit helmet factory in vietnam and all the profit
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from helmet selling will be returned to invest in road safety. we hope we will be able to build a non-profit helmet factory in cambodia in the near future. >> sreenivasan: the government plans to roll out new helmet laws later this year, requiring both passengers and children to wear helmets, while riders like our new 19-year-old owner, weave right through oncoming traffic without one. >> ( translated ): sometimes when they buy a motorcycle they have a helmet, and sometimes they don't. it depends on the client. >> sreenivasan: for the pbs newshour, i'm hari sreenivasan. >> ifill: finally, to our newshour shares of the day something that caught our eye that might be of interest to you, too. andy davidhazy hiked the entire pacific crest trail. that's 2,660 miles, beginning in mexico and ending in canada.
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along the way, he took a selfie snapshot at every mile, and lost 50 pounds. afterward, he created a time- lapse video of the selfies that captured the five-month journey in just four minutes. we spoke with him last week about completing his life goal. >> i was looking for a challenge. i was attracted to the pacific kreft trail and hiking from mexico to canada because it was a fairly unambiguous challenge. it was very clear. i was looking to do something that i could derive confidence and meaning in and apply to other aspects of my life. the taking of the photographs were a way for me to fully commit to the hike. if i were to skip ahead or to cut my trip short at any point most importantly myself would know it and everybody else would mow it. things on the trail, life on the trail happens very quickly.
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and things can go from bad to worse to amazingly beautiful in the span of just hours or within a day. it's very easy to see the impact of your hard work and your perseverance and that really helps me build trust in myself to keep moving forward, even when i didn't want to. >> ifill: wow. >> ifill: you can watch the full time-lapse video from the walk on our website, pbs.org newshour. >> ifill: again, the major developments of the day. jurors in the boston marathon bombing spent their first day deliberating today, without reaching a verdict. a white policeman in north charleston, south carolina was charged with murder for killing an unarmed black man by shooting him in the back as he ran away. the incident was caught on video. and republican senator rand paul of kentucky formally launched his 2016 presidential campaign.
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on the newshour online, keeping physically fit is always important, especially as we age. the same can be said for our "financial" fitness, argues kerry hannon, who writes about personal finance. she will join the newshour tomorrow for a twitter chat with hannon on the steps you can take now to secure a healthy retirement in the future. the chat is at 1 p.m., eastern. you can find more details on our home page, pbs.org/newshour. and that's the newshour for tonight. on wednesday, judy woodruff interviews secretary of state john kerry on the iran nuclear deal. i'm gwen ifill, we'll see you on-line, and again here tomorrow evening. for all of us here at the pbs newshour, thank you and good night. >> major funding for the pbs newshour has been provided by: ♪ ♪ ♪
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moving our economy for 160 years. bnsf, the engine that connects us. >> lincoln financial-- committed to helping you take charge of your life and become you're own chief life officer. >> carnegie corporation of new york. supporting innovations in education, democratic engagement, and the advancement of international peace and security. at carnegie.org. >> and with the ongoing support of these institutions and... >> this program was made possible by the corporation for public broadcasting. and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. captioning sponsored by newshour productions, llc
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